Kurprinz Infantry

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Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Armies >> Bavarian Army >> Kurprinz Infantry

Origin and History

The regiment consisted of 2 battalions. Each of these battalions counted 4 fusilier companies (140 men each) and 1 grenadier company (100 men). Furthermore, each battalion had 2 light 4-pdr battalion guns.

In September 1752, the staff and 6 companies served as garrison in Straubing while 3 companies were assigned to Stadtamthof and 8 other ones to Amberg.

During the Seven Years' War, the regiment Inhaber were:

  • from March 28 1727 until February 21 1799: Max Joseph prince elector of Bavaria

During the Seven Years' War, the regiment was under the command of:

  • since July 15 1744: Colonel Johann Albrecht von Krays
  • from 1757 to 1759: Colonel Franz Richard Gattermann
  • in 1759: Colonel Ferdinand Baron von und zu Freyen-Seyboltstorff
  • from 1759 to 1763: Colonel Bernhard von Dury

In September 1764, the regiment was transferred to Straubing to assume garrison duty.

Service during the War

On June 20 1756, the staff and 1 battalion served as garrison in Amberg while the other battalion was assigned to Rothenberg.

In February 1757, both battalions were assembled at Amberg. In April, the first battalion of the regiment was assigned to the Auxiliary Corps which was being assembled to serve with the Austrian Army on the basis of a subsidy contract settled with France on March 29. Meanwhile, the second battalion remained in Bavaria. In August, the second battalion was transferred from Amberg to Straubing. The first battalion was combined into a temporary regiment with with I./Preysing. As part of the Auxiliary Corps, this combined regiment was assigned to the Austrian corps under the command of Count Nádasdy. In October, the combined regiment took part to the siege and capture of Schweidnitz where it withstood the bombardment of the trenches by the Prussian artillery and the sally of the Prussian grenadiers against the Austrian batteries. On November 22, the combined regiment was at the battle of Breslau where it formed part of the corps of Count Seyssel d’Aix on the right wing of the second line. A few weeks later, on December 5 at the battle of Leuthen, the regiment was part of Nádasdy's corps on the left wing. It was deployed at the extreme right of this corps at the point of junction with the Austrian army, between Herzog Clemenz Infantry on its left and the Austrian regiment Macquire on its right. The regiment shared the fate of the left wing, being routed by the Prussian troops who attacked its flank.

In May 1758, the second battalion returned to Amberg. By April, it was already decided to send back the first battalion to Bavaria. Nevertheless, it contributed 1 company of fusiliers and 1 company of grenadiers to a converged regiment placed under the command of Colonel de la Rosée. During the siege of Olmütz, this converged regiment distinguished itself against the Prussian besiegers but it lost more than 100 men in these combats. In July, the various companies forming this converged regiment rejoined their respective units. In August, because of the heavy losses it had suffered in the previous campaign, the I./Kurprinz battalion was sent back to Bavaria. At its arrival in Amberg, the battalion counted only some 400 men. The regiment then remained in Bavaria till the end of the war.

On May 16 1759, the regiment was assigned to various garrisons:

  • Ingolstadt (1 battalion)
  • Rothenberg (1 grenadier company, 3 officers and 100 fusiliers)
  • Neumarkt (1 officer and 50 men)

On August 20 1759, the entire regiment was assigned to Amberg to the exception of one grenadier company who remained at Rothenberg.

On March 1 1760, the grenadier company stationed in Rothenberg rejoined the regiment at Amberg.

Uniform

Privates

Uniform in 1757 - Source: Frédéric Aubert
Uniform Details
as per Drexler, Gilardone, Schleich, Keilpflug, Staudinger and H. Knötel
Headgear
Musketeer black tricorne laced gold with a white/blue cockade
Grenadier Austrian style bearskin with a red bag laced white with a white tassel
Neckstock red
Coat Austrian style blue coat with 3 yellow buttons under the lapel and 1 yellow button in the small of the back
Collar white
Shoulder Straps blue with 1 yellow button (on the left shoulder)
Lapels white with 8 yellow buttons
Pockets horizontal pockets, each with 3 yellow buttons
Cuffs white with 3 yellow buttons
Turnbacks white fastened with a small yellow button
Waistcoat white
Breeches white
Gaiters black
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt white
Waistbelt white
Cartridge Box black
Bayonet Scabbard black
Scabbard none
Footgear black shoes


Other interpretations

Staudinger mentions white buttons in 1747.

Gilardone mentions shy blue breeches and Drexler a blue waistcoat (during the War of Austrian Succession ?).

Herbert Knötel shows yellow waistcoat and breeches.

Officers

The officers were distinguished by a golden lace on the tricorne which was also decorated with a black cockade fastened with a silver lace, and a silver gorget decorated with golden arms of Bavaria.

The horses of the mounted officers had a dark blue shabraques and dark blue pistol housings, all trimmed in gold.

Musicians

Drummers wore the uniform of the troopers with the following distinctions:

  • white/blue woollen chevrons on the sleeves
  • white/blue laced swallow nest at the shoulders
  • white/blue laced cuffs

White bandolier edged white/blue.

The white drum barrel was decorated with blue flames and with the crowned arms of Bavaria. The hoops were decorated with white and blue stripes.

Colours

About the colours of the Bavarian infantry regiments , we know some models in use during the first part of the 18th century, before 1740; we know 4 models of flags which were in use between 1742 and 1745 and we also know the two models created in 1786 after the reunification of the bavarian and palatinate armies. So, between 1745 and 1786, information are unfortunately very scarce. The following descriptions represent an "educated guess" based on these few sources.

Bavarian regiments carried 2 colours per battalion. The first battalion of each regiment carried the Leibfahne and a Kompaniefahne while other battalions carried two Kompaniefahne.


For this regiment, we know two models of Ordinarfahne carried between 1742 and 1745 and perhaps until 1749. Perhaps each battalion had its own Ordinarfahne (?). These flags were of the 1742-1745 pattern Type "2 and Type "3"" which were like that :

Ordinarfahne (Type 2) – Source: Frédéric Aubert
Ordinarfahne (Type 3) – Source: Frédéric Aubert

We doubt this model of flags was still in use during the seven years war, ten years after.

If these flags were no more carried during the seven years war, we think the old Max Emanuel pattern could have been taken out the arsenal and carried again :

Leibfahne under Max Emmanuel – Source: Frédéric Aubert
Ordinarfahne under Max Emmanuel – Source: Frédéric Aubert

Please note that, as Ordinarfahne, the 1742-1745 pattern Type "2 could have been carried, but without the double-head imperial eagle.

For full description of these flags, please confer our page upon Generalities about colours

References

The Army of Max III Joseph

Boehm, E.; Rottgardt, D., Die Reichsarmee 1757-63. I. Teil: Zusammensetzung und Organisation, KLIO-Arbeitsgruppe 7jähriger Krieg, Friderzianische Epoche, Manuskript, o.J

Boehm, E.; Rottgardt, D.; Weirich, W.-D., Die Reichsarmee 1757-63. II. Teil: Die einzelnen Einheiten, ihre Stärke, Zusammensetzung, Uniform und Feldzeichen, KLIO-Arbeitsgruppe 7jähriger Krieg, Friderzianische Epoche, Manuskript, o.J.

Funken, Liliane and Fred, Historische Uniformen, Vol. 2

Military Miniatures Magazin

Schirmer, Friedrich: Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756-1763, hrsg. von der KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg, überarb. u. aktual. Neuauflage 1989

Staudinger, Karl, Geschichte des kurbayerischen Heeres unter Kurfürst Karl Albrecht - Kaiser Karl VII. - und Max III. Joseph 1726 - 1777, (Geschichte des bayerischen Heeres 3), J. Lindauer, Munich, 1909

Acknowledgments

rf-figuren for the initial version of this article