Prinz Friedrich Cavalry
Origin and History
The regiment was raised in 1689 for Johann Friedrich Baron von Franckenberg. It the successively belonged to Georg Adolf von Nagel (1693), Philipp Bertram Baron von Hochkirch (1696), Count Edmund Florens Cornelius von Hatzfeld (1703), Foleville (1714), Count Max Emanuel von Thurn und Taxis (1730), Count Granville Elliot von Morhange (1742) and Prinz Karl August von Pfalz-Zweibrücken (1748).
In 1751, the regiment became the property of Count Palatine Friedrich Michael von Zweibrücken.
By the time of the Seven Years' War, the regiment counted 3 squadrons, each consisting of 3 companies for a total of 478 men in 9 companies.
The successive chefs of the regiment were:
- since 1742: Elliot
- from 1748: Prinz Karl
- from 1751: Pfalzgraf (Count Palatine) Friedrich Michael von Zweibrücken
- since 1767: Prinz Max
During the Seven Years' War, its commander was:
- since 1748 till 1767: Baron von Siegenhofen,
Service during the War
At the outbreak of the war in 1756, the regiment was garrisoning Heidelberg and Mosbach.
In 1757, the II and III squadrons (each counting 144 men) of the regiment where combined with the Oberrheinische Kreiseskadron (Imperial District Squadron) to form the so called Kurpfalz Cuirassiers (aka von Hatzfeld Carabiniers). This regiment joined the Reichsarmee operating in Thuringia. In August, this army combined with a French contingent under the prince de Soubise to form the Franco-Imperial army who proceeded to the invasion of Saxony. Soubise rated the various units of the Reichsarmee and considered the von Hatzfeld Carabiniers as "mediocre". On November 5, the regiment fought at the Battle of Rossbach where it deployed in the first line of the right wing under the prince von Hohenzollern. The regiment suffered heavy losses during this battle.
On November 20 1759, as part of the Kurpfalz Cuirassier Regiment, the II and III squadrons took part in the Battle of Maxen where an Austro-Imperial army captured the Prussian corps of lieutenant-general Finck.
On October 29 1762, as part of the Kurpfalz Cuirassier Regiment, the II and III squadrons took part in the Battle of Freiberg.
Throughout the war, the I./Prinz Friedrich squadron remained at Heidelberg in Palatine territories.
|Headgear||black tricorne without lace with blue within white pompoms and a black cockade|
|Coat||white coat with 12 brass buttons on the right and 12 buttonholes on the left, 1 brass button on each side in the small of the back
|Waistcoat||straw without buttons|
Troopers were armed with a straight bladed sabre (brass hilt), a carbine and 2 pistols.
The officers wore the same uniform with the following exceptions:
- gold laced tricorne
- no collar on the coat
- golden buttons and laces and epaulets
- yellow waistcoat with gold buttons
- white and blue striped sash (silver and blue for staff officers)
- white and blue sword frog (silver and blue for staff officers)
- black cane
no information available yet
The situation concerning the standards of the regiment was complex and we had to retrace its successive owners to match the standards correctly.
The Bavarian Army Museum (BAM) at Ingolstadt has the original Leibstandarte of Prinz Max Cavalry, issued in 1777. The standard is shown in reverse only, the obverse is probably the same as the Leibguidon of the Kurfürstin Leib-Dragoner.
Leib Standard (Leibstandarte): white field, heavily embroidered with silver foliage and fringed in silver. In the corners the "CT" monogram, surrounded by palm branches and surmounted by an elector's hat. In 1755 before the Seven Years' War, the monogram would already have been "CT".
- obverse: probably of the same design as reverse but with a centre device depicting the Palatinate coat of arms;
- reverse: centre device depicting the Holy Virgin, dressed in red and blue; she is standing on a globe and crescent, crushing a snake under her feet; blue-grey clouds around the globe; the Virgin's head is surrounded by silver rays and she is holdind a pilgrim's staff in her right hand. The whole is surmounted by a silver scroll with the motto "17/TE DUCE/77" in black letters.
Squadron Standards (Eskadronstandarte): light blue field (other sources mention a blue field), heavily embroidered and fringed in silver.
- obverse: centre device carrying the "CT" monogram in silver, surrounded by the Collar of the Order of Saint Hubertus and surmounted by an elector's hat and a scroll with the motto "17/DOMINUS REGIT ME/55"; corner devices consisting of the "CT" monogram surrounded by a ribbon and laurel branches, surmounted by an elector's hat and flanked by two red standards with silver fringe carrying the "CT" monogram.
- reverse: same design and corner devices as the obverse; a centre device consisting of the Palatinate coat of arms on two shields with an attached regalia shield; the whole scene surmounted by an elector's hat:
- left-hand shield:
- Field 1: Duchy of Bavaria, white and light blue lozenges
- Field 2: Duchy of Jülich, a black rampant lion on gold
- Field 3: Duchy of Kleve, a gold, 8-pointed star on a red ground, with a silver heart shield
- Field 4: Duchy of Berg, a red rampant lion with blue crown and claws on a silver field
- Heart shield: Palatinate, a golden rampant lion, with red crown, tongue and claws
- right-hand shield:
- Field 1: County of Moers, a black horizontal bar on gold
- Field 2: Markgraviate of Bergen op Zoom, three silver St. Andrew crosses on red above three green hills
- Field 3: County of Veldenz, a blue rampant lion with gold claws and crown on silver
- Field 4: County of Mark, a silver-red checkered bar on gold
- Field 5: County of Ravensberg, three red chevrons on a silver ground
- the shields were surrounded by the Collar of the Order of Saint Hubertus and trophies of arms.
- left-hand shield:
Each squadron carried a standard.
Bavarian Army Museum, Ingolstadt
Bezel, Oskar: Geschichte des Kurpfälzischen Heeres ..., Bayrisches Kriegsarchiv, München, 1925
Figuren Modellbau: Die Armee von Karl IV. Philipp Theodor, retrieved on January 3 2015
Pengel, R.D. And G. R. Hurt: Bavaria, Saxony & the Palatinate Supplement: Uniforms and Flags of the Seven Years War, Hopewell: On Military Matters, 1981, pp. 51-52
Pengel, R.D. and G.R. Hurt: The Reichsarmee: Organisation, Flags & Uniform Supplement 1756-1762, Hopewell: On Military Matters, 1983
N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.
rf-figuren for the initial version of this article.
Volker Scholz for the information and illustrations of the standards.