Origin and History
On 3 February 1682, Emperor Leopold I issued a decree to increase the Imperial Army to be able to withstand his enemies. An additional 12,000 men should be raised, half in the Palatinate (in the Empire), half in the Hereditary Lands. The present regiment was raised according to this decree. It initially consisted of 5 companies from the Tyrolean “Freikompanien” and 5 of companies contributed by Sitten Infantry.
On 16 April 1682, another Imperial decree appointed Léopold Joseph Charles Prince de Lorraine et Bar (only three years old!), son of the hero Charles Duke of Lorraine, as proprietor and commander of the new regiment. In German, Lorraine is called Lothringen and the regiment was known as “Jung-Lothringen”.
On 27 May 1682, Colonel-Lieutenant Ludwig Count Archinto, chamberlain of the Emperor, was transferred to the 5 companies concentrated in Moravia. They had been sent to reinforce the troops defending the Jablunka Pass on the border. Two companies had also been sent to Sillein (present-day Žilina/SK). At the end of the year, the 5 Tyrolean companies arrived in Silesia and spent the winter at Teschen (present-day Český Těšín/CZ). The other 5 companies garrisoned Ratibor and also Teschen.
On 2 January 1683, the Ottoman Empire declared war to Austria. For the incoming campaign, 5 companies lead by Major Pini were attached to FML Count Schulz's Corps posted behind the Waag River (present-day Váh/SK). Colonel-Lieutenant Archinto with the remaining 5 companies joined the main army near Pressburg (present-day Bratislava/SK) and fought against the Turks. On 2 February 1684, Major Pini with his 5 companies was sent to Vienna to strengthened its fortifications. In April, the regiment was reunited and fought again against the Turks. During the winter, the regiment garrisoned various places in Silesia. In 1685, the regiment was attached to the main army, participated in the siege of Neuhäsel (present-day Nové Zámky/SK). In 1686, it fought in Hungary. On 9 August during the siege of Ofen, Colonel-Lieutenant Count Archinto was wounded by a bomb which exploded nearby. The regiment took its winter-quarters in Lower and Upper Austria. At the beginning of 1687, the regiment was increased to 12 companies (a total of 1,200 men) organised in two battalions. It once more joined the main army of the Duc de Lorraine at Gran (present-day Esztregom/HU) and fought in Hungary, taking part in the Battle of Mohacs and in operations in Slavonia. In 1688, the regiment took part in the storming of Belgrade. On 17 September, Count Archinto was promoted to colonel and proprietor of the former Guido von Starhemberg Infantry (later IR 35); Major Pini was promoted to Colonel-Lieutenant, Jakob Leopold von Thavonat from IR Souches was transferred to the regiment to act as second Colonel-Lieutenant. At the end of 1688, the regiment was increased to 14 companies (2,000 men). Recruits came mainly from Bohemia, but 500 came from the Palatinate (in the Empire).
The regiment was then transferred to Western Germany where the Nine Years' War (1688–97) had just broken out. In 1689, the regiment was attached to FZM Souches' Army posted near Frankfurt/Main and participated in the siege of Mainz and Bonn. It took its winter-quarters near Tuttlingen and Gissingen in Franconia. In June 1690, the regiment, along with Savoyen Dragoons, was sent to Piedmont. On 19 June, during the march to Piedmont, Colonel-Lieutenant Pini died at Ginsheim. In mid July 1691, the regiment arrived at Cremona. By December, 10 of its companies garrisoned San Hillario and 4 companies, San Salvatore. In January 1692, the regiment concentrated at San Hillario where it was completed to 15 companies counting a total of 2,250 men. On 27 April, Leopold Thavonat was ennobled to Baron and promoted to colonel, but without the relevant salary. In July, the regiment participated in the raid into Dauphiné. In November, it returned to San Hillario once more and was completed to 16 companies (2,400 men). It remained in San Hillario until July 1693. On 3 July 1693, Colonel Baron Thavonat was appointed proprietor of the former Thüngen Infantry (later IR42); and Filip Friedrich Vischer von Rempelsdorf was promoted to colonel-lieutenant of the present regiment. In July 1694, the regiment was reduced to 13 companies. In 1695, Colonel-Lieutenant Vischer was mortally wounded at the head of one battalion of the regiment during siege of Casale, and Johann Gaudenz Baron Rost replaced him in his rank and function. Meanwhile, its other battalion took part in the siege of Valenza in the Duchy of Milan. At the end of the campaign, the regiment again returned to San Hillario. In the campaign of 1696, Leopold Duc de Lorraine, the proprietor of the regiment who was now 17 years old, joined the army of the Elector of Saxony near Olasch in Hungary where he received his baptism of fire. Meanwhile, in October, his regiment was transferred from Northern Italy to the Rhine. However, it was stopped in Austria on its way. It was then reduced to 12 companies and remained in Graz until May 1697. In September 1697, the regiment was at the siege of Ebernburg on the Rhine.
After the war, the regiment garrisoned Freiburg. On 1 March 1698, Léopold Duc de Lorraine was authorised by the Emperor to transfer the property of his regiment to his brother, Joseph Innocenz Duke de Lorraine et Bar.
In March 1701, at the outbreak of the War of the Spanish Succession, the regiment was sent to Northern Italy where it arrived in September. In 1702, a detachment of the regiment took part in the failed attempt to capture Cremona. In 1703, part of the regiment defended Brescello. In 1704, a detachment took part in the valiant defence of Verrua. In 1705, the regiment became the property of GFWM Johann Adam Baron Wetzel. In 1706, part of the regiment took part in the defence of Turin. On 8 August, Johann Ernst Baron von Hoffmann was appointed proprietor of the regiment while GFWM Wetzel became proprietor of the former Guttenstein Infantry. On 7 September, an Allied army relieved Turin. Baron Hoffmann was killed in this Battle of Turin. The same year, a battalion of the regiment who had been left behind in Lombardy, took part in the capture of Volta, Cavriana, Monzambano and Goito. On 10 January 1707, the Emperor appointed Franz Xaver Count Sonnenberg Baron Heindel proprietor of the regiment. The same year, the regiment took part in the conquest of the Vice-royalty of Naples, in the storming of Gaeta, in a raid against Civitavecchia and in the capture of Orbetello.
In 1714, General Baron Damian Johann Philipp von Sickingen became proprietor of the regiment; in 1716, Reichsgraf Johann Herrmann Franz von Nesselrode became proprietor; and in 1718, Friedrich Heinrich Reichsgraf von Seckendorf.
During the War of the Quadruple Alliance, in 1719, the regiment served in Sicily where it fought in the battle of Francavilla (June 20).
During the War of the Polish Succession, in 1734, the regiment was at Sorbolo.
The regiment then served against the Turks. On July 4 1738, it distinguished itself at the battle of Cornea and in 1739 in the battle of Grozka.
In 1742, the regiment became the property of Ernst Dietrich Reichsgraf Marschall von Burgholzhausen.
During the War of the Austrian Succession, in 1745, the regiment fought in the battles of Hohenfriedberg (June 4) and Soor (September 30).
From 1752, the regiment assumed garrison duty in Upper Austria. In 1755, Colonel Wolfersdorf and 8 companies were in Linz, Colonel-Lieutenant Baron Seckendorf with 4 companies in Enns, two companies in Steyer and two companies in Freistadt.
As per the Etat nouveau des Troupes de sa Majesté Impériale Royale comme elles se trouvent effectivement l'an 1759 and Etat général des Troupes qui servent sa Majesté Impériale et Royale Apostolique sur pié en 1760, the regiment counted 4 battalions (2 grenadier coys and 16 fusilier coys) for a total of 2,300 men. This was the administrative organisation of the regiment. However, the tactical organisation differed: 2 field fusilier battalions, each of 6 companies; 2 grenadier companies (usually converged with grenadiers from other battalions into an ad hoc unit); and 1 garrison battalion of 4 companies (see Austrian Line Infantry Organisation for more details).
During the Seven Years' War, the chef of the regiment was:
- since 1742 till 1771: Ernst Dietrich Baron von Marschall auf Burgholzhausen (till his death)
During the Seven Years' War, its colonel-commander was:
- since 1755: Colonel Karl Ludwig Baron Seckendorf
- from 1759 to 1767: Friedrich Christian Baron Leubelfink
Regimental numbers were introduced only in 1769 when this regiment was designated as "I.R. 18".
Service during the War
At the beginning of 1756, the two grenadier coys garrisoned Brandeis (present-day Brandýs n. Labem/CZ); 4 fusilier coys, Nimburg; 4 coys, Kolin; 2 coys, Lessau; 1 coy Kostelec; 2 coys, Podiebrad (present-day Poděbrady/CZ); 2 coys, Melnik (present-day Mělník/CZ); and 1 coy, Czelakowitz (present-day Čelákovice/CZ). In the second half of August, the grenadiers and two battalions (6 coys each) joined the main army of Field-Marshal Browne while the third battalion (4 coys) formed part of the garrison of Olmütz. On 12 September, the two field battalions and 1 grenadier coy were transferred to the corps of FZM Fürst Piccolomini who had just taken position on the Adler River (present day Orlice/CZ) in the Königshof-Kolin region to act as a covering force. However, the first grenadier coy remained with Browne's Army where it was converged with 23 other grenadier coys to form a grenadier corps under the command of Major-General Count Wied. On October 1, this corps participated in the Battle of Lobositz where it was placed in the vanguard in front of the village of Lobositz. In this battle, this grenadier coy lost 11 men dead; 1 officer and 9 men wounded; and 11 men missing. On October 12, the 2 field battalions, along with Bethlen Infantry, rejoined the main army in the camp of Budín. The 1 field battalion and 1 grenadier coy spent the winter in the cordon formed along the border between Eger (present-day Cheb/CZ) and Tetschen (present-day Děčín/CZ), the other field battalion took its winter-quarters at Saaz (present-day Žatec/CZ) and Postelberg (present-day Postoloprty/CZ). On November 27, Major Baron Lehr was promoted colonel-lieutenant (the third one in the regiment) and took command of the depot battalion in Olmütz. By the end of the year, the regiment counted 2,408 fit for duty.
At the beginning of 1757, the two field battalions counted 1,632 men while the two grenadier coys counted 200 men. On May 6 1757, during the Prussian invasion of Bohemia, the two field battalions of the regiment took part in the Battle of Prague where they were deployed in Baron Otterwolf's Brigade, in the first line of the left wing of infantry under Baron Kheul. In this battle, they lost 2 officer and 14 men killed; 4 officers and 107 men wounded; 3 officers and 161 men taken prisoners or missing. Part of these battalions then took refuge in Prague, while another part escaped and assembled near Beneschau (present-day Benešov/CZ). During the ensuing Siege of Prague, troops who had taken refuge in the city defended the Kornthor Gate (Žitná brána). After the retreat of the Prussians, the regiment followed the main army to Upper Lusatia. On September 14, it was attached to FZM Marschall's Corps who was charged of the protection of Lusatia and Bohemia. On October 11, the regiment reached Bautzen. During winter, the regiment was posted near Zittau along the border between Saxony and Bohemia.
In 1758, the two field battalions and the two grenadier coys were attached to FZM Sincère's Corps who was stationed around Reichsstadt (present-day Zákupy/CZ) and Böhmisch Leipa (present-day Česká Lípa/CZ). Meanwhile, the third battalion took part in the defence of Olmütz where it was attached to Major-General Voith von Salzburg's Brigade. During the siege, Captain Mitterstiller was appointed “Tranché-major”, while Captain Haase was adjutant of the fortress commander. In July, Sincère's Corps joined the forces under the command of G.d.C. Count Serbelloni and the regiment marched to the camp of Saaz (present-day Žatec/CZ) where the Austrians effected a junction with the Reichsarmee commanded by the Prince von Zweibrücken before advancing to Pirna by Brix (present-day Most/CZ), Töplitz (present-day Tepllice/CZ). On August 27, it reached Pirna. On September 1, the Prussian corps of Prince Henri retreated to Maxen. The Prince von Zweibrücken then besieged Pirna and the Fortress of Sonnenstein. On September 6, the fortress surrendered. The regiment spent the winter at Plauen and Hof.
On February 11 1759, Friedrich Christian Baron Leubelfink was promoted to colonel and regiment commander; Major Count Lanthieri, to colonel-lieutenant; Friedrich Wilhelm Baron Schmiedburg, to second colonel-lieutenant, taking command of the depot battalion at Olmütz. In the morning of March 28, the garrison of Hof was attacked by Lieutenant-General Sinstedt at the head of superior Prussian forces and forced to retreated to Mönchberg. By the end of April, the Austro-Imperial army was encamped in three distinct camps. The battalion posted at Asch (present-day Aš/CZ) was attached to Count Maquire's Corps. In May, Maquire fought to contain a Prussian incursion in Franconia. On May 7, his force was attacked by Prince Henri near Oelsnitz and forced to retire by Asch. The battalion suffered heavy losses in the combat. Maquire then retreated to Eger (present day Cheb/CZ) where he remained until May 10. His corps then marched to Amberg and later to Forchheim where it arrived on May 31. In June, during the Austro-Imperial campaign in Saxony, the regiment was allocated to the corps of G.d.C. Count Hadik and marched by Eger to Saaz. On June 16 at Saaz, the regiment was brigaded with Harrach Infantry and Botta Infantry under Baron Müffling. This brigade formed part of the main army. On July 22, it arrived at Grosshennersdorf. Count Hadik was sent to support General Loudon near Rothenburg but was forced to retreat to Spremberg, closely followed by superior Prussian forces. During this exhausting retreat, the regiment lost 29 men dead. Hadik's Corps then marched through Lusatia . On September 10, it arrived at Plauen. On September 21, the regiment took part in the Combat of Korbitz where it was deployed in the centre of Hadik's Corps under Major-General Lamberg. Colonel Leubelfink at the head of the regiment defended a hill against Prussian cavalry and infantry attacks for hours. During this affair, the regiment suffered heavily, losing 1 officer and 47 men killed; 16 officers and 153 men wounded; and 138 men taken prisoners (for his conduct, Colonel Leubelfink would receive the Knight Cross of the Maria Theresia Order on January 23 1760). On October 4, FML Gemmingen replaced GdC. Hadik at the head of the army; the regiment was then brigaded with Botta Infantry and Clerici Infantry under Major-General Braun. At the beginning of November,the regiment was transferred to the Corps de Reserve of FZM Baron Sincère. On November 17, it reached Sincère's camp at Plauen. On November 20, the regiment took part in the Battle of Maxen where it was deployed in the first line of the first column of Sincère's Corps under the command of under Lieutenant-General Aynse. At the end of December, the regiment took its winter-quarters around Gabel (present-day Jablonné v Podještědí/CZ) while 500 men garrisoned Zittau.
At the end of March 1760, together with Angern Infantry the regiment joined the army of FZM G. Loudon in Silesia. The grenadiers were converged with other grenadier coys in the Corps de Reserve led by Major-General Ernst Count Giannini. At the end of April, this army (including the two field battalions and the grenadiers of the regiment) went from Silesia to Bohemia. Meanwhile, the third battalion operated with FML Drašković in Upper Silesia to cover Moravia and the Fortress of Olmütz. On April 29, Drašković's Corps encamped at Kunzendorf. In Loudon's Army, the two field battalions were brigaded with Angern Infantry, Andlau Infantry and Salm Infantry under Major-General Count Callenberg, in the division of FML Gaisrugg. The grenadiers of the regiment were converged with those of Leopold Pálffy Infantry and Waldeck Infantry to form a battalion of the Corps de reserve. On June 23, Loudon attacked a Prussian corps led by Lieutenant-General Fouqué in the Battle of Landeshut. The two field battalions, along with Wallis Infantry and 3 grenadier battalion were ordered to attack the Mummelschanze entrenchments. At 2:00 a.m., the battle began. At that moment, a thunder storm with heavy rain broke out and the commanders informed FZM Loudon that it was impossible to fire because of wet powder. Loudon answered: “it also rains on the Prussian side” and the attack proceeded. After 45 minutes, the “Mummelschanze” and the “Doktorberg” were in the hands of Loudon's troops. The grenadiers of the regiment captured the big redoubt on the Buchberg at the point of the bayonet. After the battle, Loudon personally praised some of the officers and grenadiers of the regiment. Lieutenant-General Fouqué and most of his corps were taken prisoners. During this engagement, the regiment lost 30 men killed, 161 wounded and 17 missing. Loudon's troops then remained in the camp near Landeshut until July. After the surrender of Glatz (present-day Klodsko/PL) on July 26, the third battalion formed part of the garrison of the fortress. On August 15, the two field battalions fought in the Battle of Liegnitz where they were deployed in the second line. After the defeat, Loudon effected a junction with FM Daun's main army encamped behind the Katzbach while the Prussians took position between Schweidnitz and Striegau. On September 11, Frederick II marched on Landeshut but Daun sent Loudon's Corps to stop Frederick's advance. Loudon encamped at Reichenau and Frederick nearby at Giesmannsdorf. Both armies remained face to face until September 17. On October 8, a Russian corps attacked Berlin supported by an Austrian corps under the command of FZM Lacy. This manoeuvre forced Frederick to abandon his positions in Silesia and to march towards Berlin. Loudon seized the occasion to undertake the Siege of the Fortress of Cosel but could not capture the place. At the end of November, very bad weather forced Loudon's Corps to retire to Bohemia. The regiment went to Peterwitz (present-day Petrikowitze near Český Těšín/CZ).
In 1761, according to an order of battle, the two field battalions of the regiment were allocated to FML Baron Müffling's Division and brigaded with Loudon Infantry and Waldeck Infantry under Major-General Loosy. The grenadiers were once more attached to the Corps de Reserve under FML Elrichshausen. Until August 8, the regiment saw no action. In August, the two field battalions were allocated to Simbschen's Brigade. The regiment took its winter-quarters around Pegendorf (may be Penkendorf, present-day Pankow/PL near Schweidnitz). Meanwhile, the third battalion continued to assume garrison duty in Glatz until the Autumn when, along with the third battalion of Arenberg Infantry, it was sent to the Silesian border to guard the passes to Moravia.
At the beginning of the campaign of 1762, the two field battalions were allocated to FML Beck's Corps posted behind Hohenfriedberg while the third battalion was with FML Drašković's Corps, between Wartha (present-day Bardo/PL) and Silberberg (present-day Srebrna Gora/PL). During the Siege of Schweidnitz, on August 16, the two field battalions took part in the Battle of Reichenbach where they attacked the entrenchments on the Fischberg. After the signature of an armistice on November 27, the third battalion returned to Glatz and the two field battalions remained in Silesia.
In 1763, after the signature of the Treaty of Hubertusburg, the field battalions assumed garrison duty in the region of Bunzlau (present-day Mladá Boleslav/CZ).
For the moment we have very few information on the uniform in 1756, at the outbreak of the war. Most of our references describe the uniform in 1762. However, Muhsfeldt and Schirmer mention that, in 1756-57, the coat was white lined poppy red (therefore poppy red turnbacks), the distinctive colour was poppy red and the waistcoat and breeches were white.
|Neck stock||one red and one black (for parades the regimental commanders agreed before on the colour of the neck stocks)|
|Coat||white lined white with 3 yellow buttons under the right lapel and 1 yellow button in the small of the back on each side
|Waistcoat||white with 2 rows of small yellow buttons (3-3-3) and with horizontal pockets, each with 3 yellow buttons|
|Gaiters||one pair of black (for winter) and one pair of white gaiters (for summer and parade)|
Troopers were armed with a musket (Model 1745 for fusiliers, Model 1754 for grenadiers). Grenadiers carried a sabre while fusiliers carried only a bayonet.
no information found yet
The officers wore the same uniform as the privates with the following exceptions:
- tricorne laced gold with a white and green cockade
- black neckstock
- no turnbacks
- yellow and black silk sash
Senior officers carried sticks identifying their rank:
- lieutenant: bamboo stick without knob
- captain: long rush stick with a bone knob
- major: long rush stick with a silver knob and a small silver chain
- lieutenant-colonel: long rush stick with a larger silver knob without chain
- colonel: long rush stick with a golden knob
Sergeants carried a halberd and a wooden stick.
Corporals carried a halberd.
As per a regulation of 1755, musicians were now distinguished from troopers only by poppy red swallow nests on the shoulders.
The drum had a brass barrel decorated with black flames at the bottom and with a black double headed Eagle on a yellow field. Rims were decorated with red and white diagonal stripes. The bandolier was white.
All German infantry regiments carried identical colours: a white Leibfahne (colonel) and yellow Regimentsfahne. The hand painted colours were made of silk and measured Size 178 cm x 127 cm. The 260 cm long flagpoles had golden finial and were decorated with black and yellow spirals of cloth.
The colonel colour was carried by the first battalion.
Colonel flag (Leibfahne):
- field: white
- border: alternating white and yellow outer waved triangles pointing inwards, red and black inner waved triangles pointing outwards
- obverse (right): the Immaculate Mother of God (which had been declared the patroness of the army by kaiser Ferdinand III) on a cloud, crushing a snake under her foot and surrounded by rays
- reverse (left): crowned and armed Imperial double-eagle with the "Lothringen-Toscanian" arms on a shield and the initials of the Emperor CF (Corregens Franciscus) on the left wing and IM (Imperator Magnus) on the right
Regimental flags (Regimentsfahne):
- field: yellow
- border: alternating white and yellow outer waved triangles pointing inwards, red and black inner waved triangles pointing outwards
- obverse (right): crowned and armed Imperial double-eagle with the "Lothringen-Toscanian" arms on a shield and the initials of the Emperor CF (Corregens Franciscus) on the left wing and IM (Imperator Magnus) on the right
- reverse (left): unarmed and crowned Imperial double-eagle with the arms of Hungaria and Bohemia on a shield and the initials M on the left wing and T on the right
In fact, the situation on the field was slightly more complex than this, since colours were usually replaced only when worn out. It is fairly possible that some regiment who had been issued colours of the 1743 pattern were still carrying them at the beginning of the Seven Years' War. For more details, see Austrian Line Infantry Colours.
This article contains texts from the following sources, which are now in the public domain:
- Seyfart, Kurzgefaßte Geschichte aller kaiserlich-königlichen Regimenter zu Pferde und zu Fuß, Frankfurth and Leipzig, 1762, pp. 12-13
Dihm, Dr. Hermann: Oesterreichische Standarten und Fahnen zur Zeit des 7 jährigen Krieges, Die Zinnfigur, Klio
Donath, Rudolf: Die Kaiserliche und Kaiserlich-Königliche Österreichische Armee 1618-1918, 2. Aufl., Simbach/Inn 1979
Etat nouveau des Troupes de sa Majesté Impériale Royale comme elles se trouvent effectivement l'an 1759
Etat général des Troupes qui servent sa Majesté Impériale et Royale Apostolique sur pié en 1760
Funcken, Liliane and Fred: Les uniformes de la guerre en dentelle
Hausmann, Friedrich: Die Feldzeichen der Truppen Maria Theresias, Schriften des Heeresgeschichtlichen Museums, vol. 3, Vienna: 1967
Knötel, Herbert d.J.; Brauer, Hans M.: Heer und Tradition / Heeres-Uniformbogen (so-called “Brauer-Bogen”), Berlin 1926-1962, Österreich-Ungarn – 1756-63
Muhsfeldt, Th.: Abzeichenfarben der K. und K. Regimenter zu Fuss im Jahre 1757 und früher, in Mitteilungen zur Geschichte des militärischen Tracht, No. 12, 1904
Padewieth, M.: Geschichte des kaiserl. königl. 18. Linien-Infanterie-Regimentes Grossfürst Constantin von Russland, Vienna, 1859
Schirmer, Friedrich: Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756-1763, hrsg. von der KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg, überarb. u. aktual. Neuauflage 1989
Seidel, Paul: Nochmals österreichische Standarten und Fahnen zur Zeit des 7 jährigen Krieges, Die Zinnfigur, Clio
Thümmler, L.-H.: Die Österreichiches Armee im Siebenjährigen Krieg: Die Bautzener Bilderhandschrift aus dem Jahre 1762, Berlin 1993
Treuenfest, A. v.: Geschichte des k. k. Infanterie-regiments Nr. 18, Constantin Grossfürst von Russland“, Vienna, 1882
N.B.: the section Service during the War is partly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.
Harald Skala and Michael Zahn for gathering most of the information about this regiment