Prussian Horse Artillery
Origin and History
With a Cabinets-Order of April 21, 1759, a brigade (equivalent to a company) of 6 guns of reitende Artillerie (horse artillery) was ordered to form in the King’s Army: officially May 1 of that year could be established as Foundation Day of the Horse artillery. The formation of the brigade took place in Landshut and it was placed under the command of Lieutenant Zchwebs.
According to the posthumous memoir of Field-Marshal Count Kalkreuth, which was was adjutant of Prince Henri during the war, at the same time a second brigade was formed in the Prince's army: however it seems that the formation of this unit must be postponed in the year 1760, when Prince Henri army was camped, from June 19 to July 12 near Landsberg (present-day Gorzow Wielkopolski) on the Warthe (present-day Warta). Accordingly, it seems that only the King or "Landshut" brigade of horse artillery has been available in the campaign of 1759, also because the army of Prince Henry has not stood in 1759 in Landsberg, the occurrence of two brigades of horse artillery in this campaign has never been demonstrated and that all the information related to the presence of the horse artillery in the campaign can be related to the Landshut brigade.
According to the existing traditions taught after the war, Major Kienbaum from Bayreuth dragoon regiments supervised the riding training of the Landshut brigade team daily, often under the eyes of the King. To attach the brigade to one of the dragoon regiments was a measure probably done for both protection and monitoring. The brigade of Prince Henry was similarly trained at Landsberg.
The war performance of the horse artillery is based only on very sparse data: in particular we have no informations on the march dispositions and the battle reports, which deals often in some details about the position of foot artillery, usually pass over in silence the horse artillery. The informations about its use can be found only scattered here and there.
The equipment and organization of this brigade, according to the various sources, consisted of 6 or 10 6pdr. guns; however it seems that at some time part of the horse artillery, even temporarily, was equipped with 3pdr. Indeed a reports of Colonel von Dieskau to the King in 1771 lists still 22 6pdr. and 16 3pdr. Guns present. The composition of 5 guns with a single 7pdr. howitzer occurred only for once in the sources. The horse artillery 6pdr. are always referred to as of the "light" type. As far as the personnel is concerned, the Landshut brigade had only one officier, the lieutenant Zchwebs, and:
- 3 mounted Nco (one for each two guns);
- 42 (later 48) mounted gunners (7, later 8 for each gun, which dismounted for battle, and one of which held the horses of the other);
- 3 driver and 6 train horses for each 6pdr. gun;
- the train: 1 Wagenmeister, 1 Schirrmeister and some Handwerker.
The supply in the ammunition limber seems like that of foot artillery, 80 Ball and 20 Shrapnel-shots.
On August 12, at the Battle of Kunersdorf, this brigade was taken prisoners by the Russians. The brigade was re-raised at the camp of Fürstenwalde the same month. However, this new brigade was taken prisoners in November at Maxen.
In the Spring of 1760, the brigade was raised for a third time under Lieutenant Wilhelmi von Anhalt and Hartmann (the former reorganized the whole horse artillery in the later stages of the war).
In 1762 there were two brigades, one of 16 6pdr. guns with the King's Army, the other of 5 6pdr. gun and 1 7pdr. howitzer with Prince Henri's Army.
At the end of the war, these 2 brigades of Horse Artillery were disbanded.
Service during the War
The first brigade of Horse Artillery was attached to the King's Army at the camp of Schmottseifen. Its first action was under the orders of the Duke of Wurtemberg on August 2, 1759, against the Haddik corps at Markersdorf (actual Markosice). Then it took part in the bloody Battle of Kunersdorf where it was taken prisoners by the Russians.
The brigade was reorganized at the camp at Fürstenwalde; it was attached to Lieutenant-General Finck corps and moved to Saxony. Then, still under Finck it was with the Prince Henri Army (it appears in a report on 12 October in the camp at Strehla) and then fought with distinction at Pretschz, October 29, 1759. Again in the Finck's corps, it was present at the action of Wendiseh-Bohra (unidentified location) and later at the Battle of Maxen, where it was taken prisoner again.
According to Tempelhof, the horse artillery received for the 1760 campaign 10 guns, under the orders of lieutenants ‘’Wilhelmi’’ von Anhalt and Hartman. However at the opening of the campaign, only the Prince Henri newly-formed brigade at the camp of Landsberg was present with a force of 4 guns. These guns passed towards the end of August, with the larger half of the Prince troops, to the Royal Army. Indeed the horse artillery is not mentioned neither at Göda, July 7, 1760 nor at the Battle of Liegnitz. The brigade of 10 guns (from here to now on its official strength) now remained in the army of the King to the end of the campaign, remaining almost always at the headquarters or being used in support of the cavalry in avantgarde or rearguard roles. Such a role seems to reflects both the view of the King regarding the most appropriate tactical role of the horse artillery and his fear to lose it again in frightful way as it happened at Kunersdorf. Indeed at the Battle of Torgau the brigade was with the fourth column together with 1 battalion and 25 squadrons to cover the war chest and the heavy luggages at Eilenburg.
The Prussian Army begun the 1761 campaign with only the 10 6pdr guns brigade raised the previous year which spent most of the campaign with the King’s Army. On July 20 4 guns were detached to the Goltz Corps in Glogau. The reunited brigade was with the King at Kunzdorf on August 20 and then at the Bunzelwitz camp. The position of the brigade within the camp is unknown. As soon as the Bunzelwitz siege was lifted, the King on September 11 despatched Lieutenant-General von Platen to a raid against Russian magazines in Poland with a force which comprised also 4 guns from the horse artillery. While the larger half of the brigade, which remained until the end of the campaign in the King’s army, was offered no opportunity to achieve great things, the detached guns were full of action against the Russian first at Kobylin, then at Gostyn and then when the Platen corps was back to Colberg in the campaign for the defense of the city, being back to Saxony only in the middle of March 1762.
In the 1762 campaign the horse artillery strenght attained its maximum of 22 guns with 11 NCO and 176 artillerymen, nearly 1/30 of the whole artillery. Of whole figure sixteen 6 lbrs guns were with the King’s Army whereas five 6 lbrs. guns and one 7 lbrs. howitzer arrived in January from Pomerania to the army of Prince Henri. The horse artillery involvement was documented at least in the following action: at Adelsbach, on July 6, six guns from the King’s Army were placed at the foot of the Engelsberg. On July 21, before the battle of Burkersdorf, 2 horse guns were added to a cavalry corps of 20 squadrons, which was sent to observe the Austrian entrenchement at Silberberg. Finally, the whole horse artillery of the King’s Army was present at Reichenbach, where it gave its best performance in the whole war. Until the surrender of Schweidnitz such brigade had nothing more to do and accordingly 6 guns were attached to the Wied Corps in Saxony. Of the remaining 10 guns, 4 were detached to the Duke of Bevern troops till the end of the campaign. The Prince Henry brigade was at the camp at Pretschendorf on May 25: in June the howitzer and two cannons were detached under General Von Seydlitz, whereas the remaining 4 guns partecipated to Major-General von Kleist small raid in Bohemia on the beginning of July. On July 21 at Kirchberg the horse artillery under von Seydlitz broke an Austrian action by Kleefeld aimed to cover the Reichsarmee retreat. In the action at Nassau on September 29, the horse artillery was present in von Seydlitz and von Kleist command. Eyewitness confirm the presence of the horse artillery at the October 14 and 15 actions, whereas it is impossible to know if the brigade was at Freiberg, or participated to the von Kleist incursion against the Reich. It is only known from the Dislocations lists that the Prince Henri brigade took winter quarters in Leipzig whereas that of the King in Pegau.
|Headgear||black tricorne laced white with one brass button and white/red/black/yellow pompoms (After 1762 (?) : white feather on the left side)|
|Coat||Prussian blue lined red with 10 brass buttons on each side down to the waist, 2 additional brass buttons on the right side at the waist and 3 brass buttons on each side to fasten the skirts forming the turnbacks
|Gaiters||white in summer, black in winter|
Gunners and bombardiers were armed with a sword.
NCOs wore uniforms similar to those of the privates with the following distinctions:
- tricorne with golden lace and black and white quartered pompoms
- no shoulder straps
- golden laced cuffs
- yellowish leather gloves
NCOs carried canes (normally attached to a button at the top of the right front while carrying the half-pike).
N.B.: bombardiers wore the same uniform as NCOs to the exception of gloves and cane. Prior to 1750, they also wore mitre cap (same style as the mitre cap of fusiliers) with a brass front plate; black headband with brass ornaments; black cap with brass ornaments; brass metal spike. This mitre cap was not worn in the field. From 1756 the mitre cap was replaced by a black tricorne laced gold
Officers had hat wearing a golden lace. They also wore a black and silver sash around the waist. They carried an officer stick. They had white neck stocks and silver gorgets (decorated with a Black Eagle on a white shield surrounded by agilt trophies of arms). Their coats were similar to those of the privates but had no turnbacks. Their waistcoats were edged in gold.
Drummers wore the same uniform as the gunners heavily decorated with the drummer lace (white braid edged red with a central orange stripe):
- on the breast
- along the coat edges and seams
- around pockets
- around the Prussian blue lapels
- on the swallow nest (5 vertical braids) decorating each shoulder
- 8 horizontal chevrons on each sleeve
The artillery also had Janissaries (in fact oboists) wearing a very sophisticated uniform as illustrated in the accompanying plate.
There was only one colour for the entire Field Artillery, including the Horse Artillery. It was not carried in the field but rather kept at the arsenal.
Grosser Generalstab Kriegsgeschichtliche Abteilung II, Die Kriege Friedrichs des Grossen, Part 3 Der siebenjährige Krieg 1756-1763, Vol. 1 Pirna und Lobositz, Berlin, 1901, Appendix 1
Generlieutenant von Strotha, Königlich Preussische Reitende Artillerie vom Jahre 1759 bis 1816. Berlin 1868, Vossische Buchhandlung