Origin and History
The Pskóvskiy Regiment was formed in 1708-1709 when Peter the Great reorganized the Russian infantry regiments and renamed each of them as per a city or province of his empire.
During the Seven Years' War, the regiment was commanded by:
- from at least 1757 to 1760: Colonel Mantinhailo
- from 1760: Colonel Nicolai Lanovu
Service during the War
By March 30 1756, the regiment consisted of:
- Staff (5 officers)
- 1st rate officers (73)
- 2nd rate officers and NCOs (132)
- Musicians (7)
- Privates (2128 musketeers and grenadiers)
- Flag-bearers (14)
In 1756, the regiment was stationed in Novgorod and Livonia.
In 1757, the regiment took part in the campaign in East Prussia under Field-Marshal Count Apraxin. On August 30, at the Battle of Gross-Jägersdorf, it was part of the vanguard and belonged to Berg's Brigade. When the Russian Army deployed, it was placed in the first line of the left wing. During this battle, the regiment lost 7 privates killed; and 4 officers, 1 musician, 15 grenadiers and 33 privates wounded. The regiment took up its winter-quarters in Mitau (present-day Jelgava), as part of Golicyn's Division.
In January 1758, 2 battalions of the regiment took part in the Russian invasion of East Prussia. They consisted of:
- Senior Staff (4 officers)
- Junior Staff (18 officers)
- Captains (8)
- 2nd rate officers (42)
- NCOs (94)
- Grenadiers (390)
- Musketeers (675)
On February 17 1758, Prince Dolgoruki reported from Mitau that the regiment had begun its march and that it planned to reach Janischky (present-day Joniškis) on March 16. The regiment received 140 men from Kazanskiy Cuirassiers and 99 recruits from Russia, led by Major Burcev. About mid November, the regiment took up its winter-quarters in the area of Allenburg, Gerdauen, Friedland (present-day Prawdinsk) and Schippenbeil (present-day Sepopol) as part of Rumyantsev's 3rd Division.
For the campaign of 1759, the regiment along with Kegsgolmskiy Infantry formed Dolgorukov's Brigade attached to Rumyantsev's Division. On July 23, the regiment took part in the Battle of Paltzig where it was attached to the 2nd Division commanded by Villebois. It was deployed in Lubomirski's Brigade on the left of the first line of the infantry centre between Vologdaskiy Infantry and Rostovskiy Infantry. In this battle, it lost 1 officer and 19 privates killed; and 3 officers and 129 privates wounded. A few weeks later, on August 12, it fought at the Battle of Kunersdorf where it was deployed in the first line of the centre 3rd division as part of Lubomirski's Brigade. In this battle the regiment suffered heavily, loosing 4 officers and 27 men killed; and 21 officers and NCO, 84 grenadiers and 125 muskeeters wounded. After the battle, the regiment was attached to Plemniakov’s Brigade and took up its winter-quarters in Marienwerder (present-day Kwidzyn), in Panin's 3rd Division.
For the campaign of 1760, the regiment received 205 recruits. Furthermore, its 3-pdr regimental guns were replaced by new 8-pdr unicorns and two ¼-pud unicorns. In April, it was attached to Rumyantsev's Division. By then, the regiment consisted of 47 officers, 77 second rate officers, 39 musicians and 1201 privates. It took up its winter-quarters in Graudenz (present-day Grudziądz).
In 1761, regiment was attached to Dolgorukov’s 3rd Division. On October 4, it arrived at Colberg where it encamped near Czernin. It then took part in the second part of the Siege of Colberg. At the end of December, after the fall of Colberg, the regiment was attached to Brandt's Brigade, in Olitz's Division.
Most Russian regular line infantry regiments wore the same uniforms.
|Coat||dark green with 9 copper buttons on the right side on the chest and 9 red trimmed buttonholes, and 2 copper buttons (one on each side) in the small of the back|
N.B.: During summer campaigns, the coat was not worn, being left with the baggage. Soldiers carried a cornflower blue cape rolled over the shoulder. Since the waistcoat was red, Russian line infantry appeared to be entirely clad in red.
|Waistcoat||long sleeved red waistcoat lined green with 9 copper buttons and 9 red trimmed buttonholes, and with 2 en patte d'oie pockets each with 3 copper buttons and 3 red trimmed buttonholes|
|Gaiters||black leather with 10 large copper buttons (white for parade)|
During winter, line infantry wore knee-length cornflower blue cape.
Troopers were armed with a musket, a bayonet and a sabre.
NCOs wore the same uniform as the troopers but were distinguished by their gold laces on their tricorne, collar, and cuffs.
Most officers wore gold laced tricorne (gold/black pompons) but some officers wore a mitre.
Officer’s coat was similar to other rank’s but with a gold laced collar and lateral pockets closed by lapels en patte d’oie with 3 golden buttons each. Generally officers wore the coat with opened turnbacks. They also wore white cravates, green breeches and yellow gloves.
Officers carried a musket in action, the use of halberds and spontoons was abandoned.
Officers also carried a sword suspended to a red leather belt.
Officer’s cartridge box was edged in gold.
Officer’s saddlecloth and holsters were red with round posterior corner, edged with one or two gold stripes (the inner broader), as rank distinction. EPI ciphers on the corner and holsters.
Staff officers wore a black and gold sash.
Drummers wore the same uniform as the troopers with swallow nests on shoulders and braids on cuffs, pockets and collar.
Fifers wore the same uniform as the troopers with braids on cuffs, pockets and collar (no swallow nests on the shoulders).
The Drum Major had a gold edge on his tricorne, and gold braids on cuffs and collar.
Drums were made in copper, the regimental coat of arms engraved in the front, bordered in red and green, green and white cords.
Important notice: Even though our illustrations depict yellow laces, the colour of the braids on the uniforms of the musicians were chosen by the colonel. For instance, it could have been the distinctive colour of the regiment (shown on the ordonnance flag). They were often decorated with red “XXXX” in the middle.
N.B.: During summer campaigns, the green coat was not worn, being left with the baggage. Since the waistcoat was red, Russian line infantry musicians appeared to be entirely clad in red.
The flags measured 1,62 m. x 2,66 m., were fringed in gold and mounted on a 3,35 m. red wooden pole.
Colonel Colour: white field with, in its centre: an Imperial Eagle bearing the regimental arms on a breastplate encircled by the necklace of the St.George’s Order. In each corner: a dark green flame pointing at the centre.
Regimental Colours: orange field, in its centre: a gold crown surmounting a gold shield bearing the regimental arms. In each corner: a green flame pointing at the centre.
Funcken, L. and F., Les uniformes de la guerre en dentelle
Geniev, History of the Infantry General-fieldmarshall Prince Kuttuzova Regiment, Moscov, 1883.
Grosser Generalstab Kriegsgeschichtliche Abteilung II: Die Kriege Friedrichs des Grossen, Part 3 Der siebenjährige Krieg 1756-1763, Vol. 4 Groß-Jägersdorf und Breslau, Berlin, 1902, Appendix 1
Konstam, Angus, and Bill Younghusband, Russian Army of the Seven Years War, Vol. 1, Osprey Men at Arms Series, No. 297, 1996
Lubimow, A.J., Die Feldzeichen der russischen Armee 1741-1761, in. Die Zinnfigur, Uniformheft 18
Pengel and Hurt, Russian Infantry of the Seven Years War, Birmingham, 1976
Schirmer, Friedrich: Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756 - 1763. Edited and published by KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg e.V., Magstadt, 1989.
Viskovatov, A. V., Historical Description of the Clothing and Arms of the Russian Army, vol. 3, Petersburg: 1900
Ziegler, Volker, Die Russische Linien-Infanterie zur Zeit des 7-jährigen Krieges, Jahrbuch der Gesellschaft für hessische Militär- und Zivilgeschichte 3, 2005
N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.
Carlo Bessolo for the initial description of the uniforms
Tomasz Karpiński for the additional information on the service of this regiment from 1756 to 1761