Penthièvre Cavalerie

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Hierarchical Path: Seven Years' War (Main Page) >> Armies >> French Army >> Penthièvre Cavalerie

Origin and History

The regiment was raised by the Marquis d'Heudicourt on March 1, 1674.

In 1675, during the Franco-Dutch War (1672-78), the regiment took part in the Battle of Konzer Brücke; in 1676, in the Battle of Kochersberg; in 1677, in the capture of Freiburg; and in 1678, in the Battle of Rheinfelden. After the war, the regiment was disbanded.

In 1682, the regiment was re-established as “Praslin Cavalerie”. In 1683, it was at the camp of the Sarre. In 1684, it was present at the siege of Luxembourg.

From 1688, during the Nine Years' War (1688-97), the regiment campaigned in Flanders. In 1693 it took part in the Battle of Landen. On 28 August 1693, it became the property of the Comte de Toulouse, the Grand Amiral de France, and took the name of “Toulouse Cavalerie”. In 1695, the regiment was at the bombardment of Bruxelles. In 1696 and 1697, it served on the Meuse with the Maréchal de Boufflers.

In 1698, the regiment was at the camp of Compiègne.

In 1701, at the beginning of the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-13), the regiment occupied Malines in the Spanish Netherlands. In 1702, it was initially posted in the Upper Guelderland and later participated in the Engagement of Nijmegen. In 1703, it took part in the Siege of Kehl and in the Battle of Ekeren; in 1706, in the Battle of Ramillies; in 1708, in the Battle of Oudenarde; in 1709, in the Battle of Malplaquet; in 1712, in the Battle of Denain and in the recapture of Douai, Le Quesnoy and Bouchain; and in 1713, in the sieges of Landau and Freiburg.

In 1727, the regiment was at the camp of the Sambre and in 1730 at the camp of the Upper Meuse.

In 1733, at the outbreak of the War of the Polish Succession (1733-35), the regiment was sent to Italy where it took part in all sieges. In 1734, it fought in the battles of San Pietro and Guastalla.

In 1736, the regiment returned to France.

At his death of the Comte de Toulouse, on December 1, 1737, the regiment passed to his son, Louis Jean Marie de Bourbon, Duc de Penthièvre.

In 1741, at the beginning of the War of the Austrian Succession (1740-48), the regiment took part in the invasion of Bohemia, where it was at the capture of Prague, at the affairs of Piseck and Sahay and at the unsuccessful defence of Prague. In 1743, it retreated to France and fought in the Battle of Dettingen. In 1744, it campaigned in Flanders and took part in the Siege of Freiburg. In 1745, it took part in the Battle of Fontenoy; in 1746, in the Siege of Bruxelles and in the Battle of Rocoux. In 1747, it returned to France and was posted at Rennes. In 1748, it was at Guingamp to guard the coasts of Bretagne.

After the war, the regiment was stationed at Saint-Omer in 1750, Argentan in 1751, Lille in 1752, Aimeries and Sainte-Menehould in 1753, and Givet in 1755.

The regiment counted 2 squadrons.

During the Seven Years' War, the Mestre de Camp was Louis Jean Marie de Bourbon, Duc de Penthièvre while the Mestre de Camp Lieutenant commanding the regiment was:

  • from July 3, 1753 until January 3, 1770: Henri de Lur d’Uza, Comte de Saluces

When the French Cavalry was reorganised on December 1, 1761, the regiment was increased to four squadrons, each of them consisting of four companies of 40 troopers, for a total of 640 troopers. The two additional squadrons came from Descars Cavalerie which was incorporated into Penthièvre Cavalerie.

Service during the War

In 1756, at the outbreak of the war, the regiment was stationed at Brives.

In 1757, the regiment was initially stationned at Haguenau. Somewhere between August 23 and September 6, it joined the Army of Saxony, led by the Prince de Soubise, in the area of Erfurt and Eisenach. It consisted of well set-up men on large, powerful horses. It lived up to the reputation of the French for having a fine-looking cavalry. On September 27, it was brigaded with Bezons Cavalerie under M. de Bezons in the first line of the left wing of the Franco-Imperial Army. On November 5, the regiment took part in the Battle of Rossbach where it was brigaded with Saluces Cavalerie and Bussy-Lameth Cavalerie in the Reserve under the Duc de Broglie. During this battle, the regiment was crushed, losing a standard and having his Mestre de Camp Lieutenant (the Comte de Saluces), the Lieutenant-Colonel de Scépeaux and 13 of its officers wounded and taken prisoners by the Prussians. At the end of the year, the regiment took its winter-quarters in the area of Babenhausen in Hessen.

In January 1758, the regiment was momentarily recalled to France. By July, the regiment had been transferred to Soubise's Army assembling near Friedberg in Hesse. Its ranks being severely depleted, it was used to protect the lines of communication with the Rhine.

On April 13, 1759, the regiment took part in the Battle of Bergen where it formed part of the second line of the cavalry centre deployed behind the Wartberg under the command of the Comte de Beaupréau. In June, at the beginning of the French offensive in Western Germany, the regiment was part of the “Right Reserve” under the command of the Duc de Broglie who had taken position at Friedberg in Hesse. On August 1, the regiment took part in the Battle of Minden where it was deployed in the second line of Broglie's Corps.

From 1761, the regiment was stationed on the coasts of France.

In 1762, the regiment was stationed at Carentan and later at Abbeville.

Uniform

Troopers

Uniform in 1753 - Copyright Kronoskaf
Uniform Details as per
the Etat Général des Troupes Françoises of 1753 and Etat Militaire of 1761

completed when necessary as per Rousselot
Headgear black tricorne (reinforced with an iron skullcap for combat) laced silver, with a black cockade on the left side fastened with a black silk strap and a small pewter button
Neck stock black cravate
Coat grey white lined red with 4 pewter buttons under the right lapel and a pewter button on each side at the small of the back
Collar none
Shoulder straps regimental lace fastened with a small pewter button
Lapels red, each with 8 pewter buttons arranged 2 by 2
Pockets horizontal pockets, each with 4 pewter buttons
Cuffs red, each with 4 pewter buttons
Turnbacks red fastened with a pewter button
Gloves buff
Waistcoat buff leather jerkin with pewter buttons
Breeches buff leather
Greatcoat grey white lined red
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt buff leather
Waistbelt buff leather
Cartridge Box red leather
Scabbard black leather
Footgear soft black boots
Horse Furniture
Saddlecloth blue bordered with the regimental lace (blue braid with a yellow stripe)
Housings blue bordered with the regimental lace (blue braid with a yellow stripe)
Blanket roll n/a


Troopers were armed with a carbine, two pistols and a sabre. They were also supposed to wear a breastplate under their coat during battle but this regulation was not always followed.

Evolution of the uniform during the war

Throughout the war the French cavalry uniform seems to have evolved significantly. Our only primary source for the uniform at the start of the conflict is the Etat Général des Troupes Françoises of 1753. The first primary pictorial evidence comes from Raspe in 1761. Here we present various interpretations of the evolution of the uniform.

Raspe's illustration depicting the uniform towards the end of 1760 shows the following evolutions:

  • a white cockade on the tricorne
  • coat, lapels, cuffs and turnbacks edged with the regimental braid (curiously this braid is illustrated as checkered in blue and yellow)
  • grey white waistcoat edged with the regimental braid (curiously this braid is illustrated as checkered in blue and yellow) and grey white breeches (maybe the dressed uniform)
  • only 3 buttons on each cuff

only two buttons under the right lapel

Lienhart and Humbert, a secondary source, show the following differences for the uniform of 1757:

  • gold laced tricorne with a white cockade
  • grey white lapels
  • yellow buttons
  • only 3 buttons on each cuff
  • red saddle cloth and housings bordered with a white braid ornamented with red rectangles

Officers

Officers wore uniforms similar to those of the troopers with the following distinctions:

  • no turnbacks
  • no lace on the coat and waistcoat
  • Maréchal des logis: silver laced tricorne, housing bordered with a 2,7 cm silver lace
  • brigadier: double silver lace on the cuffs

Musicians

Trumpeters and kettle drummers wore a red coat edged and laced with the regimental lace (yellow braid with 2 blue stripes).

Standards

Regimental standards (4 silken standards): crimson field, embroidered and fringed in gold

  • obverse: centre device consisting of a golden royal sun surmounted by a red scroll lined blue bearing the royal motto “Nec Pluribus Impar” in black; a golden fleur de lys in each corner
  • reverse: centre device consisting of a knight mounted on a winged horse surmounted by a scroll bearing the motto “Terraque, Marique”; a golden fleur de lys in each corner
Tentative Reconstruction
Regimental Standard - Copyright: Kronoskaf

References

This article incorporates texts from the following books which are now in the public domain:

  • Susane, Louis: Histoire de la cavalerie française, Vol. 3, J. Hetzel et Cie, Paris, 1874, pp. 1-8
  • Pajol, Charles P. V.: Les Guerres sous Louis XV, vol. VII, Paris, 1891, p. 359-360

Other sources

Funcken, L. and F.: Les uniformes de la guerre en dentelle

Lienhart, docteur and René Humbert: Les uniformes des armées françaises”, Leipzig,

Menguy, Patrice: Les Sujets du Bien Aimé (a website which has unfortunately disappeared from the web)

Raspe, Gabriel Nicolas: Recueil de toutes les troupes qui forment les armées françoises, Nuremberg 1761

Rogge, Christian; The French & Allied Armies in Germany during the Seven Years War, Frankfurt, 2006

Vial, J. L.: Nec Pluribus Impar

N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.