Markgraf Carl Infantry
Origin and History
The regiment was raised on February 14 1702 for Albrecht Friedrich Markgraf von Brandenburg-Sonnenburg who was Master of the Johanniter Order. For this reason, the "Johanniter-Kreuz" was used on the colours of the regiment. The regiment initially belonged to the garrison of Berlin.
The regiment levied its recruits in the districts of Arnswalde, Dramburg, Friedeberg, Königsberg, Soldin and Sternberg; and in the towns of Berlinchen, Driesen, Goeritz, Königsberg, Küstrin, Mohrin, Neuendamm, Schievelbein, Soldin, Teupitz, Treuenbrietzen and Zehden.
During the War of the Austrian Succession, on March 9 1741, the regiment took part in the storming of Glogau and, on April 10 of the same year, in the Battle of Mollwitz. In 1745, it fought in the battles of Hohenfriedberg (June 4) and Soor (September 30) where it suffered heavy losses.
During the Seven Years' War, the regiment was commanded by:
- since June 24 1731: Karl Friedrich Albrecht Margrave of Brandenburg-Schwedt
- from April 8 1763: Hans von Tettenborn
- from June 25 1763 to March 20 1794: Friedrich August Duke of Brunswick
The numbering system (Stammliste) was first used by Leopold I., Fürst von Anhalt-Dessau (Der alte Dessauer) in the Dessauer Spezifikation from 1737. Around 1780 the numbers were used in the printed Stammlisten, still with some variations for the fusilier regiments. It became official by "Cabinets-Ordre" from October 1, 1806. The present infantry regiment was attributed number 19.
The unit was disbanded in 1806 after the capitulation of Hameln.
Service during the War
On August 26 1756, when the Prussian Army was ordered to proceed to the invasion of Saxony, the regiment was part of the centre column led by Frederick II. More precisely, it belonged to Margarve Karl's Corps. The centre column had concentrated in the area of Brietzen and advanced unopposed upstream along the Elbe River by Torgau and Wittenberg, leaving Meissen to its left. On September 6, it encamped at Rothschönberg and finally reached Wilsdruf. In October, after the capitulation of the Saxon Army at Pirna, the regiment incorporated all Irish troops formerly in the Saxon service. The regiment then accompanied Frederick back to Lobositz to bring back Keith's Army near Dresden. On October 22, it was part of the 10 battalions of Frederick's force who left Lobositz for Linai.
On May 6 1757, during the invasion of Bohemia, the regiment took part in the Battle of Prague where it was deployed in the first line in Ferdinand of Brunswick's Brigade. It took part in the close combat near Rocketnitzer Stream taking minor casualties. At the end of August, the regiment was part of the small Prussian army hastily assembled at Dresden by Frederick to head towards Thuringia and to offer battle to the Franco-Imperial Army invading Saxony. On November 5, at the Battle of Rossbach, the regiment was deployed in the first line of the infantry right wing under Lieutenant-General Ferdinand Prince von Braunschweig. On December 5 at the Battle of Leuthen, the regiment was deployed in Prince Francis of Brunswick's Brigade in the first line of the infantry centre. It attacked the churchyard and was completely ruined from continuous musket fire throughout the battle. The regiment then took part in the Siege at Breslau from December 14 to 21.
In April 1758, the regiment took part in the siege and recapture of Schweidnitz. It then participated in the unsuccessful invasion of Moravia. On October 14, the regiment took part in the Battle of Hochkirch where it was initially deployed in the village and immediately to its right. Its first battalion defended the big battery (10 x 12-pdrs) near Hochkirch while its second battalion bitterly defended the churchyard of the village. The regiment took the brunt of the murderous artillery fire into the village which consisted of both roundshots and howitzer fire. The second battalion stood with invincible stubbornness till its cartridges were spent. Some remnant of the battalion managed to get through.
From February 24 to March 4 1759, one battalion of the regiment was part of the small Prussian corps under the command of Major-General von Wobersnow who made an incursion in Poland against the Russian magazines. During this incursion, Wobersnow's forces destroyed provisions which would have supplied 50,000 men for 3 months. On August 12, the regiment fought in the Battle of Kunersdorf where it was deployed in the first line of the right centre as part of Thile's Brigade. The regiment suffered so heavily during this battle that it was later reorganised as a single battalion. On September 21, this battalion took part in the Combat of Korbitz where it was deployed in the first line of the right wing under Lieutenant-General Finck. When Hadik advanced Brentano's Corps against the Prussian right, Finck replied by sending Rebentisch with 4 grenadier battalions and Markgraf Carl Infantry against Brentano who was driven back. After driving back the Prussian cavalry, the Austrian cavalry redirected its effort on the Prussian infantry, charging it 5 or 6 times. The battalion of Markgraf Carl Infantry, after being charged twice, was pushed back and retreated under the cover of the Prussian grenadiers, loosing five 12-pdr guns and two howitzers.
In July 1760, the regiment was present at the unsuccessful Siege of Dresden. On August 20, it took part in the Combat of Strehla where it defended the field fortifications on the plateau. On November 3, it fought in the Battle of Torgau.
N.B.: During the war the grenadiers from the wing grenadier companies were put together with the grenadiers of Infantry Regiment 25 forming the Grenadier Batallion 19/25 (please refer to this article for the details of the service of the grenadiers during the war).
|Coat||Prussian blue lined red with 8 white braid loops (same lace as above) with tassels and 6 brass buttons, a white braid loop (same lace as above) with tassel in the small of the back on each side and with 3 brass buttons on each side to fasten the skirts forming the turnbacks
|Waistcoat||straw with horizontal pockets and brass buttons|
Privates were armed with a musket, a bayonet and a sabre with a curved blade.
NCOs wore uniforms similar to those of the privates with the following distinctions:
- tricorne with wide gold lace and black and white quartered pompoms
- 6 golden lace loops without tassel on each side on the chest
- 2 golden lace loops without tassel on each cuff
- no shoulder strap
- yellowish leather gloves
- black and white sabre tassel
NCOs were armed with a sabre and a brown half-pikes measuring 10 Rhenish feet (3.06 m.) in the musketeer companies and 13 Rhenish feet (4.10 m.) in the grenadier companies (carried by the 3 most senior NCOs while other grenadier NCOs were armed with rifled muskets since 1744).
NCOs also carried canes (normally attached to a button at the top of the right front while carrying the half-pike).
The uniforms of the officers were very similar to those of the privates with the following exceptions:
- black tricorne laced with a thin gold braid (officers always wore tricornes notwithstanding if they were commanding musketeers, fusiliers or grenadiers)
- white neck stock
- no shoulder strap on the coat
- 13 golden embroidery loops and 11 gilt buttons on each side on the chest
- 2 golden golden embroidery loops sidewise on each side in the small of the back
- 3 golden golden embroidery loops on each pocket
- 2 golden golden embroidery loops on the sleeve above each cuff
- no turnback on the coat
- black and silver sash around the waist
Officers carried brown spontoons measuring 7 ½ Rhenish feet (2.36 m.) and an officer stick.
The narrow and wide drummer laces were of the same pattern, consisting of an orange braid bordered white and decorated with small "Johanniter-Kreuz".
The uniforms of the drummers were similar to those of the privates but had much more elaborate lacing and other peculiarities:
- 6 vertical narrow laces and 1 horizontal narrow lace on each shoulder
- coat, pockets, cuffs, collar and buttonholes edged with the narrow drummer lace
- each sleeve decorated with horizontal narrow laces arranged in chevrons (7) bordered by 2 vertical wide laces, one on each side
Till 1763 the cross of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem (in German the Johanniterorden) was on the flag because the Markgraf von Brandenburg-Schwedt was the grandmaster (Herrenmeister) of the Johanniter Orden.
Colonel colour (Leibfahne): White field with a purple red "Johanniter-Kreuz". Centre device consisting of a purple red medallion surrounded by a golden laurel wreath and surmounted by a gold crown. The medallion is decorated with a black eagle holding a sword and lightning bolts surmounted by a white scroll bearing the golden motto "Pro Gloria et Patria". Corner monograms (crowns, laurel wreaths, FR ciphers) and grenades in gold.
Regimental colours (Kompaniefahnen): Purple red field with a white "Johanniter-Kreuz". Centre device consisting of a white medallion surrounded by a golden laurel wreath and surmounted by a gold crown. The medallion is decorated with a black eagle holding a sword and lightning bolts surmounted by a purple red scroll bearing the golden motto "Pro Gloria et Patria". Corner monograms (crowns, laurel wreaths, FR ciphers) and grenades in gold.
- N.B.: Two of these old colours (pre-1763) are in Vienna in the Heeresgeschichtliches Museum. They were lost in 1758 in a cold October night in the churchyard of Hochkirch.
The pikes used as staffs for the colours were brown.
In 1763 the new grandmaster became Prinz Ferdinand and therefore the Johanniter Cross was transferred to the flags of Infanterie Regiment 34. After 1763, eight small wedges were placed on the new flag of Infanterie Regiment 19. The Leibfahne only had four small red wedges (horizontally and vertically).
Anonymous (maybe Karl Wellner), Montierung des Königlich Preussischen Armee
Bleckwenn, Hans, Die Uniformen der Preußischen Infanterie 1753-1786, Teil III/Bd. 3, Osnabrück 1973
Bleckwenn, Hans, Die friderzianischen Uniformen 1753-1786, Bd. I Infanterie I, Osnabrück 1984
Deutsche Uniformen, Bd. 1, Das Zeitalter Friedrich des Großen, 240 images of Herbert Knötel d. J., Text and explanations by Dr. Martin Letzius, published by Sturm-Zigaretten GmbH, Dresden: 1932
Die Bewaffnung und Ausrüstung der Armee Friedrichs des Großen: Eine Dokumentation aus Anlaß seines 200. Todesjahres, 2 erw. Auflage, Raststatt 1986
Engelmann, Joachim and Günter Dorn, Die Infanterie-Regimenter Friedrich des Grossen, Podzun-Pallas, 2000 Funcken, Liliane and Fred, Les uniformes de la guerre en dentelle
Guddat, Martin; Grenadiere, Musketiere, Füsiliere: Die Infanterie Friedrichs des Großen, Herford 1986
Hohrath, Daniel: The Uniforms of the Prussian Army under Frederick the Great from 1740 to 1786; Vol. 2; Verlag Militaria, Vienna: 2011, pp. 164-169
Menzel, Adolph von, Die Armee Friedrich's des Großen, Berlin: 1851/57
Schirmer, Friedrich; Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756-1763, published by KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg, Neuauflage 1989
Tressenmusterbuch von 1755
N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.
User:Zahn for the information pertaining to the flags of the regiment.