Kreisinfanterieregiment Württemberg

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Origin and History

Kreisregiment Württemberg Infantry - Source: von Soden, 1782

The regiment had one battalion with 10 musketeer companies and 2 grenadier companies, two 3-pdr guns and an authorised strength of 1,690 men.

The regiment was established in 1638 as the Leibwache (Garde) zu Fuß. It initially consisted of 180 men.

In 1663 and 1664, the regiment formed part of the infantry regiments of the Schwäbischen Kreis (Swabian District).

In 1673, the first company of the Leibgarde became a ducal regiment.

In 1712, the Duke of Württemberg became the Inhaber (owner) of the regiment which was now designated as the Kreisinfanterieregiment Württemberg. Indeed as a member of the Swabian District, Württemberg had to supply a regiment to the Reichsarmee.

In the August 1757 the regiment consisted of 1 battalion, including two grenadier companies and 2 guns for a total of 963 men. In May 1758 the regiment had a strength of 984 men.

Throughout the Seven Years' War, the regimental Inhaber was the Duke of Württemberg.

During the Seven Years' War, the regiment was under the effective command of:

  • since 1734: Lieutenant-general Gg. Ludwig Ernst Count von Wittgenstein and Major-general Johan Wilhelm von Hundelshausen
  • from 1757: Lieutenant-general Johan Abraham David von Augé and Colonel Gustav Friedrich von Biedenfeld
  • from 1764: Colonel von Böttger

Line of tradition: in 1914 Grenadier-Regiment Königin Olga (1. Württembergisches) Nr.119. After WWI, in the Reichswehr 1st and 2nd company Infantry Regiment 13. Later in the Wehrmacht the Infantry Regiment 13 was transformed into the Mountain Infantry (Gebirgsjäger) Regiment 13. In the Bundeswehr, the tradition was carried by the Jägerbataillon 552 (Light Infantry Battalion 552) in Böblingen. In 1993 the Jägerbataillon was amalgamated with the Panzergrenadierbaillon 292 in Donaueschingen to form the Jägerbataillon 292, today part of a German-French-Brigade.

Service during the War

In 1757, the regiment served with the Reichsarmee operating in Thuringia and Saxony. In August, this army made a junction with a French contingent under Soubise to form the Franco-Imperial Army for the planned reconquest of Saxony. On November 5, this army was defeated in the disastrous Battle of Rossbach. However, during this battle, the first battalion had been detached at Kosen on the Saale River and the second was not yet with the Reichsarmee. The Prince de Soubise, commander of the French contingent, rated the various units of the Reichsarmee, considering the Alt Württemberg regiment as "poor". Indeed this Regiment was used to furnish the cadre to the Württemberg "Hausregimenter" which drained the best available manpower.

On September 8 1759, the regiment took part in the Combat of Zinna where it was deployed in the second line of the infantry centre.

From 1760 to 1762, the regiment continued to serve with the Reichsarmee against Prussia.

Uniform

Becher, Johann Christian: Wahrhaftige Nachricht derer Begebenheiten, so sich in dem Herzogthum Weimar by dem gewaltigen Kriege Friedrichs II., Königs von Preußen, mit der Königin von Ungarn, Marien Theresen, samt ihren Bundesgenossen zugetragen, Weimar, ca. 1757-1760

  • Original (Stiftung Weimarer Klassik - Herzogin Anna Amalia Bibliothek Weimar)
  • Copy (Deutsches Historisches Museum, Berlin)
  • Copy (Bibliothèque nationale de France, De Ridder collection)

Privates

Uniform in 1756 - Source: Ibrahim90
Uniform Details
as per Karl baron von Soden and Georg von Niethammer
Headgear
Musketeer black tricorne edged white with yellow-black pompom (in 1748 and 1781, Prussian style fusilier caps were worn but it is not known if this headgear was worn during the Seven Years War)
Grenadier Prussian style mitre cap with a yellow front plate decorated with an imperial eagle, the lion of the Swabian District and a mirrored C (for Carl Eugen), with a yellow bag, a yellow headband, yellow piping and a yellow/black pompom
Neckstock black
Coat dark blue in Prussian cut with 3 yellow buttons on each side to fasten the skirts forming the turnbacks
Collar yellow
Shoulder Straps yellow with a yellow aiguillette on the right shoulder
Lapels yellow with 6 yellow buttons grouped 2 by 2
Pockets probably horizontal pockets, each with 3 yellow buttons
Cuffs yellow Swedish cuffs with 2 yellow buttons
Turnbacks carmine red fastened with a yellow button
Waistcoat yellow
Breeches yellow (white in Summer)
Gaiters black
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt white
Waistbelt white
Cartridge Box black
Bayonet Scabbard n/a
Scabbard brown
Footgear black


Troopers were armed with a musket and a sword.

Other interpretations

Stadlinger illustrates white buttons.

Officers

NCO's tricorne was probably laced silver. Furthermore, they wore beige gloves and carried a baton and a partisan.

Officers wore a uniform quite similar to the troops with the following exceptions:

  • tricorne decorated with a gold lace
  • gold gorget
  • no turnbacks
  • gold buttonholes
  • gold sash
  • brown and gold scabbard
  • beige gloves
  • spontoon

Musicians

no information available yet

Colours

Colonel colour (Leibfahne): white field with, on both sides, the arms of the duke of Württemberg, surmounted by a gold and red ducal crown. The coat of arms consisted of an oval shield surrounded by a necklace of the Order:

  • Necklace: 8 red links with a golden eagle, 8 blue links depicting precious stones and a red cross over a yellow background
  • Upper left canton: yellow and black checkerboard pattern (Teck arms)
  • Upper right canton: yellow flags on a blue field (Reichssturm)
  • Lower right canton: brown head with a red bonnet on a yellow field (Heidenheim arms)
  • Lower left canton: two gold fish on a red field (Monbéliard arms)
  • Central escutcheon: 3 black stag antlers on a yellow field

Here follows a tentative reconstruction of this flag:

Colonel Flag - Source: PMPdeL

Regimental colours (Regimentsfahne): yellow field

  • Right side:
    • 6 horizontal double flames (from top to bottom):
      • 2 black
      • 1 white
      • 1 sky blue
      • 2 black
    • in the centre, a brown double eagle with silver beak and claws, gold halos, gold crown lined red, a silver sword with a gold handle in its right claws, a blue and gold Imperial orb in its left claws
    • in an oval shield on the breast of the double eagle, the arms of the Swabian District consisting of :
      • Upper half: a white cross pattée on a black field
      • Lower half: 3 black leopards on a yellow field
  • Left side:
    • 6 horizontal double flames (same colours as on the right side)
    • in the centre, the arms of Württemberg (identical to those on the Leibfahne).

Here follows a tentative reconstruction of this flag:

Ordonnance Flag - Source: PMPdeL

References

  • Becher, Johann Christian: Wahrhaftige Nachricht derer Begebenheiten, so sich in dem Herzogthum Weimar by dem gewaltigen Kriege Friedrichs II., Königs von Preußen, mit der Königin von Ungarn, Marien Theresen, samt ihren Bundesgenossen zugetragen, Weimar, ca. 1757-1760
    • Original (Stiftung Weimarer Klassik - Herzogin Anna Amalia Bibliothek Weimar)
    • Copy (Deutsches Historisches Museum, Berlin)
    • Copy (Bibliothèque nationale de France, De Ridder collection)
  • Boehm, E.; Rottgardt, D.: Die Reichsarmee 1757-63. I. Teil: Zusammensetzung und Organisation, KLIO-Arbeitsgruppe 7jähriger Krieg, Friderzianische Epoche, Manuskript, o.J
  • Boehm, E.; Rottgardt, D.; Weirich, W.-D.: Die Reichsarmee 1757-63. II. Teil: Die einzelnen Einheiten, ihre Stärke, Zusammensetzung, Uniform und Feldzeichen, KLIO-Arbeitsgruppe 7jähriger Krieg, Friderzianische Epoche, Manuskript, o.J.
  • Deutsche Uniformen, Bd. 1, Das Zeitalter Friedrich des Großen, 240 Bilder von Herbert Knötel d. J., Text and explanations by Dr. Martin Letzius, published by Sturm-Zigaretten GmbH, Dresden 1932
  • Großer Generalstab, Die Kriege Friedrichs des Großen. Der Siebenjährige Krieg, Berlin 1901-1914
  • Kaufmann, Michael: Wurtemberg during the Seven Years' War, Nec Pluribus Impar
  • Knötel, R.: Farbiges Handbuch der Uniformkunde: Die Entwicklung der militärischen Tracht der deutschen Staaten, Österreich-Ungarns und der Schweiz, published in 1937 by Herbert Knötel d.J. and Herbert Sieg.
  • Knötel, R.: Uniformkunde, Lose Blätter zur Geschichte der Entwicklung der militärischen Tracht, Rathenow 1890-1921, volume VI, plate 7 - Die Truppen des Schwäbischen Kreises 1781
  • Koch, A.U.: Der modische Wandel der Uniform im 18. Jahrhundert. Reich und Württemberg. (Officer's portraits 1730 to 1790), in Zeitschrift für Heereskunde, Nr. 330, LI. Jg (1987), pp. 33-36
  • Kroll, I.: Truppen der kriegführenden Staaten in Nordwestdeutschland 1757-1762, in Die Zinnfigur, Heft 12 (1987), pp. 361-362, 375-378
  • Kühlmann, Hermann: Kurze Geschichte der Fahnen des schwäbischen Kreises, in: Die Zinnfigur, vol. 8 (1959), no. 1, page 12-14 and no. 2, page 37
  • Military Miniatures Magazin, Die Armee von Carl Eugen Herzog von Württemberg, Herzogtum Württemberg 1756 – 1763
  • Mutschler, Johannes C.: "Furchtlos und Treu". 300 Jahre schwäbische Infanterie. Aus der Geschichte des Grenadier-Regiments Königin Olga (1. Württembergisches) Nr. 119 und seiner Traditions-Truppenteile, in: Deutsches Soldatenjahrbuch 1974, 22. Deutscher Soldatenkalender, pp. 241-263
  • Niethammer, Georg von: Die Reichsarmee im Feldzug 1757, mit besonderer Rücksicht auf das schwäbische Kreistruppenkorps und das demselben angehörige Kreis-Füsilierregiment Württemberg, Stammregiment des Grenadierregiments Königin Olga (1.württemberg.) Nr. 119, in: Beiheft zum Militär-Wochenblatt, Heft 9 (1879), pp. 149-204
  • Soden, Karl Freiherr von: Nachricht von den Fränkischen Craistruppen. Nebst einem Anhang von den Schwäbischen Creisregimentern, Nürnberg, by Gabriel Nicolaus Raspe, 1782
  • Stadlinger, L., J. von: Geschichte des Württembergischen Kriegswesens – von der frühesten bis zur neuesten Zeit, Stuttgart, 1856
  • Zahn, Michael, Die Herzoglich Württembergische Armee im Siebenjährigen Krieg, Manuskript, Stuttgart, January 2008

N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.