Prinz Maximilian Infantry

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Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Armies >> Saxon Army >> Prinz Maximilian Infantry

Origin and History

Private of Prinz Maximilian Infantry in 1756 - Copyright: Franco Saudelli
Grenadier of Prinz Maximilian Infantry in 1756 - Copyright: Franco Saudelli

The regiment was raised in 1711 from two battalions of the Dresden garrison which were formed in a regiment and thereafter included with the field-état.

During the War of the Polish Succession, from 1733 to 1735, the regiment took part in campaigns in Poland against the "Confederates".

During the War of the Austrian Succession, the regiment served in the campaigns of 1741, 1742, 1744, and 1745 in Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia and Saxony. In 1748 it was augmented by 4 coys of the disbanded Jasmund regiment.

In 1749, 6 companies were disbanded.

In 1756, the regiment was turned over into Prussian service and became the regiment of Prinz Friedrich Wilhelm von Preußen (son of Prince Henri), but reformed with 1 battalion in Hungary in 1757. Till 1763, it fought with the French armies. After the treaty of Hubertusburg, it reformed in 3 battalions totalling 14 coys.

In 1778, the regiment was reduced to 2 bataillons in 10 coys.

Seven Years' War Organisation

The État of 1756 mentions 2 battalions with 10 coys of musketeers and 2 coys of grenadiers. Each musketeer coy counted 95 men, grenadier coy had 97, the regimental staff consisted of 17 men. The regiment had a total strength of some 1,160 men.

In 1757, the regiment reformed in 1 battalion with 4 coys plus 1 coy of grenadiers formed of former Leibgrenadiergarde.

Chef of the regiment:

  • 1746: Major-General Count von Friese (died in 1755)
  • 1755: Prinz Karl (Maximilian) von Sachsen

Kommandeur of the regiment:

  • 1749: Colonel von Klingenberg
  • 1757: Lieutenant-Colonel vom Hesler
  • 1763: Lieutenant-General von Klingenberg (inspector of infantry)


Service during the War

At the end of August 1756, when Frederick II proceeded to the invasion of Saxony, the regiment retired to Pirna with the rest of the Saxon army. At Pirna, the regiment was deployed on the right wing under von Rochow, as part of von Stolberg's Brigade. The Prussians blockaded the Saxon army in Pirna from September 9 until October 15 when the Saxons finally had to surrender. The regiment was then forcefully incorporated into the Prussian Army as Prinz Friedrich Wilhelm von Preußen Fusiliers.

In 1757, a new regiment was raised, consisting of a single battalion. This new regiment was included into the Saxon Auxiliary Contingent serving with the French.

In 1758, to avoid further contact with the Prussians, the contingent marched through southern Germany and had, by July, assembled in Strasbourg. On September 3, the regiment was part of the Saxon contingent, under the command of prince Xaver, who encamped at Castrop, 15 km from Recklinghausen, on his way to make a junction with the French army of the Marquis de Contades in Westphalia. This contingent made a junction with Contades' army around mid September. As part of Chevert's and Fitzjames' divisions, it reinforced the army of the Prince de Soubise in Hesse. On October 10, the contingent first saw action at the battle of Lutterberg where its determined attacks decided the day for the French army. On October 20, 10 days after their victorious action at the battle of Lutterberg, the Saxon regiments rejoined Contades at Werl.

On April 13 1759, the regiment took part in the battle of Bergen where it formed part of the first line of the left wing under the command of the baron de Dyherrn. In June, during the French offensive in West Germany, the regiment was part of the main army, under the command of the Marquis de Contades, where it was deployed in the second line of the infantry centre. On August 1, the regiment took part in the battle of Minden where it was deployed in the second line of the infantry left wing under the command of the comte de Lusace.

To do: description of the actions of the regiment from 1760 to 1763.

Uniform

Besides the uniform worn at the beginning of the war in 1756, the regiment also changed uniform in 1760.

Privates

Uniforms - Source: Hannoverdidi
Uniform Details
Headgear
Musketeer black tricorne laced white with white/red pompons
Grenadier mitre (Prussian style) in 1756 with ??? frontplate and headband, ??? back with ??? piping, ??? pom pom

black tricorne laced white from 1757 to 1761
bearskin (Austrian style) with ??? bag from 1761

Neckstock red
Coat white with 3 white buttons below the lapel (until 1760) and 1 white button in the small of the back
Collar dark green in 1756, green in 1760
Shoulder Straps none
Lapels none in 1756, green in 1760 with 6 yellow buttons
Pockets horizontal pockets, each with 3 white buttons
Cuffs dark green with 3 white buttons in 1756, green with 3 yellow buttons in 1760
Turnbacks dark green in 1756, green in 1760
Waistcoat dark green with horizontal pockets and white buttons in 1756, green with horizontal pockets and yellow buttons in 1760
Breeches white
Gaiters black
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt white
Waistbelt white
Cartridge Box ???
Bayonet Scabbard ???
Scabbard ???
Footgear black shoes


N.B.: from 1760, buttons were yellow.

Troopers were armed with a musket, a bayonet and a sword.

Officers

Officers and NCOs wore a black tricorne laced ???silver/gold??? with a white cockade.

Officers wore ??? breeches.

Musicians

Drummer Uniform in 1756 - Copyright: Franco Saudelli

The drummers of the regiment wore uniforms with reverse colours:

  • dark green heavily decorated with white braids on the sleeves (chevrons), swallow nests, buttonholes and pockets
  • white collar, white cuffs edged white, white turnbacks
  • pewter buttons
  • dark green waistcoat with pewter buttons
  • white breeches
  • white gaiters


Colours

Colours in 1756

Leibfahne: white field wearing the Saxon-Polish coat of arms surrounded by rich white embroideries with a green border

Kompaniefahne: green field with rich red and white embroideries wearing a gold AR cipher on a stone pedestal surrounded by a green wreath and surmounted by a red and gold crown

Leibfahne - Source: Hannoverdidi
Kompaniefahne - Source: Hannoverdidi

Colours in 1760

Leibfahne: white field wearing the Saxon-Polish coat of arms surrounded by rich yellow embroideries with a green border

Kompaniefahne: green field with rich yellow embroideries wearing a gold AR cipher on a stone pedestal surrounded by a green wreath and surmounted by a red and gold crown

Leibfahne - Source: Hannoverdidi
Kompaniefahne - Source: Hannoverdidi

References

Origin and History: editors translation from "Geschichte und gegenwärtiger Zustand der Kursächsischen Armee." [History and present state of the Saxon Army.] 2nd edition, part IX, Dresden 1793.

Rogge, Christian, The French & Allied Armies in Germany during the Seven Years War, Frankfurt, 2006

N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.