Origin and History
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|In 1748, Colonel von Spaur lost his role as Inhaber (proprietor) of the regiment.
Already in 1746, along with Lieutenant-Colonel Count Mignazzi and Quartermaster Satori, he had been charged with embezzlement. Some 23,281 florins were missing from the cash register of the regiment. Spaur had misappropriated 15,012 florins and the officers and men had swindled another 3,755 florins. Spaur also owed a large amount to suppliers. Furthermore on April 7, 1746, the Hofkriegsrat (war council) filed a lawsuit against Spaur for the rape of a maid.
The auditor of the regiment suggested to Spaur to come to an amicable settlement. However, the latter urged his valet to beat the auditor. In the ensuing process, which lasted till 1748 and during which Spaur also insulted the General Director Baron Damnitz, who was entrusted with the investigation, Spaur was finally found guilty.
Maria Theresia proved rather lenient, allowing Spaur to resign from his role as regimental owner, but sequestering his estates of Porta del 'Nave to recover the misappropriated sums. Quartermaster Satori was dismissed from the army, but Lieutenant-Colonel Migazzi was acquitted. Count Spaur later entered into the French service.
In 1760, Colonel Baron Kottwitz was condemned for cruelty and dismissed from the command of the regiment
On March 30, 1760, Colonel-Commander Baron Kottwitz had to cede command of the regiment to Count Caprara after being charged of disorder and cruelty. Kottwitz was instructed to leave Tyrol. In the past, when he was still captain, Kottwitz had punished a man for minor causes so severely that the man had died. On that occasion the Hofkriegsrat condemned Kottwitz to replace the man and ordered his superiors to regard him severely for his brutality.
Acknowledgement: Harald Skala for these interesting anecdotes
For a long period, the estate of Tyrol had not been obliged to enlist regular troops for service in the Imperial army. It had only maintained a Landmiliz, responsible for the defence of its own territory.
In accordance with a contract signed at the end of 1744 between Maria Theresia and the estates of Tyrol, the “Tyroler Land-Bataillon” was disbanded and a new regular infantry regiment raised. It received the name “Tyroler Land und Feld-Regiment”. Lieutenant-Colonel Franz Count Spaur from Waldeck Infantry was promoted colonel and commander of this regiment and got his decree on February 3, 1745. Furthermore, Vincenz Felix Count Mignazzi from Salm Infantry was appointed as lieutenant-colonel. The regiment should consist of 15 fusilier companies à 140 men and two grenadier companies à 100 men, for a total of 2,300 men.
By the end of April 1745, one grenadier company and one fusilier battalion were ready for service, the second battalion was completed by the end of August. On August 24, the first battalion, led by Lieutenant-Colonel Migazzi went to Braunau. In the spring of 1746, this battalion came to Philippsburg while the other battalion remained at Innsbruck. Until the end of October 1748, the regiment counted only two battalions and one grenadier company. On October 16 of that year, the regiment was completed with 6 fusilier companies and one grenadier company from the disbanded IR “Ogilvy”. FM Karl Hermann Count Ogilvy was appointed proprietor (Inhaber) of the regiment and replaced Count Spaur. Lieutenant-Colonel Count Pohlheim from Carl Lothringen Infantry was appointed as regiment commander. The first battalion, which until then had been posted in Philippsburg, rejoined the second in Innsbruck.
The regiment – now counting 2,376 men – garrisoned Innsbruck, Kuffstein, Freiburg and Bregenz. In July 1750, the regiment went to the camp at Reutte where it remained until the end of September, 8 companies were afterwards allocated to the garrisons of Freiburg, Bregenz, Feldkirch and Rudolfzell, 9 companies at Innsbruck, Kuffstein and Ehrenberg, one grenadier company at Roveredo/Italy. Since October 1750, one battalion (4 coys.) once more garrisoned Philippsburg. The regiment remained in these places for the following years.
As per the Etat nouveau des Troupes de sa Majesté Impériale Royale comme elles se trouvent effectivement l'an 1759 and Etat général des Troupes qui servent sa Majesté Impériale et Royale Apostolique sur pié en 1760, the regiment counted 4 battalions (2 grenadier coys and 16 fusilier coys) for a total of 2,300 men. This was the administrative organisation of the regiment. However, the tactical organisation differed: 2 field fusilier battalions, each of 6 companies; 2 grenadier companies (usually converged with grenadiers from other battalions into an ad hoc unit); and 1 garrison battalion of 4 companies (see Austrian Line Infantry Organisation for more details).
During the Seven Years' War, the proprietor of the regiment was:
- from December 15, 1751 (published May 20, 1752) till January 3, 1764: Count Johann Sigismund Macquire von Inniskilen (often spelled Maquire)
- from January 5, 1764 Vincenz Felix Count Migazzi
During the Seven Years' War, its colonel-commander was:
- from February 18, 1755: Colonel Adam Baron Kottwitz (retired after being condemned for cruelty)
- from March 30, 1760 until March 15, 1766: Colonel Anneas Count Caprara
Regimental numbers were introduced only in 1769 when this regiment was designated as "I.R. 46".
Service during the War
In 1756, one battalion (6 coys) was transported by ships on the Danube River to Linz where it arrived on October 7. It then proceeded from there to Leitmeritz (present-day Litoměřice/CZ), was allocated to the Duke Ahremberg’s Corps and remained there the whole winter. On November 6, Lieutenant-Colonel Casimir Baron Teufel took command of that battalion. One detachment of 30 men garrisoned the Castle of Tetschen (present-day Děčín/CZ).
On May 6, 1757, the battalion and its grenadiers took part in the battle of Prague where, according to the order of battle, they were deployed in the Reserve in FML Maquire’s Division, in the brigade of Major General Wolfersdorf west of Malleschitz (present-day Malešice, part of Prague). During the battle, the battalion protected the right wing near Štěrboholy and lost 31 men in total, 10 missing. After the battle the battalion still had 707 fusiliers and 178 grenadiers who took refuge within the walls of Prague. During the siege of Prague by the Prussians, the battalion lost 9 men.
On September 7, when General Nádasdy attacked Winterfeldt's corps isolated in the combat of Moys, one battalion and the grenadiers of the regiment attacked the Holzberg and lost there 7 men killed, 53 wounded and 5 missing.
In October, one battalion and the grenadiers took part in the siege and capture of Schweidnitz. The grenadiers were deployed in Colonel Amadei’s column and attacked the “Sternschanze”.
On November 22, one battalion and the grenadiers of the regiment took part in the battle of Breslau where they were deployed in the first line of the infantry centre of Nádasdy's Corps. Their losses in this battle amounted to 11 men killed and 66 wounded.
On December 5, in the Battle of Leuthen the battalion and the grenadiers were deployed on left wing in Nádasdy’s corps and suffered heavy losses, After heavy fighting, the battalion was driven back to Gohlau and covered the retiring army. It lost 43 men killed, 28 wounded and 118 missing or taken prisoners of war.
The battalion and the grenadiers took up their winter-quarters along Aupa River and near Neustadt an der Mettau (present-day Nové město nad Metují/CZ). By the end of December, the battalion counted 500 fusiliers and 91 grenadiers.
During the entire year, the regimental staff and 6 companies remained in Tyrol while the garrison battalion (4 coys) garrisoned Philippsburg.
On March 29, 1758, the battalion operating in Bohemia was sent to Königgrätz where it formed part of the garrison along with Sprecher Infantry. The grenadiers were attached to the main army and were converged with other grenadiers and the horse carabiniers in Lacy’s Corps. This corps went to Gewitsch (present-day Jevíčko/CZ) where it arrived on May 24.
After Frederick II had raised the siege of Olmütz and retired towards Königgrätz, Buccow evacuated Königgrätz with the garrison and effected a junction with FM Daun’s main army at Pardubitz. The Prussians finally marched towards Silesia and the battalion along with Sprecher Infantry returned to Königgrätz on July 29.
On October 14, the grenadiers of the regiment took part in the Battle of Hochkirch where they lost 4 men killed, 23 wounded and 29 missing. The troops then marched to Pirna and Gießhübel where the grenadiers took up their winter-quarters.
The garrison of Königgrätz (one battalion of the regiment and Sprecher Infantry) was deployed in FLM Harsch’s Corps and sent between September 21 and November 9 to participate in the (unsuccessful) siege of Neisse (present-day Nysa/PL). Afterwards the battalion and Sprecher Infantry returned to Königgrätz once more.
The battalion and the grenadiers (518 + 140 men) remained in their quarters around Königgrätz until March 1. In April, they were deployed in FZM Harsch’s Corps, in the division of FML Guasco. This corps was deployed in a cordon between Schatzlar (present-day Žacléř/CZ) and Braunau (present-day Broumov/CZ) on the border between Bohemia and Silesia.
The other field battalion and the garrison battalion remained the whole year in their old places.
On January 7, 1760, the field battailon and grenadiers were sent to the main army in Saxony and came to Rabenau. At the end of January, they were sent to Plauen where they remained until June 1. Later on, they were allocated to the Corps de Reserve under FZM Wied, in the division of FML Plunquet. The corps was posted in the vicinity of Dippoldiswalde.
On July 2, the battalion and its grenadiers marched to the camp of the Reichsarmee and, on July 13, were sent to Dresden to support the garrison led by FZM Maquire and besieged by the Prussians. The grenadiers were converged with other companies to form a grenadier corps of 16 companies. On July 30, the Prussians raised the siege of Dresden and withdrew. During the siege the battalion and grenadiers had lost one officer and 3 men killed and 16 men wounded. In his relation of the siege, FZM Maquire praised several officers of his field battailon and the grenadiers. The battalion and the grenadiers then returned to Plauen.
On August 20, this battalion and the grenadiers took part in the combat of Strehla where they were attached to the corps under the Prince Stolberg, in the Würzburg Brigade. The grenadiers as well as the battalion distinguished themselves in this combat. The army then marched to Alt Belgern and, on August 28, to Tristewitz. At the beginning of October the battalion and the grenadiers were at the siege of Wittenberg. They then marched to Dresden where they remained until November 8. They took up their winter-quarters at Dippoldiswalde.
The other field battalion and the garrison battalion were still stationed in the same places in Tyrol and Further Austria.
For the campaign of 1761, the battalion and the grenadiers were attached to FZM Hadik’s Corps and remained at Dippoldiswalde until October 5. They took up their winter-quarters at Mökeritz. By December, this battalion had 538 men and officers fit for service; and the grenadiers, 103.
In 1762, the active battalion, attached to Plunquet’s Division, remained in its old post until September. According to the order of battle for October, this battalion was at Plauen under FZM Wied while the grenadiers had been converged with grenadiers of Wied Infantry in the corps of FML Ried at Binerig.
On September 29, FZM Wied attacked the camp of the Prussian General Hülsen. FML Ried led the grenadiers in the attack of the Prussian entrenchments and drove the Prussians back to Landsberg. In this action, the battalion lost 17 men killed, 9 wounded and 26 missing.
In March 1763, the active field battalion and the grenadiers marched through Salzburg and, on May 7, arrived at Innsbruck. The regiment was reduced to 2,012 men including officers and staff.
It is interesting to note that, during the whole Seven Years’ War, only one field battalion and the grenadiers took part in campaigns. The main part of the regiment (regimental staff, the other field battalion and the garrison battalion) were left in Tyrol and Further Austria to act as garrisons.
For the moment we have very few information on the uniform in 1756, at the outbreak of the war. Most of our references describe the uniform in 1762. However, Muhsfeldt, Wrede and Schirmer mention that, in 1756-57, the coat was white lined red (therefore red turnbacks), the distinctive colour was red and the waistcoat and breeches were red. Therefore, the uniform at the beginning of the war seems to have been quite different from the uniform of 1762.
|Neckstock||one red and one black (for parades the regimental commanders agreed before on the colour of the neckstocks)|
|Coat||white lined white with 3 yellow buttons under the right lapel and 1 yellow button in the small of the back on each side
|Waistcoat||white with 2 rows of small yellow buttons (3-3-3) and with horizontal pockets, each with 3 yellow buttons|
|Gaiters||one pair of black (for winter) and one pair of white gaiters (for summer and parade)|
Troopers were armed with a musket (Model 1745 for fusiliers, Model 1754 for grenadiers). Grenadiers carried a sabre while fusiliers carried only a bayonet.
The Bautzener Handschrift illustrates the following differences:
- a white within red pompom and a white rosette on the tricorne (no tassel)
- no tab to fasten the turnbacks
Donath illustrates the following differences:
- a yellow pompom and red tassels at the tricorne
- no tab to fasten the turnbacks
Knötel illustrates the following differences:
- no pompom nor tassel at the tricorne
- plain white shoulder strap fastened with a yellow button
no information available yet
The officers wore the same uniform as the privates with the following exceptions:
- tricorne lined gold with a white and green cockade
- black neckstock
- no turnbacks
- no shoulder strap
- yellow and black silk sash
Senior officers carried sticks identifying their rank:
- lieutenant: bamboo stick without knob
- captain: long rush stick with a bone knob
- major: long rush stick with a silver knob and a small silver chain
- lieutenant-colonel: long rush stick with a larger silver knob without chain
- colonel: long rush stick with a golden knob
As per a regulation of 1755, musicians were now distinguished from troopers only by poppy red swallow nests on the shoulders.
The drum had a brass barrel decorated with black flames at the bottom and with a black double headed Eagle on a yellow field. Rims were decorated with red and white diagonal stripes. The bandolier was white.
All German infantry regiments carried identical colours: a white Leibfahne (colonel) and yellow Regimentsfahne. The hand painted colours were made of silk and measured Size 178 cm x 127 cm. The 260 cm long flagpoles had golden finial and were decorated with black and yellow spirals of cloth.
The colonel colour was carried by the first battalion.
Colonel flag (Leibfahne):
- field: white
- border: alternating white and yellow outer waved triangles pointing inwards, red and black inner waved triangles pointing outwards
- obverse (right): the Immaculate Mother of God (which had been declared the patroness of the army by kaiser Ferdinand III) on a cloud, crushing a snake under her foot and surrounded by rays
- reverse (left): crowned and armed Imperial double-eagle with the "Lothringen-Toscanian" arms on a shield and the initials of the Emperor CF (Corregens Franciscus) on the left wing and IM (Imperator Magnus) on the right
Regimental flags (Regimentsfahne):
- field: yellow
- border: alternating white and yellow outer waved triangles pointing inwards, red and black inner waved triangles pointing outwards
- obverse (right): crowned and armed Imperial double-eagle with the "Lothringen-Toscanian" arms on a shield and the initials of the Emperor CF (Corregens Franciscus) on the left wing and IM (Imperator Magnus) on the right
- reverse (left): unarmed and crowned Imperial double-eagle with the arms of Hungaria and Bohemia on a shield and the initials M on the left wing and T on the right
In fact, the situation on the field was slightly more complex than this, since colours were usually replaced only when worn out. It is fairly possible that some regiment who had been issued colours of the 1743 pattern were still carrying them at the beginning of the Seven Years' War. For more details, see Austrian Line Infantry Colours.
This article contains texts from the following sources, which are now in the public domain:
- Hermannsthal, Geschichte des Tyroler Feld- und Land – später 46. Linien-Infanterie-Regiments, Krakau, 1859
- Seyfart, Kurzgefaßte Geschichte aller kaiserlich-königlichen Regimenter zu Pferde und zu Fuß, Frankfurth and Leipzig, 1762, p. 40
Dihm, Dr. Hermann; Oesterreichische Standarten und Fahnen zur Zeit des 7 jährigen Krieges, Die Zinnfigur, Klio
Donath, Rudolf; Die Kaiserliche und Kaiserlich-Königliche Österreichische Armee 1618-1918, 2. Aufl., Simbach/Inn 1979
Etat nouveau des Troupes de sa Majesté Impériale Royale comme elles se trouvent effectivement l'an 1759
Etat général des Troupes qui servent sa Majesté Impériale et Royale Apostolique sur pié en 1760
Funcken, Liliane and Fred, Les uniformes de la guerre en dentelle
Hausmann, Friedrich, Die Feldzeichen der Truppen Maria Theresias, Schriften des Heeresgeschichtlichen Museums, vol. 3, Vienna: 1967
Knötel, Herbert d. J.; Brauer, Hans M.: Heer und Tradition / Heeres-Uniformbogen (so-called “Brauer-Bogen”), Berlin 1926-1962, Österreich-Ungarn – 1756-63
Muhsfeldt, Th.; Abzeichenfarben der K. und K. Regimenter zu Fuss im Jahre 1757 und früher, in Mitteilungen zur Geschichte des militärischen Tracht, No. 12, 1904
Pengel, R. D. and G.R. Hurt; Austro-Hungarian Infantry 1740-1762; On Military Matters; Birmingham, 1982
Schirmer, Friedrich, Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756-1763, hrsg. von der KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg, überarb. u. aktual. Neuauflage 1989
Seidel, Paul; Nochmals österreichische Standarten und Fahnen zur Zeit des 7 jährigen Krieges, Die Zinnfigur, Clio
Thümmler, L.-H., Die Österreichiches Armee im Siebenjährigen Krieg: Die Bautzener Bilderhandschrift aus dem Jahre 1762, Berlin 1993
N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.
User:Zahn for gathering initial information about this regiment
Harald Skala for the translation and integration of Hermannsthal’s work