Royal Bavière Infanterie

From Project Seven Years War
Jump to: navigation, search

Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Armies >> French Army >> Royal Bavière Infanterie

Origin and History

The regiment was raised on January 1 1709 for the Comte de Bavière, a natural son of the Elector of Bavaria. It was the last regiment created during the reign of Louis XIV.

During the War of the Polish Succession, the regiment served at Ettlingen in 1734. In 1735, it was transferred to the Italian theatre of operation. In 1736, it was at Fort-Louis.

During the War of the Austrian Succession, in 1741, the regiment initially served in Bavaria. In 1742, it defended Prague after the capture of the city. In 1743, the regiment was at Egra, In 1744, it campaigned in Palatinate. In 1747, it served on the Var. In 1748, the regiment was sent to Corsica where it remained until 1753.

The regiment counted two battalions.

During the Seven Years' War, the regiment ranked 101st and was under the command of:

  • since March 25 1748: Comte d'Heilfemberg
  • fom August 15 1760 to 1775: Comte de Lowenhaupt

On January 18 1760, when the German Infantry was reorganised, the regiment was increased to three battalions by the incorporation of La Dauphine Infanterie.

Service during the War

In 1757, the regiment joined the Army of the Lower Rhine, commanded by the Maréchal d'Estrées, for the planned invasion of Hanover. At the end of June, it was at the camp of Bielefeld with d'Estrées's main corps. On July 26, the regiment was at the Battle of Hastenbeck where it supported the leading columns of the left wing. At the end of the year, it took its winter-quarters in the first line of the French army at Viehenburg.

At the end of January 1758, the regiment was assigned to the army that Louis XV planned to send to Bohemia for joint operations with the Austrian Army. However, when an Allied army led by Ferdinand of Brunswick launched its winter offensive in western Germany in February, the regiment retired to the Rhine with the rest of the French army. From March 30 to April 4, it was in the second line of Clermont's Army in the camp of Wesel on the Lower Rhine. In the first days of June, as a French army prepared for an offensive in Hesse, the regiment was part of a detachment under the command of the Duc de Broglie who followed up Ysenburg during his retreat. On July 23, the regiment took part in the Combat of Sandershausen where it was placed in the first line of the centre. It stopped the Hessian cavalry who had previously broken the opposing French cavalry units.

On April 13 1759, the regiment took part in the Battle of Bergen where it formed part of the reserve of the left wing deployed in regimental columns behind the Warthberg. In June, at the beginning of the French offensive in western Germany, the regiment was part of the “Right Reserve” under the command of the Duc de Broglie who had taken position at Friedberg in Hesse. On August 1, the regiment took part in the Battle of Minden where it was deployed in the first line of Broglie's Corps.

By the end of January 1760, the regiment had taken its winter-quarters in the first line of the French army. By mid March, the regiment was billeted in Friedberg, still in the first line. By May 23, the regiment was part of the right reserve of the first line of Broglie's Army, placed under the command of Prince Xavier. On July 14, Glaubitz's detachment (Anhalt Infanterie (3 bns), Royal Bavière Infanterie (3 bns), Bercheny Hussards and some light troops) marched from Marburg towards Ziegenhain, encamping at Vasbeck for the night, the regiment forming the left wing. On July 16 at 10:00 a.m., one battalion of the regiment was sent towards Marburg where it would be assigned to the guard of the field-bakery. The rest of Glaubitz's detachment was then attacked by surprise the Hereditary Prince of Brunswick in the Engagement of Emsdorf.

In 1761, the regiment was stationed at Ostende.

In 1762, the regiment served on the Lower Rhine.

To do: more details on the campaigns from 1761 to 1762

Uniform

The following description has been verified against Taccoli's book published in 1760.

Privates

Uniform in 1758 - Source: Kronoskaf
Uniform Details as per
Etat Militaire 1758, 1760 and 1761, Abrégé du Dictionnaire Militaire 1759

completed when necessary with information from Taccoli's plate
Headgear
Musketeer black tricorne laced silver (with a white cockade as per Taccoli)
Grenadier black tricorne laced silver

towards 1759, bearskins became increasingly common among grenadiers of the French Army

Neck stock black
Coat turquin blue lined white with 4 white buttons under the right lapel
Collar black (laced white as per Mouillard)
Shoulder Straps none (as per Mouillard)
Lapels black (laced white as per Mouillard) with 10 white buttons and 10 white laced buttonholes grouped 2 by 2 on both sides
Pockets horizontal pockets, each pocket with 4 white buttons and 4 white laced buttonholes grouped 2 by 2
Cuffs black, each with 3 white buttons and 3 white laced buttonholes as per Taccoli (laced white as per Mouillard)
Turnbacks white
Waistcoat turquin blue with 10 white buttons (one side only) and 10 white laced buttonholes grouped 2 by two on each side
Breeches turquin blue
Gaiters white
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt natural leather (white as per Taccoli)
Waistbelt natural leather (white as per Taccoli)
Cartridge Box natural leather
Bayonet Scabbard n/a
Scabbard n/a


Armaments consisted of a musket and a bayonet. Fusiliers carried a sword (brass hilt) while the grenadiers had a sabre.

Officers

no information available yet

Musicians

The drummers of the regiment wore the Royal Livery: blue coat lined red; red cuffs, waistcoat and breeches; laced with the braid of the small Royal Livery.

Drummer wearing the Royal Livery - Source: Jocelyne Chevanelle

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

French Royal Livery - Source: reconstruction based on a sample from Jean-Louis Vial's collection


Colours

Colonel Colour: white field with a white cross; centre device consisting of an image of the Virgin Mary painted in the middle of the white cross; bordered with blue and white squares.

Ordonnance Colours: blue field with a white cross; bordered with blue and white squares; golden fleurs de lys in each branch of the cross.

The colours of the regiment remained unchanged from 1709 to 1780.

Colonel Colour - Source: PMPdeL
Ordonnance Colour - Source: PMPdeL

References

Funcken, Liliane and Fred: Les uniformes de la guerre en dentelle

Menguy, Patrice: Les Sujets du Bien Aimé (a website who has unfortunately disappeared from the web)

Mouillard, Lucien: Les Régiments sous Louis XV, Paris, 1882

Pajol, Charles P. V.: Les Guerres sous Louis XV, vol. VII, Paris, 1891

Rogge, Christian: The French & Allied Armies in Germany during the Seven Years War, Frankfurt, 2006

Service historique de l'armée de terre, Archives du génie, article 15, section 1, §5, pièce 23

Taccoli, Alfonso: Teatro Militare dell' Europa, Part 1, vol. 2; Madrid, March 1760

Vial, J. L.: Nec Pluribus Impar

N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.