Origin and History
The regiment was raised on 10 February 1706 in Puerto de Santa Maria (Cádiz) from the two companies (Don Bonifacio Manrique de Lara and Don Luis de Zúñiga) of the Tenientes Generales de la Caballeria de Andalucia (Lieutenant-General of the Cavalry of Andalucia), one company (Don Pedro Mataylan) of Extremadura Cavalry and seven mounted companies stationed in Cádiz.
In 1706, during the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-13), the regiment joined the Army of Andalusia and took part in the blockade of Gibraltar. In 1707, it participated in the Battle of Almansa. It was then sent to the frontier of Aragon to contain parties of migueletes who tried to penetrated into the Kingdom of Valencia. In 1708, it was transferred to the Army of Extremadura. In 1709, it took part in the Battle of La Gudiña; in 1710, in the Battle of Almenar, in an engagement near Peñalva, and in the combats of Brihuega and Villaviciosa. In 1712, it fought the Catalan insurgents. In 1713, it was transferred to the Kingdom of Valencia. In 1714, it was sent to Catalonia where it took part in the siege of Barcelona.
In 1715, the disbanded Ordenes Nuevo Cavalry was incorporated into the regiment. In 1716, the regiment was transferred to New Castile and then to Aragon. In 1717, it returned to Valencia.
According to the regulation of February 10 1718, the regiment was renamed “Salamanca.” In May, it received orders to march to Barcelona in Catalonia where it embarked for the reconquest of Sicily, taking part in the occupation of Palermo and in the Battle of Francavilla. In 1720, when the Spaniards evacuated Sicily, the regiment returned to Spain. It was immediately redirected to the coast of North Africa to relieve the place of Ceuta.
On 14 February 1734, the regiment was renamed “Montesa.” The same year, during the War of the Polish Succession (1733-35), the regiment took part in the Battle of Bitonto. In 1735, it was once more sent to Sicily where it took part in the siege of Milazzo before returning to Spain.
In 1740, at the outbreak of the War of the Austrian Succession (1740-48), the regiment formed part of the expeditionary force destined to Italy. In 1742, the regiment crossed the Pyrenees, marched through Languedoc and Provence and reached the Province of Dauphinée. There, the regiment was subdivided in two units: two squadrons joined the army of Don Felipe and the other squadrons in the army of the Count de Gages. In 1743, part of the regiment joined the Army of Lower Italy and fought in the Battle of Camposanto. In 1744, the two squadrons serving in Savoy took part in the attacks on the Castle of Aspremont and on the Lines of Villafranca, and in the Battle of Battle of Madonna dell'Olmo. In 1745, part of the regiment was at the siege of Serravalle and in the Battle of Bassignano. The entire regiment then took part in the siege of Valença. In 1746, it covered the siege of the Castle of Milan and fought in the Battle of Piacenza and in the Battle of Rottofreddo. In 1747, it returned to Spain.
During the Seven Years' War, the regiment was under the command of:
- no information available yet
Service during the War
In 1762, the regiment joined the army assembling for the planned |invasion of Portugal. It was allocated to the corps of the Count de Maceda posted at Ciudad Rodrigo. At the beginning of May, this corps entered into Portugal. It then took part in the Siege of Almeida which surrendered on August 25. On September 9, the regiment accompanied the headquarters at Cerveyra. On October 24, it marched from Castelho Branco for Ciudad Rodrigo. Meanwhile, from May 17 to 22, the carabinier company took part in the occupation of the Province of Tras os Montes and of the places of Bragança, Oteyro and Chaves. At the end of the war, the regiment returned to Castile.
|Headgear||black tricorne laced white with a red cockade fastened with a small white button|
|Coat||white with white buttons down to the pocket on the right side, 1 white button on each side in the small of the back and small white buttons on each side to fasten the basques
|Waistcoat||blue with white buttons and horizontal pockets each with white buttons|
no information available yet
Musicians probably wore a uniform with reversed colours: blue coat with white facings.
Standards were made of crimson damask, embroidered and bordered in silver; the centre design consisted of a trphy of two flags and three fleurs de lys; streamers were red, light blue and purple.
This article is mostly made of abridged and adapted excerpts from the following books which are now in the public domain:
- Clonard, Conde de, Historia Orgánica de las Armas de Infantería y Caballería, vol. XV, Madrid, 1851-62, pp. 188-202
Album de Taccoli, 1759
Juan José Torres and the Asociación Cultural de Modelismo Histórico Alabarda for the information and counselling provided for this article.