Royal Suédois Infanterie

From Project Seven Years War
Jump to: navigation, search

Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Armies >> French Army >> Royal Suédois Infanterie

Origin and History

The regiment was raised on August 1 1690 from 500 Swedish prisoners captured at the Battle of Fleurus where they were in the Dutch service.

During the War of the Polish Succession, the regiment occupied Lorraine in 1733. Then in 1734 and 1735, it was stationed in Palatinate. In 1737, it was at Strasbourg.

During the War of the Austrian Succession, the regiment first served in Bohemia in 1742 where it defended Prague after the capture of the city. For its behaviour during the siege, the regiment received the title of “Royal Suédois” on October 30 1742. In 1743, the regiment served in Bavaria, In 1744, it was at Wissembourg in Alsace. In 1745, it was at Pfaffenhoffen in Alsace. From 1746 to 1748, the regiment served in Flanders.

The regiment counted two battalions and had prévôté (provostship).

During the Seven Years' War, the regiment ranked 95th and was under the command of:

  • from April 22 1756 to June 17 1770: Alexandre Toffeta, Comte de Sparre de Kronemberg

On January 18 1760, when the German Infantry was reorganised, the regiment was increased to three battalions by the incorporation of Royal Pologne Infanterie.

Service during the War

In 1757, the regiment joined the Army of the Lower Rhine commanded by the Maréchal d'Estrées for the planned invasion of Hanover. At the end of June, it was at the camp of Bielefeld with d'Estrées's main corps. On July 26, the regiment was at the Battle of Hastenbeck where it supported the leading columns of the left wing. At the end of the year, it took its winter-quarters in the second line of the French army at Neustadt am Rübenberge.

At the end of January 1758, the regiment was assigned to the army that Louis XV planned to send to Bohemia for joint operations with the Austrian Army. However in February, when an Allied army led by Ferdinand of Brunswick launched a winter offensive in western Germany, the regiment retired to the Rhine with the rest of the French army. From March 30 to April 4, it was in the second line of Clermont's Army in the camp of Wesel on the Lower Rhine. By July, it had been transferred to Soubise's Army assembling near Friedberg in Hesse.

On April 12 1759, as part of Broglie's Army, the regiment bivouacked near Bergen. Broglie immediately deployed the regiment in the orchards near Bergen. On April 13, the regiment took part in the Battle of Bergen where it formed part of the first line of the right wing under the command of Prince Camille de Lorraine. The regiment was among the infantry entrenched in the village of Bergen. Around 10:00 a.m., it was heavily involved in a fire fight against Allied units advancing against Bergen and drove them back.

By the end of January 1760, the regiment had taken its winter-quarters in the first line of the French army. By mid March, the regiment was billeted in Koblenz, still in the first line. By May 23, the regiment was part of the left flank brigade of the first line of Broglie's Army. On July 10, the regiment fought in the Combat of Corbach where it formed part of Broglie's leading brigades. By July 14, the regiment occupied a position between Berndorf and the main army. By December 30, the regiment had taken its winter-quarters in Friedberg.

To do: campaigns of 1761 and 1762

Uniform

The following description has been verified against the manuscript "Troupes du Roi, Infanterie française et étrangère, année 1757, tome I" and Taccoli's book published in 1760.

Privates

Uniform in 1758 - Source: Kronoskaf
Uniform Details as per
Etrennes Militaires 1756 and 1758, Etat Militaire 1758, 1760 and 1761, Abrégé du Dictionnaire Militaire 1759

completed when necessary with information from the manuscript of 1757 and Taccoli's plate
Headgear
Musketeer black tricorne laced gold (with a white cockade as per Taccoli)
Grenadier black tricorne laced gold

towards 1759, bearskins became increasingly common among grenadiers of the French Army

Neck stock black
Coat turquin blue lined chamois with 3 chamois laced buttonholes on both sides below the lapels and 3 yellow buttons on the right side
Collar chamois (none as per the manuscript of 1757 and Taccoli)
Shoulder Straps none (as per Mouillard)
Lapels chamois (turquin blue as per Taccoli), each with 7 copper buttons arranged (1-2-2-2) from top to bottom
Pockets horizontal pockets, each with 3 copper buttons and 3 chamois laced buttonholes
Cuffs chamois Swedish cuffs without buttons
Turnbacks chamois
Waistcoat turquin blue with 10 copper buttons and 10 chamois laced buttonholes grouped 2 by 2 on each side, pockets were identical to those on the coat
Breeches white (turquin blue before 1758, however the manuscript of 1757 depicts white breeches)
Gaiters white
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt natural leather (white as per Taccoli)
Waistbelt natural leather (white as per Taccoli)
Cartridge Box natural leather
Bayonet Scabbard n/a
Scabbard n/a


Armaments consisted of a musket and a bayonet. Fusiliers carried a sword (brass hilt) while the grenadiers had a sabre.

Officers

All officers had to be Swedes.

no information found concerning their uniform

Musicians

The drummers of the regiment wore the Royal Livery: blue coat lined red; red cuffs, waistcoat and breeches; laced with the braid of the small Royal Livery.

Drummer wearing the Royal Livery - Source: Jocelyne Chevanelle

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

French Royal Livery - Source: reconstruction based on a sample from Jean-Louis Vial's collection


Colours

Pre-1760

Colonel colour: white field with a white cross; a golden fleur de lys decorated each canton.

Ordonnance Colours: blue field with a white cross; a golden fleur de lys decorated each canton.

Colonel Colour - Source: PMPdeL
Ordonnance Colour - Source: PMPdeL

N.B.: the manuscript of 1757 depicts colours resembling those of 1760 with only a few differences:

  • for the colonel colour: a blue instead of red scroll
  • for the ordonnance colours: cantons disposed in the exact opposite

Post-1760

On January 18 1760, when the German Infantry was reorganised, the colours of the regiment changed.

Colonel colour: white field sown with golden fleurs de lys; centre device consisting of a golden sun surmounted by a red scroll bearing the motto “Nec Pluribus Impar” in gold and with a blue imperial globe and a golden cross beneath.

Ordonnance Colours: blue field with a white cross. The upper left canton (near the flagpole) and the opposed canton each carried a golden crowned lion superposed on 3 diagonal white waved bands. The lower left canton (near the flagpole) and the opposed canton each carried 3 gold crown lined red.

Colonel Colour - Source: PMPdeL
Ordonnance Colour - Source: PMPdeL

References

Anon.: Manuscript Troupes du Roi, Infanterie française et étrangère, année 1757, tome I, Musée de l'Armée, Paris

Brolin, Gunnar: Queries - The Royal Suedois Regiment after the Revolution, 18th Century Military Notes & Queries No. 1

Menguy, Patrice: Les Sujets du Bien Aimé (a website who has unfortunately disappeared from the web)

Mouillard, Lucien: Les Régiments sous Louis XV, Paris, 1882

Pajol, Charles P. V.: Les Guerres sous Louis XV, vol. VII, Paris, 1891

Rogge, Christian: The French & Allied Armies in Germany during the Seven Years War, Frankfurt, 2006

Service historique de l'armée de terre, Archives du génie, article 15, section 1, §5, pièce 23

Taccoli, Alfonso: Teatro Militare dell' Europa, Part 1, vol. 2; Madrid, March 1760

Vial, J. L.: Nec Pluribus Impar

Weaver, R. E.: Military Answers - Regiment Royal Suedois, 18th Century Military Notes & Queries No. 2

N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.