Rochefoucauld-Langeac Cavalerie

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Hierarchical Path: Seven Years' War (Main Page) >> Armies >> French Army >> Rochefoucauld-Langeac Cavalerie

Origin and History

The regiment was raised on October 1 1682.

During the War of the Polish Succession, the regiment served in Italy in 1733 and 1734. It returned to France in 1735.

During the War of the Austrian Succession, the regiment took part in the invasion of Bohemia in 1741 and 1742. In 1744, it was transferred to Italy. In 1746, it was back in France where it was stationed in Lyon. In 1747, it was at Valence in Provence.

In 1750, the regiment was stationed at Belfort; in 1751, at Vaucouleurs; in 1752, at Montbrison; in 1753, at Charleville; and in 1754, at Richemont.

In 1756, the regiment counted two squadrons.

During the Seven Years' War, the regiment was commanded by:

  • since February 20 1743 till March 1 1763: Marquis de la Rochefoucauld (aka la Rochefoucauld-Langeac or la Rochefoucauld-Surgères)

When the French cavalry was reorganised on December 1 1761, the regiment was amalgamated with Preyssac Cavalerie to form a new regiment: Royal-Champagne Cavalerie. Effective amalgamation seems to have taken place only on April 10 1763 at Nantes

Service during the War

At the outbreak of the war, in 1756, the regiment was stationed at Phalsbourg.

In May 1757, a corps under Chevert left Neuss to join the Army of the Lower Rhine at Breda. This corps consisted of Vaubécourt Infanterie and Condé Infanterie and of La Rochefoucauld Cavalerie. From April 27 to June 17, the regiment was part of the Reserve under the Prince de Soubise. On July 26, the regiment took part in the Battle of Hastenbeck where it was among the cavalry of the left wing. After the convention of Kloster-Zeven, it followed the main body, now led by the Maréchal de Richelieu, who encamped at Halberstadt in Prussian territory, from September 28 to November 5. The regiment was placed on the right wing of the second line. At the end of the year, it took its winter quarters in the second line of the French army in and around Voldemberg.

From March 30 to April 4 1758, after the retreat of the French army towards the Rhine, the regiment was with the Army of the Comte de Clermont in the camp of Wesel on the Lower Rhine, in the second line of the right wing. In April, when Clermont redeployed his army along the Rhine, the regiment was stationed at Xanten. After the successful crossing of the Rhine by the Allied Army of Ferdinand of Brunswick on May 31, the regiment retired towards Rheinberg where it joined Clermont's Army on June 2. It remained in this camp until June 12 and was placed on the right wing of the first line. On June 23, the regiment took part in the Battle of Krefeld where it was placed on the right wing of the first line, under Armentières. In Mid August, after Ferdinand's retreat to the east bank of the Rhine, the regiment, as part of the Army of the Lower Rhine now under the Marquis de Contades, recrossed the Rhine to follow the Allied army. On August 20, it was encamped near Wesel where it was placed on the right wing of the first line.

On March 13 1759, upon Broglie's request, d'Armentières sent him a corps (1,400 foot and 1,200 horse, including La Rochefoucauld Cavalerie) under the command of d'Auvet. This corps took post at Hachenburg with detachments at Siegen. By May 10, the regiment was part of the corps under the command of d'Auvet and de Ségur who had taken position near Deutz on the right bank of the Rhine. In June, during the offensive in Western Germany, the regiment was part of the main army under the command of the Marquis de Contades and was deployed in the first line of the cavalry right wing. On August 1, the regiment took part in the Battle of Minden where it was deployed in the first line of the cavalry centre under the command of the Duc de FitzJames. By August 15 during the French retreat, the regiment, who had suffered heavily at Minden, could only field a single squadron.

By May 23 1760, the regiment was part of the second line of Broglie's Army, placed under the command of the Prince de Croy. On July 10, the regiment might have been attached to Prince Camille's Cavalry Corps who arrived too late to take part in the Combat of Corbach. By December 30, the regiment had taken its winter-quarters in Montabaur and surroundings.

In 1761, the regiment returned to France where it was stationed on the coasts of Bretagne.

To do: campaigns from 1761 to 1762

Uniform

Troopers

Uniform in 1753 - Source: Frédéric Aubert
Uniform Details as per
the Etat Général des Troupes Françoises of 1753 and Etat Militaire of 1761

completed when necessary as per Raspe
Headgear black tricorne (reinforced with an iron skullcap for combat) laced silver, with a black cockade on the left side fastened with a black silk strap and a small pewter button
Neck stock black cravate
Coat grey white lined red with 4 pewter buttons under the right lapel and a pewter button on each side in the small of the back
Collar small red collar over a large white collar
Shoulder straps regimental lace fastened with a small pewter button
Lapels red, each with 8 pewter buttons grouped 2 by 2
Pockets horizontal pockets, each with 4 pewter buttons
Cuffs red cuffs, each with 4 pewter buttons
Turnbacks red fastened with a pewter button
Gloves buff
Waistcoat buff leather jerkin with pewter buttons
Breeches buff leather
Greatcoat grey white lined red
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt buff leather
Waistbelt buff leather
Cartridge Box red leather
Scabbard black leather
Footgear soft black boots
Horse Furniture
Saddlecloth blue bordered with the regimental lace (black woolen braid with isabelle (coffee) stripe)
Housings blue bordered with the regimental lace (black woolen braid with isabelle (coffee) stripe)
Blanket roll n/a


Troopers were armed with a carbine, two pistols and a sabre. They were also supposed to wear a breastplate under their coat during battle but this regulation was not always followed.

Evolution of the uniform during the war

Throughout the war the French cavalry uniform seems to have evolved significantly. Our only primary source for the uniform at the start of the conflict is the Etat Général des Troupes Françoises of 1753. The first primary pictorial evidence comes from Raspe in 1761. Here we present various interpretations of the evolution of the uniform.

Raspe's illustration depicting the uniform towards the end of 1760 shows the following evolutions:

  • no collar
  • coat, cuffs, lapels and turnbacks edged with the regimental braid (isabelle (coffee) woolen braid with black chain link stitches)
  • grey white waistcoat edged with the regimental braid (isabelle (coffee) woolen braid with black chain link stitches)
  • only 3 buttons on each cuff and on each pocket

Lienhart and Humbert, a secondary source, show the following differences for the uniform of 1757 (more probably around 1748):

  • a white cockade on the tricorne
  • only 3 buttons on each cuff
  • yellow saddle cloth and housings bordered with a black braid

Officers

Officers wore uniforms similar to those of the troopers with the following distinctions:

  • no shoulder strap
  • no turnbacks
  • no lace on the coat and waistcoat
  • Maréchal des logis: silver laced tricorne, housing bordered with a 2,7 cm silver lace
  • brigadier: double silver lace on the cuffs

Musicians

no information available yet

Colours (in 1753)

Regimental standards (4 silken standards): isabelle (coffee) field with a black border, embroidered and fringed in gold; centre device consisting of a golden royal sun surmounted by a scroll bearing the royal motto “Nec Pluribus Impar”.

Rochefoucauld-Langeac Cavalerie Regimental Standard – Source: Frédéric Aubert from an original plate by Gilbert Noury

References

The article incorporates texts from the following books which are now in the public domain:

  • Pajol, Charles P. V.: Les Guerres sous Louis XV, vol. VII, Paris, 1891, p. 337-338

Other sources

Funcken, L. and F.: Les uniformes de la guerre en dentelle

Lienhart, docteur and René Humbert: Les uniformes des armées françaises”, Leipzig

Menguy, Patrice: Les Sujets du Bien Aimé (a website who has unfortunately disappeared from the web)

Raspe, Gabriel Nicolas: Recueil de toutes les troupes qui forment les armées françoises, Nuremberg 1761

Rogge, Christian: The French & Allied Armies in Germany during the Seven Years War, Frankfurt, 2006

Service historique de l'armée de terre - Archives du génie, article 15, section 1, §5, pièce 23

N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.