Mainz Infantry

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Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Armies >> Austrian Army >> Mainz Infantry

Origin and History

Mainz (Lamberg) Infantry - Source: Herbert Knötel d. J. in Das Zeitalter Friedrich des Großen

At the outbreak of the Seven Years War, the Mainz army was comprised of the following infantry regiments: Wildenstein, Riedt and Preyss garrisoning Mainz and Hagen, garrisoning Erfurt together with the Austrian Gaisruck Infantry.

On September 29, 1756 by an agreement between the Prince-Elector Archbishop of Mainz and Austria, a regiment organized on the Austrian pattern (2 field battalions with 6 coys each, 1 garrison battalion with 4 coys, and 2 coys of grenadiers) was drafted from companies of the infantry regiments of Wildenstein and Riedt. The company commanders were:

  • Leib: Inhaber Major-General Count von Lamberg, Commanding Officer Captain-Lieutenant Kreuter
  • 1st Grenadier: Captain von Welsch
  • 2nd Grenadier: Captain von Fackenhoven
  • 1st: Inhaber Lieutenant-Colonel Baron von Herstall, Commanding Officer Captain-Lieutenant von Welsch
  • 2nd: Inhaber Major Stutzer, Commanding Officer Captain-Lieutenant von Kottulinsky
  • 3rd: Captain Werner
  • 4th: Captain von Murach
  • 5th: Captain Wolff
  • 6th: Captain von Hagen
  • 7th: Captain Knodt
  • 8th: Captain von Dalwigk
  • 9th: Captain von Schmitt
  • 10th: Captain von Guttberg
  • 11th: Captain von Koffler
  • 12th: Captain von Rüdt
  • 13th: Captain Klunkhard
  • 14th: Captain Stamm
  • 15th: Captain von Hornigk

What remained of Infantry Regiments Wildenstein and Riedt continued to garrison the Fortress of Mainz along with Infantry Regiment Preyss.

During the Seven Years' War, the regiment was commanded by:

  • from September 29, 1756: Major-General Raimund Casimir Count von Lamberg (former colonel of Infantry Regiment Riedt)

The regiment was disbanded in 1763.

Service during the War

1756

During the winter of 1756/57, the regiment took up its winter-quarters in Bohemia.

1757

In 1757, during the Prussian invasion of Bohemia, the regiment was deployed partly in the Prague garrison (third bn of 4 fusilier coys), partly in the field (first and second bns counting a total of 12 fusilier coys and 2 grenadier coys). On May 6, the first and second battalions of the regiment took part in the Battle of Prague where they were deployed in Major-General Baron Wulfen's Brigade, in the second line of the left wing of infantry under Baron Kheul. They suffered very heavy losses (409 men). After this battle, 10 fusilier coys (1,068 men) became part of the garrison of Prague while the rest formed 1 bn under Major-General von Lamberg and remained with the Austrian field army.

On September 7, when General Nádasdy attacked the isolated corps of Winterfeldt in the combat of Moys, the battalion accompanying the field army was deployed in the first line of the infantry centre division under the command of Lieutenant-General Nicolaus Esterházy.

In October and November, the field battalion took part in the Siege of Schweidnitz.

On November 22, the field battalion took part in the Battle of Breslau where it was part of the Reserve Corps in Baron Wolff's Brigade. It then took part in the defence of Breslau and, when the city surrendered on December 21, they became prisoners of war but were later exchanged.

1758

In 1758, the regiment garrisoned Prague. Only one battalion (6 companies for a total of 853 men) became part of the Austrian main field army.

On October 14, this battalion took part in the battle of Hochkirch where it was deployed in Lieutenant-General Colloredo's column to the southeast of Lauske.

1759

In 1759, the regiment was stationed in Bohemia. On November 20, it took part in the Battle of Maxen where it was attached to Brentano's Corps initially posted at Röhrsdorf, 5 km north of Maxen.

1760

In 1760, the regiment served in Saxony with the Austrian corps attached to the Reichsarmee. On August 20, it took part in the Combat of Strehla.

1761

In 1761, the regiment continued to serve in Saxony with the Austrian corps attached to the Reichsarmee.

1762

In 1762, the regiment continued to serve in Saxony with the Austrian corps attached to the Reichsarmee.

On May 12, the two field battalions took part in the Combat of Doebeln.

On October 29, the two field battalions and the grenadiers took part in the Battle of Freiberg where they were deployed in Campitelli's Corps.

For the entire Seven Years’ War, Duffy gives the following data for this regiment: out of 4,674 mustered. 1,860 were taken prisoners, 1,571 died in hospital, 1,010 deserted, 79 went missing or were discharged as invalids and only were 154 killed in action.

Uniform

As far as we know, the main sources for Mainz uniforms are two cards in the Sturm-Zigarettenbilder-Alben "Deutsche Uniformen" by Knotel and Letzius which depicts a fusilier of Infantry Regiment Riedt and a grenadier of Infantry Regiment Wildenstein. The Knotel illustration 53, Band V of Uniformenkunde represents the same Wildenstein grenadier.

It is possible that the Mainz-Lamberg regiment was uniformed as Riedt: moreover after the war it took its place and the "Kurfürstlich Erlass vom 5 September 1776" specified blue as its distinctive facing colour.

Privates

Uniform in 1758 - Source: Frédéric Aubert from a template made by Richard Couture.
Uniform in 1756-57
Headgear
Musketeer black tricorne laced white with a blue within white pompom
Grenadier bearskin with a blue bag probably laced white and a white tassel
Neckstock black
Coat white lined blue with 3 white buttons under the right lapel and 1 white button in the small of the back on each side
Collar small blue collar
Shoulder Straps probably white fastened by a white button (left shoulder only)
Lapels blue with 6 white buttons grouped 2 by 2
Pockets horizontal pockets, each with 3 white buttons
Cuffs blue with 3 white buttons
Turnbacks blue
Waistcoat blue with 1 row of small white buttons and with horizontal pockets, each with 3 white buttons
Breeches straw
Gaiters probably one pair of black (for winter) and one pair of white gaiters (for summer and parade)
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt white
Waistbelt white with a brass buckle
Cartridge Box black
Bayonet Scabbard black with brass fittings
Scabbard black (grenadiers only)
Footgear black shoes


Other Interpretations

It is also possible that the blue distinctive colour of this regiment appeared only in 1770 when all infantry regiments of the Electorate of Mainz were assigned a specific distinctive colours. In this case, the uniform of this temporary unit during the Seven Years’ War might have had red a its distinctive colour.

Officers

To do

Musicians

To do

Colours

As far as colours of this temporary infantry regiments are concerned, neither pictorial nor written evidence by primary sources has been found. Therefore, any attempt of reconstruction would be pure speculations.

References

Anon.: A Tour Through Germany, containing full directions for travelling in that Interesting Country : with Observations on the State of Agriculture and Policy of the different States : very particular descriptions of the Courts of Vienna and Berlin, and Coblenz and Mentz : with the banks of the Rhine, the present Theatre of War, London: C. and G. Kearsley, 1794; reprinted by Forgotten Books, 2017

Becher, Johann Christian: Wahrhaftige Nachricht derer Begebenheiten, so sich in dem Herzogthum Weimar by dem gewaltigen Kriege Friedrichs II., Königs von Preußen, mit der Königin von Ungarn, Marien Theresen, samt ihren Bundesgenossen zugetragen, Weimar, ca. 1757-1760.

  • Original (Stiftung Weimarer Klassik - Herzogin Anna Amalia Bibliothek Weimar)
  • Copies (Bibliothèque nationale de France, De Ridder collection)

Blanning, T(imothy) C(harles) W(illiam): Reform and Revolution in Mainz, 1743 – 1803. (Cambridge Studies in Early Modern History) New York: Cambridge University Press, 1974

Boehm, E.; Rottgardt, D.: Die Reichsarmee 1757-1763 I. Teil. Zusammensetzung und Organisation, Manuskript, KLIO - Arbeitsgruppe 7jähriger Krieg, 1979.

Boehm, E.; Rottgardt, D., Weirich, W.-D.: Die Reichsarmee 1757-1763 II. Teil. Die einzelnen Einheiten, ihre Stärke, Zusammensetzung, Uniform und Feldzeichen, Manuskript, KLIO - Arbeitsgruppe 7jähriger Krieg, o. J.

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Brodrück, Karl: Quellenstücke und Studien über den Feldzug der Reichsarmee von 1757. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte im 18. Jahrhundert. Leipzig: Dyck, 1858

Deutsche Uniformen, Bd. 1, Das Zeitalter Friedrich des Großen, 240 Bilder von Herbert Knötel d. J., Text und Erläuterungen von Dr. Martin Letzius, hrsg. von der Sturm-Zigaretten GmbH, Dresden 1932

Dreyfus, François: Sociétés et Mentalités à Mayence, Paris, 1968

Duffy, Christopher: Instrument of War. Vol. I of The Austrian Army in the Seven Years War, Chicago/Ill.: Emperor’s Press, 2008

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Geisler, Michel and Michela: [ http://www.ahnenforschung-hessen.de/deutsch.html Ahnenforschung in Hessen]

Grosser Generalstab Kriegsgeschichtliche Abteilung II: Die Kriege Friedrichs des Grossen, Part 3 Der siebenjährige Krieg 1756-1763

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Huschberg, Johann (Ed.): 00009.html Die drei Kriegsjahre 1756, 1757, 1758 in Deutschland. Aus dem Nachlasse von Johann Ferdinand von Huschberg. Mit Ergänzungen herausgegeben von Heinrich Wuttke. Nach bisher unbenutzten Archiven, Leipzig: J. C. Hinrich, 1856

Kahlenberg, Friedrich Peter: Kurmainzische Verteidigungseinrichtungen und Baugeschichte der Festung Mainz im 17. und 18. Jahrhundert, vol. 19 of “Beiträge zur Geschichte der Stadt Mainz”. Mainz: Stadtbibliothek, 1963

Kissel, Clemens: Die alten Festungswerke von Mainz sowie kurze Geschichte der kur-Mainzer Truppen, Mainz: Wilkens 1899

Knötel, Richard: Uniformkunde, Lose Blätter zur Geschichte der Entwicklung der militärischen Tracht, Rathenow 1890-1921

Lautzas, Peter: Die Festung Mainz im Zeitalter des Ancien Regimes, der Französischen Revolution und des Empire (1736 – 1814). Ein Beitrag zur Militärstruktur des Mittelrhein-Gebietes. (= Geschichtliche Landeskunde, Bd. VIII) Wiesbaden 1973

Letzius, Dr. Martin and Herbert Knötel d. J.: Deutsche Uniformen, Bd. 1, Das Zeitalter Friedrich des Großen, hrsg. von der Sturm-Zigaretten GmbH, Dresden 1932

Lübcke, Christian: Kurmainzer Militär und Landsturm im ersten und zweiten Koalitionskrieg, Dissertation: Helmuth-Schmidt-Universitär/Universität der Bundeswehr, Hamburg 2014; published: Eltville: RWM-Verlag, 2016

Schnellenkamp, Werner: Kurmainzer Uniformen in Erfurt, in: Beiträge zur Kunst und Geschichte des Mainzer Lebensraumes, Festschrift für Ernst Neeb, Mainz, 1936 pp. 159-170

Störkel, Arno: Zur Uniformierung der Kurmainzer Truppen in den Jahren vor der Revolution, in: Zeitschrift für Heereskunde, LII. Jahrgang, Nr. 335 (Jan, Feb 1988),pp.88-1 – 88-4

Störkel, Arno: Das Kurmainzer Militär beim Ausbruch der Französischen Revolution, in: Mainzer Zeitschrift 84/85 (1989/90), pp. 143–166

Störkel, Arno: The defenders of Mayence in 1792: A Portrait of a Small European Army at the Outbreak of the French Revolutionary War, in: War & Society, vol. 12, number 2, (October 1994), pp. 1-21, The University of New South Wales Tessin, Georg: Die Regimenter der europäischen Staaten im Ancien Regime des XVI. bis XVIII. Jahrhunderts, Teil 1 Die Stammlisten, Osnabrück: Biblio-Verlag, 1986, cited as Tessin (1986)

Weber, Sascha: Die kurmainzische Heeresreform von 1773, Zeitschrift Militär und Gesellschaft in der Frühen Neuzeit des Arbeitskreises Militär und Gesellschaft in der Frühen Neuzeit e. V., Heft 2, Band 17 (2013), Universitätsverlag Potsdam, pp. 44–72

N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.

Acknowledgements

Harald Howe for his research which allowed us to produce a new version of this article