Prussian Garrison Regiment IV

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Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Armies >> Prussian Army >> Prussian Garrison Regiment IV

Origin and History

The first battalion was raised in 1740 from men of the Grenadier Garde (aka No. 6 Königsregiment or Lange Kerls) as Garnisonbataillon Adam von Wehyer to garrison the star shaped fort of Magdeburg. It counted only one battalion. It had no recruiting canton but was allowed to recruit within the cantons assigned to regiments no. 3, 5, 20, 21, 27 and 47.

For the campaign of 1757, this garrison battalion was transformed into a regiment, receiving an additional battalion. The recruits for this new battalion came from Saxony. The newly raised battalion had no grenadier company.

During the Seven Years' War, the regiment was under the command of:

  • since January 4 1746: Jakob Heinrich von Grape
  • from January 7 1759: Martin Eberhard Jungkenn Müntzer von Mohrenstamm
  • from February 5 1760 to February 16 1763: Colonel Ewald Georg von Lettow

In 1763, at the end of the Seven Years War, one battalion was disbanded and the remaining battalion reinforced with five companies from Frei-Infanterie Courbières. The regiment garrisoned Aken (2 coys), Cönnern (2 coys), Löbejun (1 coy).

Service during the War

In 1756, at the outbreak of the war, the regiment was garrisoning Aken (2 coys), Cönnern (2 coys), Löbejun (1 coy) in the Duchy of Magdeburg while its grenadiers were stationed Treuenbrietzen in Brandenburg. On July 28, the regiment received orders to prepare itself to relieve regular field infantry regiments in Magdeburg.

On February 23 1757, the battalion marched from Magdeburg to Torgau to replace I./Wied as garrison. The newly raised battalion later garrisoned Torgau while the first battalion garrisoned the Fortress of Wittenberg.

In 1758, the regiment was part of the army of prince Henri who tried to stop the Austrian invasion of Saxony. By August 12, the regiment was guarding Pirna and the fortress of Sonnenstein. On September 5, Macquire captured the fortress of Sonnenstein without resistance. Colonel Grape surrendered with his regiment (1,442 men) which were taken as prisoners of war.

In 1759, the second battalion was taken prisoners at Torgau and was not re-established.

N.B.: During the war the grenadiers from the wing grenadier company were put together with the grenadiers of Garrison Regiment III and New Garrison Regiment, forming the Standing Grenadier Battalion Nr. I (G-NG/G-III/G-IV Kahlden) (please refer to this article for the details of the service of the grenadiers during the war).

Uniform

Exceptionally the musketeers and grenadiers of this regiment wore different uniforms. The present article describes the uniform of the musketeers. For the uniform of the grenadiers, please refer to the article dedicated to Standing Grenadier Battalion Nr. I (G-NG/G-III/G-IV Kahlden).

Privates

Uniform in 1756 - Source: Kronoskaf
Uniform Details
Headgear
Musketeer black tricone without lace with 1 brass button, 1 red within white pompom and 1 white tassel in each lateral corne
Grenadier mitre with polished brass front plate; polished brass headband decorated with brass ornaments; red backing piped white; red within white pompom
Neck stock black
Coat Prussian blue lined red with 6 brass buttons on both sides on the chest, 2 brass buttons at the waist on the right side and 3 brass buttons on each side to fasten the skirts forming the turnbacks
Collar none
Shoulder Straps Prussian blue fastened with a brass button
Lapels none
Pockets horizontal pockets piped red, each with 2 brass buttons
Cuffs Prussian Blue "Prussian style" cuffs with 2 brass buttons on each sleeve
Turnbacks red
Waistcoat Prussian blue
Breeches Prussian blue
Gaiters black
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt one white belt over the left shoulder for the cartridge box and one narrower white belt over the right shoulder for the haversack
Waistbelt white
Cartridge Box black
Bayonet Scabbard brown
Scabbard none
Footgear black


Privates were armed with a short musket and a bayonet.

NCOs

NCOs wore uniforms similar to those of the privates with the following distinctions:

  • tricorne with wide gold lace and black and white pompoms
  • no shoulder strap
  • yellowish leather gloves
  • black and white sabre tassel

NCOs were armed with a sabre and a white light half-pike measuring 7,5 Rhenish feet (2.37 m.).

NCOs also carried wooden canes (normally attached to a button at the top of the right front while carrying the half-pike).

Officers

Uniforms of officers were very similar to those of the privates with the following exceptions:

  • black tricorne wearing a thin gold lace and 2 black and white quartered tassels: 1 in each side corne of the tricorne (officers always wore tricornes notwithstanding if they were commanding musketeers, fusiliers or grenadiers)
  • black neck stock
  • no trimming on the coat
  • no shoulder strap on the coat
  • no turnbacks on the coat
  • black and silver sash around the waist
  • a silver and gold gorget

Officers carried white spontoons measuring 7 ½ Rhenish feet (2.36 m.) and an officer stick.

Musicians

Drummers wore uniforms to those of the privates with the following differences:

  • no shoulder strap
  • each shoulder decorated with a white swallow nest (4 vertical and 1 horizontal braids)

Drummers carried a sidearm.

The drum pattern had ???.

Colours

Colonel flag (Leibfahne): White field with black corner wedges. Centre device consisting of a golden “FR” cipher surrounded by a golden laurel wreath and surmounted by a gold crown. Grenades in gold.

Regimental flags (Kompaniefahnen): Blue field with black corner wedges. Centre device consisting of a golden “FR” cipher surrounded by a golden laurel wreath and surmounted by a gold crown. Grenades in gold.

Colonel Colour - Source: Digby Smith and Richard Couture from elements by Hannoverdidi
Regimental Colour - Source: Digby Smith and Richard Couture from elements by Hannoverdidi

References

Bleckwenn, Hans: Die friderizianischen Uniformen 1756-1783, Bd. II., Infanterie II, Osnabrück 1984

Duffy, Christopher: Friedrich der Große und seine Armee, Stuttgart, 2. Auflage 1983

Engelmann, Joachim and Günter Dorn: Die Infanterie-Regimenter Friedrich des Grossen, Podzun-Pallas, 2000, pp. 146-147

Fuhrmann, Rolf: Die Langen Kerls, Berlin 2007

Grosser Generalstab Kriegsgeschichtliche Abteilung II: Die Kriege Friedrichs des Grossen, Part 3 Der siebenjährige Krieg 1756-1763, Vol. 1 Pirna und Lobositz, Berlin, 1901, p. 127, App. 1

Guddat, Martin: Die Infanterie Friedrichs des Großen, Herford 1986

Haythornthwaite, Philip: Frederick the Great (2), Men-at Arms-Series No. 240, Osprey

Hohrath, Daniel: The Uniforms of the Prussian Army under Frederick the Great from 1740 to 1786; Vol. 2; Verlag Militaria, Vienna: 2011, pp. 416-417

Horvath, Carl Christian: Friedrichs II. König von Preussen Armee-Montirungen, Potsdam 1789. Vierte Sammlung

Merta, Klaus-Peter: Das Heerwesen in Brandenburg und Preußen von 1640 bis 1806 - Die Uniformierung, Berlin 1991

N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.

Acknowledgments

Martina Hager for the initial version of this article.