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Battles and Encounters
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In the recently published tenth volume of his series "Refighting History," Charles S. Grant proposes ten "What if" scenarios articulated around the resistance of the Saxon Army surrounded at Pirna in 1756, during the invasion of Saxony by Frederick II of Prussia. Although built around events of the Seven Years' War, these scenarios can easily be adapted for other conflicts of the horse and musket period, from Marlborough to Napoleon and arguably up to the American Civil War.
Besides its ten scenarios, this book also presents an introduction to the campaign of 1756 in Saxony and an overview of the Saxon Army during this campaign and during the campaigns in the Western Theatre from 1758 to 1762.
As usual with Charles's books, this 195 pages volume is richly illustrated with maps, uniform plates, and numerous photos taken by Charles while play testing the various scenarios. This book is available from Caliver Books.
More than 250 years ago, in 1756, the major powers of Europe became entangled in a conflict now known as the Seven Years War that was to last until 1763. It involved all the major powers of Europe, with Austria, France, Russia, Saxony, Sweden, and later Spain siding against the alliance of Great Britain, Hanover, Prussia, and later Portugal.
The war had in fact started in 1754 in North America and India where France and Great Britain were struggling for colonial supremacy. In Europe, Maria Theresa of Austria had undertaken intense diplomatic efforts to forge an alliance against Prussia with the goal of wresting the lost province of Silesia from the Prussian grasp.
Frederick II of Prussia invaded Saxony in 1756 and Bohemia in 1757. However, he had to retire from Bohemia after the defeat of Kolin. Prussians were now on the defensive against Austrians in Silesia, Franco-Imperials in Saxony and Russians in East Prussia. Frederick II saved Prussia by two brilliant victories at Rossbach and Leuthen. Meanwhile France had successfully invaded Hanover but was soon pushed back to the Rhine.
In North America, the first years of the conflict turned to the advantage of France. In Asia, Bengal was virtually under British rule by the end of 1757.
From 1758 through 1761, Prussia managed to repel its enemies on all fronts. In 1762, it was on the verge of being defeated when the Tsarina Elizabeth died leaving the throne to Peter III, who held Frederick II in high esteem. Consequently, the new Tsar sided with Prussia.
Meanwhile, year after year, the struggle between France and the Anglo-Hanoverians in Western Germany remained inconclusive. By the end of each campaign the belligerents were basically back to their initial positions.
In 1762, a new front opened in the Iberian Peninsula where a Franco-Spanish army vainly attempted the conquest of Portugal.
Early in 1763, all belligerents made peace, leaving the political map of Europe almost unchanged. However, Great Britain had eliminated its most important competitor for world domination, and Prussia had survived the war, a feat all by itself... (more...)
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