Prussian Garrison Regiment X

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Origin and History

The regiment was raised in Müncheberg in December 1743 to serve as garrison for the fortress of Glatz (present-day Kłodzko). It consisted of two battalions, each including a grenadier coy.

From 1747 to 1756, the regiment garrisoned Patschkau (present-day Paczkow), Ottmachau (present-day Otmuchow), Nimptsch (present-day Niemcza) and occasionally Münsterberg (present-day Ziebice). From 1753, its grenadiers were part of the garrison of Breslau.

On June 19 1756, Frederick II ordered to increase the regiment to 4 battalions. The 2 new battalions, who had no grenadier companies, were sent to Neisse (present-day Nysa).

During the Seven Years' War, the regiment was under the command of:

  • since September 5 1747 to November 21 1765: Busso Christian von Blanckensee

After the war, the regiment retained its four battalions and garrisoned the places of Neisse (10 coys), Patschkau, Nimptsch and Ottmachau (5 coys).

Service during the War

In 1756, at the outbreak of the war, the regiment consisted of 4 battalions. Its third and fourth battalions were garrisoning Neisse. On July 28, the regiment received orders to prepare itself to relieve regular field infantry regiments in Neisse. Therefore, the four battalions were concentrated in this fortress.

From October 3 to November 7 1758, the regiment defended Neisse during the Austrian siege.

N.B.: During the war the grenadiers from the 2 wing grenadier company were put together with the grenadiers of Garrison Regiment V, forming the Standing Grenadier Battalion Nr. V Rath (please refer to this article for the details of the service of the grenadiers during the war).

Uniform

As was the case for most garrison regiments, the musketeers and grenadiers of this regiment wore different uniforms. The present article describes the uniform of the musketeers. For the uniform of the grenadiers, please refer to the article dedicated to the Standing Grenadier Battalion Nr. V Rath.

Privates

Uniform in 1756 - Source: Kronoskaf
Uniform Details
Headgear
Musketeer black tricone without lace with 1 pewter button, 1 yellow pompom and 1 white tassel in each lateral corne
Grenadier mitre cap with silver-plated front plate; black headband piped yellow decorated with sulver-plated ornaments; black backing piped yellow; yellow pompom

In regiments with white metal, the front plates were to be coloured with a water-based silver paste which needed to be re-applied regularly lest the cap plates revert to their original brass colour. Therefore, during campaign, particularly in bad weather, it is possible that the silvering could have worn off and needed to be silvered again.

Neck stock black
Coat Prussian blue lined red with 6 pewter buttons on both sides on the chest, 2 pewter buttons at the waist on the right side and pewter buttons on each side to fasten the skirts forming the turnbacks
Collar black
Shoulder Straps Prussian blue fastened with a pewter button
Lapels none
Pockets horizontal pockets piped red, each with 2 pewter buttons
Cuffs black plush "Swedish style" cuffs with 2 pewter buttons
Turnbacks red
Waistcoat Prussian blue
Breeches Prussian blue
Gaiters black
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt one white belt over the left shoulder for the cartridge box and one narrower white belt over the right shoulder for the haversack
Waistbelt white
Cartridge Box black
Bayonet Scabbard brown
Scabbard none
Footgear black


Privates were armed with a short musket and a bayonet.

NCOs

NCOs wore uniforms similar to those of the privates with the following distinctions:

  • tricorne with wide silver lace and a black and white quartered pompom
  • silver laced cuffs
  • no shoulder strap
  • yellowish leather gloves
  • black and white sabre tassel

NCOs were armed with a sabre and a white light half-pike measuring 7,5 Rhenish feet (2.37 m.).

NCOs also carried wooden canes (normally attached to a button at the top of the right front while carrying the half-pike).

Officers

Uniforms of officers were very similar to those of the privates with the following exceptions:

  • black tricorne with a thin silver lace and 2 black and white tassels, 1 in each lateral corne of the tricorne (officers always wore tricornes notwithstanding if they were commanding musketeers, fusiliers or grenadiers)
  • black neck stock
  • no shoulder strap on the coat
  • no turnbacks on the coat
  • no trimming on the coat
  • black and silver sash around the waist
  • a silver and gold gorget

Officers carried white spontoons measuring 7 ½ Rhenish feet (2.36 m.) and an officer stick.

Musicians

Drummers wore uniforms similar to those of the privates with the following differences:

  • no shoulder strap
  • shoulders decorated with white swallow nests (4 vertical and 1 horizontal braids)

Drummers carried a sidearm.

The drum pattern had ???.

Colours

Colonel flag (Leibfahne): White field. Centre device consisting of a silver “FR” monogram surrounded by silver palm leaves and surmounted by a silver crown. Grenades in silver.

Regimental flags (Kompaniefahnen): Light blue field. Centre device consisting of a silver “FR” monogram surrounded by silver palm leaves and surmounted by a silver crown. Grenades in silver.

N.B. the reverses of all colours were mirror images of the obverses

Colonel Colour - Source: Richard Couture from a template by Not By Appointment
Regimental Colour - Source: Richard Couture from a template by Not By Appointment

References

Bleckwenn, Hans: Die friderizianischen Uniformen 1756-1783, Bd. II., Infanterie II, Osnabrück 1984

Duffy, Christopher: Friedrich der Große und seine Armee, Stuttgart, 2. Auflage 1983

Engelmann, Joachim and Günter Dorn: Die Infanterie-Regimenter Friedrich des Grossen, Podzun-Pallas, 2000, pp. 146-147

Grosser Generalstab Kriegsgeschichtliche Abteilung II: Die Kriege Friedrichs des Grossen, Part 3 Der siebenjährige Krieg 1756-1763, Vol. 1 Pirna und Lobositz, Berlin, 1901, App. 1

Guddat, Martin: Die Infanterie Friedrichs des Großen, Herford 1986

Haythornthwaite, Philip: Frederick the Great (2), Men-at Arms-Series No. 240, Osprey

Hohrath, Daniel: The Uniforms of the Prussian Army under Frederick the Great from 1740 to 1786; Vol. 2; Verlag Militaria, Vienna: 2011, pp. 440-445

Horvath, Carl Christian: Friedrichs II. König von Preussen Armee-Montirungen, Potsdam 1789. Vierte Sammlung

Merta, Klaus-Peter: Das Heerwesen in Brandenburg und Preußen von 1640 bis 1806 - Die Uniformierung, Berlin 1991

Acknowledgments

Martina Hager for the initial version of this article.

N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.