Quadt Infantry

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Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Armies >> Prussian Army >> Quadt Infantry

Origin and History

Uniform in 1759 - Source: Engraving by von Schmalen, Nürnberg 1759

The regiment was formed in 1680 from the garrison companies of Minden and Lippstadt in Westphalia.

In 1702, the regiment was incorporated into the regular Prussian Army.

From 1726, the garrison places of the regiment were Soest and Hamm (from 1746, part of the regiment also garrisoned Unna). Its military district was the County of Mark (Westphalian enclave) and included the towns of Altena, Bochum, Hamm, Hattingen , Lünen, Plettenberg, Soest, Unna and Wetter.

At the beginning of the War of the Austrian Succession, in 1741 and 1742, the regiment was posted at Göttin. On December 15 1745, it took part in the Battle of Kesselsdorf.

During the Seven Years War the regimental Chefs were:

  • since October 14 1747: Major-General Johann Christian Roelemann Baron Quadt von Wickradt (mortally wounded at the Battle of Lobositz on October 1 1756)
  • from October 4 1756: Major-General Friedrich Ludwig Wilhelm von Kleist aka Jung-Kleist (killed at the Battle of Breslau on November 22 1757)
  • from January 5 1758: Major-General Jürgen Friedrich von Oldenburg
  • from March 1 1758: Major-General Nikolaus Lorenz von Puttkamer
  • from July 17 1759 till July 31 1763: Major-General Friedrich August von Schenckendorff aka Jung-Schenckendorff from 1760

In 1763, one of its battalions was stationed in Hamm and the other in Soest.

The numbering system (Stammliste) was first used by Leopold I., Fürst von Anhalt-Dessau (Der alte Dessauer) in the Dessauer Spezifikation from 1737. Around 1780 the numbers were used in the printed Stammlisten, still with some variations for the fusilier regiments. It became official by "Cabinets-Ordre" from October 1, 1806. The present infantry regiment was attributed number 9.

The regiment was disbanded in 1806 after the capitulation of Erfurt.

Service during the War

On August 26 1756, when the Prussian army was ordered to proceed to the invasion of Saxony, the regiment was part of Ferdinand of Brunswick's column which had concentrated at Halle and advanced unopposed through Leipzig, Chemnitz, Freyberg and Dippoldiswalde, to the village of Cotta (reached on September 9) south of the Elbe near Pirna. On October 1, the regiment took part in the Battle of Lobositz where it was assigned to the brigade of Lieutenant-General Ferdinand of Brunswick. It reached the battlefield late in the afternoon. During this battle, its colonel was mortally wounded.

In the spring of 1757, the regiment took part in the invasion of Bohemia. On April 21 1757, at the Combat of Reichenberg, it was deployed in the centre of the first line of the Duke of Brunswick-Bevern's force. On May 6, the regiment took part in the Battle of Prague where it was deployed in the first line in Lestwitz's Brigade. During this battle, it lost half its strength assaulting the Austrians deployed along the Roketnitzer Stream. At the end of August, the regiment was part of the small Prussian army hastily assembled at Dresden by Frederick II to head towards Thuringia and to offer battle to the Franco-Imperial Army invading Saxony. On November 5, at the Battle of Rossbach, the regiment was deployed in the first line of the infantry left wing under Lieutenant-General Prince Henri. It withstood the French assault.

On July 23 1759, the regiment took part in the Battle of Paltzig where it was attached to Hülsen's Division deployed in the centre in the first line of infantry. Its brigade initiated the third assault on the Russian centre along with Manteuffel's Brigade. In furious close combat, in heat, powder smoke and dust, they managed to break through the first Russian line. Manteuffel was seriously wounded and his adjutant was struck down. However, with ammunition low, both brigades had to retreat and the assault collapsed. A few weeks later, on August 12, the regiment fought in the Battle of Kunersdorf where it was deployed in the first line of the left centre as part of Jung-Stutterheim's Brigade and formed part of the initial attack between the Kleiner Spitzberg and Mühl-Berg. The regiment suffered heavy casualties in the two preceding battles and was reduced to a single battalion. On November 20, this battalion took part in the Battle of Maxen where it was attached to Mosel's Brigade. Completely surrounded, the entire Prussian force finally surrendered as prisoners of war.

During the winter of 1759-60, a single battalion was re-raised.

During the winter 1760-61, the regiment was brought back to two battalions for a total of 1,220 men.

By August 20 1761, the regiment was with Frederick's Army in the camp of Bunzelwitz.

In 1762, the only task that the regiment could perform, was to garrison Neisse.

N.B.: During the war the grenadiers from the wing grenadier companies were put together with the grenadiers of Infantry Regiment 10 forming the Grenadier Batallion 9/10 (please refer to this article for the details of the service of the grenadiers during the war).

Uniform

Privates

Uniform in 1759 - Source: Kronoskaf
Uniform Details
Headgear
Musketeer black tricorne laced white, one brass button, red within yellow pompoms
Grenadier mitre with brass front plate, red headband with yellow braid with a red central stripe and decorated with brass ornaments, red backing laced with an identical braid, red within orange pompom (see Grenadier Batallion 9/10 for an illustration)
Neck stock red
Coat Prussian blue lined red with 2 white loops under each lapel (hidden by the sleeve in our illustration, see insert for details), a white loop on each side in the small of the back and with 3 brass buttons on each side to fasten the skirts forming the turnbacks
Collar none
Shoulder Straps Prussian blue piped red
Lapels red with 6 brass buttons and 6 white loops (arranged 2-2-2)
Pockets horizontal pockets with red piping, each with 3 brass buttons
Cuffs red (Prussian pattern) edged white, each with two brass buttons and two white loops on the sleeve flap above the cuff
Turnbacks red fastened with a brass button
Waistcoat white with brass buttons and horizontal pockets
Breeches white
Gaiters black
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt one white belt over the left shoulder for the cartridge box and one narrower white belt over the right shoulder for the haversack
Waistbelt white
Cartridge Box black
Bayonet Scabbard brown
Scabbard brown
Footgear black shoes


Privates were armed with a musket, a bayonet and a sabre with a curved blade.

NCOs

NCOs wore uniforms similar to those of the privates with the following distinctions:

  • tricorne with gold lace and black and white quartered pompoms
  • 5 golden loops on each lapel
  • 2 golden loops on each sleeve flap
  • gilt buttons
  • no shoulder strap
  • yellowish leather gloves
  • black and white sabre tassel

NCOs were armed with a sabre and a black half-pike measuring 10 Rhenish feet (3.06 m.) in the musketeer companies and 13 Rhenish feet (4.10 m.) in the grenadier companies (carried by the 3 most senior NCOs while other grenadier NCOs were armed with rifled muskets since 1744).

NCOs also carried canes (normally attached to a button at the top of the right front while carrying the half-pike).

Officers

Quadt Infantry Officer - Source: Menzel, Adolph von, Die Armee Friedrich's des Großen

The uniforms of the officers were very similar to those of the privates with the following exceptions:

  • black tricorne laced with a thin golden braid (officers always wore tricornes notwithstanding if they were commanding musketeers, fusiliers or grenadiers)
  • white neck stock
  • no shoulder strap on the coat
  • no turnbacks on the coat
  • golden embroidery edging lapels and cuffs; no braid loop
  • gilt buttons
  • black and silver sash around the waist
  • black and silver sword knot

Officers carried black spontoons measuring 7 ½ Rhenish feet (2.36 m.).

Lace of the officer uniform in 1755 - Source: Tressenmusterbuch von 1755


Musicians

Lace of the drummer uniform in 1755 - Source: Tressenmusterbuch von 1755

The uniforms of the drummers were similar to those of the privates but had much more elaborate lacing (drummer lace consisting of a white braid with a wide red central stripe decorated with black links) and other peculiarities:

  • no shoulder strap
  • swallow nests with 5 white vertical drummer laces on each shoulder
  • lapels edged with the drummer lace
  • two loops (drummer lace) under each lapel
  • drummer lace around the buttons in the small of the back
  • pockets edged with the drummer lace
  • each sleeve decorated with 9 horizontal chevrons (drummer lace)


Colours

Colonel colour (Leibfahne): White field with red flames. Centre device consisting of a green medallion surrounded by a golden laurel wreath and surmounted by a gold crown. The medallion is decorated with a black eagle holding a sword and lightning bolts surmounted by a white scroll bearing the golden motto "Pro Gloria et Patria". Corner monograms (crowns, laurel wreaths, FR ciphers) and grenades in gold.

Regimental colours (Kompaniefahnen): Green field with red flames. Centre device consisting of a white medallion surrounded by a golden laurel wreath and surmounted by a gold crown. The medallion is decorated with a black eagle holding a sword and lightning bolts surmounted by a green scroll bearing the golden motto "Pro Gloria et Patria". Corner monograms (crowns, laurel wreaths, FR ciphers) and grenades in gold.

Colonel Colour - Source: Hannoverdidi
Regimental Colour - Source: Hannoverdidi

The pikes used as staffs for the colours were black.

References

Accurate Vorstellung der sämtlich Koeniglichen Preusischen Armee Worinnen zur eigentlichen Kenntniss der Uniform von jedem Regiment ein Officier und Gemeiner in Völliger Montirung und ganzer Statur nach dem Leben abgebildet sind. Nebst beigefügter Nachricht 1.) von der Stiftung. 2.) Denen Chefs. 3.) der Staerke und 4.) der in Friedenszeiten habenden Guarnisons jedes Regiments. Hrsg. u. gezeichnet I.C. v. S.(chmalen), Nürnberg 1759

Die Bewaffnung und Ausrüstung der Armee Friedrichs des Großen: Eine Dokumentation aus Anlaß seines 200. Todesjahres, 2 erw. Auflage, Raststatt 1986

Bleckwenn, Hans: Die Uniformen der Preußischen Infanterie 1753-1786, Teil III/Bd. 3, Osnabrück 1973

Bleckwenn, Hans: Die friderzianischen Uniformen 1753-1786: Bd. I Infanterie I, Osnabrück 1984

Deutsche Uniformen, Bd. 1, Das Zeitalter Friedrich des Großen, 240 Bilder von Herbert Knötel d. J., Text und Erläuterungen von Dr. Martin Letzius, hrsg. von der Sturm-Zigaretten GmbH, Dresden 1932

Die Kriege Friedrichs des Großen, hrsg. vom Großen Generalstab/Abt. f. Kriegsgeschichte, E.S. Mittler, Berlin 1890-1913

Dorn, Günter; and Joachim Engelmann: Die Infanterie-Regimenter Friedrichs des Großen: 1756-1763, Augsburg 1992

Dorn, Günter; and Joachim Engelmann: Die Schlachten Friedrichs des Großen: Führung - Verlauf - Gefechts-Szenen - Gliederung - Karten, 1986

Rulemann, Friedrich Eylert: Zwischen Hamm und Potsdam, selected reprint of "Charakterzüge und historische Fragemente aus dem Leben des Königs von Preußen Friedrich Wilhelm III, edited by Jürgen Kloosterhuis (=Quellen und Schriften zur Militärgeschichte Band 1); Verlag M. Hüttemann, Paderborn 1989. Dealing with No. 9.

Funcken, Liliane and Fred: Les uniformes de la guerre en dentelle

Guddat, Martin: Grenadiere, Musketiere, Füsiliere: Die Infanterie Friedrichs des Großen, Herford 1986

Heer und Tradition: Uniformbogen No. 1, 19, 29, 33 und 101, hrsg. von Brauer, Hans und Knötel, Herbert d.J., o.J.

Hohrath, Daniel: The Uniforms of the Prussian Army under Frederick the Great from 1740 to 1786; Vol. 2; Verlag Militaria, Vienna: 2011, pp. 64-69

Menzel, Adolph von: Die Armee Friedrich's des Großen, Berlin: 1851/57

Merta, Klaus-Peter: Das Heerwesen in Brandenburg und Preußen von 1640 bis 1806, Bd. 2, die Uniformierung, Berlin 1991

Schirmer, Friedrich: Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756-1763, hrsg. von der KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg, überarb. u. aktual. Neuauflage 1989

Summerfield, Stephen: Prussian Musketeers of the War of the Austrian Succession and Seven Years War: Uniforms, Organisation and Equipement of Musketeer Regiments, Ken Trotman Publishing: Huntingdon, 2012, pp. 200-204

Tressenmusterbuch von 1755

Uniformes Prussien et Saxonnes 1756/57

N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.