Russian Army

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État-Major

n/a

Guard

Russian Guards and Pandours in 1756. - Source: Richard Knötel Uniformkunde

Garde à cheval
Preobrazenskiy Leib-Guard
Semenovskiy Leib-Guard
Izmailovskiy Leib-Guard

Line Infantry

Organisation
Generalities about the uniforms
Generalities about weapons and equipment
Generalities about the colours

Regular Line Infantry

Russian grenadier, musketeer, staff officer and officer from 1756 to 1762. - Source: Richard Knötel Uniformkunde
1st Grenadier

2nd Grenadier
3rd Grenadier
4th Grenadier
1. Ingermlandskiy
2. Astrachanskiy
3. 1st Moscowskiy
4. Butyrskiy
5. 2nd Moscowskiy
6. Kievskiy
7. Troitskiy
8. Sankt-Peterburgskiy
9. Vladimirskiy

10. Novgorodskiy

11. Schlusselburgskiy
12. Kazanskiy
13. Sibyrskiy
14. Pskovskiy
15. Smolenskiy
16. Azovskiy
17. Voronejskiy
18. Nizegorodskiy
19. Chernigovskiy
20. Riazanskiy
21. Suzdalskiy

22. Rostovskiy

23. Velikolutskiy
24. Arkhangelogorodskiy
25. Yaroslavlskiy
26. Permskiy
27. Bjeloserskiy
28. Viatskiy
29. Vologdaskiy
30. Narvskiy
31. Tobolskiy
32. Nevskiy
33. Koporskiy
34. Ladozskiy

35. Muromskiy

36. Uglitskiy
37. Vyborgskiy
38. Kegsgolmskiy
39. Kabardaskiy
40. Shirvanskiy
41. Apsheronskiy
42. Nizovskiy
43. Nasheburgskiy
44. Kurinskiy
45. Navaginskiy
46. Tenginskiy

Observation Corps

The Observation Corps was created in October 1756 as an autonomous multi-arms corps. It was finally ready at the beginning of 1758 even though it counted only 12,000 men instead of the planned 30,000. The corps was disbanded at the beginning of 1760 and its troops were incorporated into the field artillery as fusiliers.

Organisation

Grenadier Regiment
1st Musketeer Regiment
2nd Musketeer Regiment N.B.: 2nd Musketeer Regiment was never completed
3rd Musketeer Regiment
4th Musketeer Regiment
5th Musketeer Regiment

Mecklenburg Corps

This unit first served in Russia in 1719. The Duke of Mecklenburg, Karl Leopold, had married one of Peter the Great's niece. When hostilities broke out between England and Russia in 1719, the Duchy of Mecklenburg was occupied by English forces. The Duke with his military force of about 1,900 men made for Russia. This force was stationed in Ukraine. This Corps had no fixed organization or strength.

Garrison Troops

Ostzeiskiy Garrison Infantry

There were 20 "Ostzeiskiy" (north-western) garrison regiments stationed in the area of the Baltic. They were garrisoning fortresses along the western frontier of Russia.

Each regiment consisted of 7 Fusilier Companies and 1 Grenadier Company.

Inner Garrison Infantry

The 35 Inner garrison regiments were primarily used for police duty in the inner regions of Russia. Besides these regiments, there were also 3 independant battalions.

Each Inner Garrison Regiment consisted of 7 Fusilier Companies and 1 Grenadier Company.

Garrison Dragoons

The Garrison Dragoons counted 7 regiments and 2 independent squadrons. They were deployed along the southern border and in the Government of Siberia. During the war, only 1 regiment and 1 independent squadron were transferred to the west.

Generalities about the uniforms

Kazanskiy
Azovskiy
Astrakhanskiy
Sibyrskiy

Garrison Artillery

The Garrison Artillery totalled some 6,000 men distributed among the various fortresses and artillery parks.

Garrison Engineers

There were 600 engineers distributed among the various fortresses of the empire.

Militias

Ukrainian Landmilitia

The 20 Ukrainian Landmilitia mounted regiments were military settlements on the southern border of Russia in Ukraine.

Each regiment consisted of 9 Fusilier Companies and 1 Grenadier Company.

Zakamskaia Landmilitia

The 4 Zakamskaia Landmilitia regiments were military settlements in the region of Orenburg, near the Kama river.

There were 3 mounted regiments and 1 infantry regiment. The mounted regiment consisted of 9 Fusilier Companies and 1 Grenadier Company, while the infantry regiment consisted of 7 Fusiliers Companies and 1 Grenadier Company.

Cuirassiers

Russian cuirassiers, dragoons and hussars from 1756 to 1762. - Source: Richard Knötel Uniformkunde

Organisation
Generalities about the uniforms

Lifeguards
Prince Fedorovitch or Altesse Impériale
3rd Cuirassier
Kazanskiy
Kievskiy
Novotroitskiy

Hussars

Field Hussars

Russian Vengerskiy, Moldavskiy, Gruzinskiy and Serbskiy hussars in 1756. - Source: Richard Knötel Uniformkunde

Organisation

Serbskiy (Serbian)
Gruzinskiy (Georgian)
Vengerskiy (Hungarian)
Moldavskiy (Moldavian)
Slobodskiy (Slovakian)
Makedonskiy (Macedonian)
Zeltiy (Yellow)
Bolgarskiy (Bulgarian)

Settled Hussars

1st Novoserbskiy or Horvat
2nd Novoserbskiy
Shevich
Preradovich

Horse Grenadiers

Russian cuirassiers, dragoons and horse grenadiers in 1756. - Source: Richard Knötel Uniformkunde

Organisation

Astrakhanskiy
Kargopolskiy
Narvskiy
Sankt-Peterburgskiy
Rizhskiy
Ryazanskiy

Dragoons

Organisation
Generalities about weapons and equipment

Moscowskiy

Troitskiy
Vladimirskiy
Novgorodskiy
Olonetskiy
Sibyrskiy
Pskovskiy

Tverskiy

Permskiy
Viatskiy
Nizegorodskiy
Rostovskiy
Arkhangelogorodskiy
Azovskiy

Ingermlandskiy

Vologdaskiy
Yamburgskiy
Tobolskiy
Revelskiy
Lutskiy

Cossacks

Chuguevski Cossacks
Companeiskiy Cossacks (enlisted Ukranian Cossacks)
Malorussian Cossacks (10 regiments)
Zaporozhe Cossacks (6 regiments)
Don Cossacks (22 regiments)
Terek Cossacks
Yaik Cossacks
Asiatic Cavalry

Artillery

Equipment - Guns, Howitzers, Mortars, Carriages
Organisation

1st Field Artillery Regiment
2nd Regimental Artillery Regiment
Observation Corps Field Artillery Train
Secret Howitzer Corps (Shuvalov's)
Siege (Fortress) Artillery Trains

In 1760, the troops of the disbanded Observation Corps were used to create Fusilier regiments assigned to the escort of the artillery.

1st Fusilier Regiment
2nd Fusilier Regiment
Fusilier Reserve

Engineers

Organisation

Engineer Regiment
Pontoon Company

Light Troops

Organisation

1st Pandur
2nd Pandur
3rd Pandur

Jägers (raised in August 1761)

Logistic

n/a

References

Books:

  • Duffy, Christopher: Russia's military way to the West, London 1981, pp. 120-121
  • Großer Generalstab, Kriegsgeschichtliche Abteilung II (Publisher). Die Kriege Friedrichs des Großen. Dritter Teil: Der Siebenjährige Krieg 1756–1763. Vol. 4 Groß-Jägersdorf und Breslau, Berlin 1902,

    - chapter A: Das Kaiserlich Russiche Heer, page 1-46
    - appendix: supplement 1, Das Kaiserlich Russiche Heer, page 3-18

  • Konstam, Angus; Younghusband, Bill: Russian Army of the Seven Years War (1), Men-At-Arms Series 297, Osprey Punblishing 1996
  • Konstam, Angus; Younghusband, Bill: Russian Army of the Seven Years War (2), Men-At-Arms Series 298, Osprey Punblishing 1996
  • Masslowski, Dmitrij F.: Der Siebenjährige Krieg nach russischer Darstellung

    - Band 1: Der Feldzug Apraxin's in Ostpreussen 1756 - 1757, Berlin 1888
    - Band 2: Der Feldzug des Grafen Fermor in den östlichen Gebieten von Preussen (1757 - 1759), Berlin 1891
    - Band 3: 1759 - 1762, die Feldzüge des Grafen P.S. Ssaltykow I. und A. B. Buturlin's, Berlin 1893

Manuscripts and working papers:

  • Pengel, R.D.; Hurt, G.R.: Russian Infantry of the Seven Years War, Birmingham 1976
  • Pengel, R.D.; Hurt, G.R.: Russian Uniforms and Flags of the Seven Years War, Birmingham 1980
  • Schirmer, Friedrich: Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756-1763, hrsg. von der KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg, überarb. u. aktual. Neuauflage 1989

Contemporary documents, paintings, "Bilderhandschriften" and copper engraving series:

  • ETAT nouveau. De toutes les Troupes tant régulières qu'irregulières de l'Imperatrice de toute la Russie, comme elles étoint effectivement l'an ... Jacques Andre Frederic, Augsbourg
    • 1758 (Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin - Preußischer Kulturbesitz)
    • 1759 (Staats- und Stadtbibliothek Augsburg)

Prints:

  • Knötel, Richard: Uniformkunde, Lose Blätter zur Geschichte der Entwicklung der militärischen Tracht, Rathenow 1890-1921, Vol. III, No. 21; Vol. III, No. 26; Vol. III, No. 27; Vol. III, No. 33; Vol. III, No. 34; Vol. VI, No. 46
  • Friedrich Schirmer: Zweifarben-Tücher - Eine Folge von Bildtafeln militärischer Uniformen usw. Burgdorf Hann. o.J., Group 106 and Groups 139-144
  • Viskovatov, A.V.: Istoritsheskoe opisanie odezhdy i voisk , vol. 3, St. Petersburg 1844-1856, Viskovatov, Viskovatov

Articles:

  • Brock, Dr.: Russische Truppen im siebenjährigen Kriege, in: Mittheilungen zur Geschichte der militärischen Tracht, Beilagen zum V. Bande der "Uniformkunde", No. 4, 1894, page 16
  • Ellfeldt, Hans-Günter: 1756-1763 die Russische Armee 1757-1758 in zeitgenössischer Sicht, in: Das Sponton (1961), vol. 1, no. 1, page 6-14; (1961), vol. 1, no. 2/3, page 17-22; (1962), vol. 2, no. 4/5, page 3-11
  • Knötel, Richard: Russiche Truppen in der Neumark 1758, in: Mittheilungen zur Geschichte der militärischen Tracht, Beilagen zum X. Bande der "Uniformkunde", No. 6, 1899, page 21-23
  • Lubimow, A.J.: Die Feldzeichen der russischen Armee 1741-1761, in: Die Zinnfigur, Uniformheft 18, o.J.
  • Ziegler, Volker: Das russische Observationskorps im siebenjährigen Krieg, in: Jahrbuch der Gesellschaft für hessische Militär- und Zivilgeschichte, Band 1, 2001, page 29-33
  • Ziegler, Volker: Die Infanterie der russischen Garde zur Zeit des 7-jährigen Krieges (1756-1763), in: Jahrbuch der Gesellschaft für hessische Militär- und Zivilgeschichte, Band 2, 2003, page 45-51
  • Ziegler, Volker: Die Russische Linien-Infanterie zur Zeit des 7-jährigen Krieges (1756-1763), in: Jahrbuch der Gesellschaft für hessische Militär- und Zivilgeschichte, Band 3, 2005, page 73-86
  • Ziegler, Volker: Die Russische Kavallerie zur Zeit des 7-jährigen Krieges (1756-1763), in: Jahrbuch der Gesellschaft für hessische Militär- und Zivilgeschichte, Band 4, 2007, page 62-80
  • Ziemer, Erich: Russiche Fahnen und Standarten unter der Zarin Elisabeth 1741-62. in: Artikel für KA7-Sammler aus alten "Zinnfigur" Heften (1924-1944), KLIO-Arbeitsgruppe 7jähriger Krieg, Manuskript, Köln 1980, page 123-124
  • Ziemer, Erich: Russiche Fahnenwappen aus der Zeit 1741-62. in: Artikel für KA7-Sammler aus alten "Zinnfigur" Heften (1924-1944), KLIO-Arbeitsgruppe 7jähriger Krieg, Manuskript, Köln 1980, page 126-127

Internet: