Russian Army

From Project Seven Years War
Jump to: navigation, search

Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Armies >> Russian Army

État-Major

Organisation

Guard

Russian Guards and Pandours in 1756. - Source: Richard Knötel Uniformkunde

Horse Guard
Preobrazhenskiy Leib-Guard
Semyonovskiy Leib-Guard
Izmailovskiy Leib-Guard

Infantry

Line Infantry

Organisation
Generalities about the uniforms
Generalities about weapons and equipment
Generalities about the colours

Regular Line Infantry

Russian grenadier, musketeer, staff officer and officer from 1756 to 1762. - Source: Richard Knötel Uniformkunde
1st Grenadier

2nd Grenadier
3rd Grenadier
4th Grenadier
1. Ingermanlandskiy
2. Astrakhanskiy
3. 1st Moskovskiy
4. Butyrskiy
5. 2nd Moskovskiy
6. Kievskiy
7. Troitskiy
8. Sankt-Peterburgskiy
9. Vladimirskiy

10. Novgorodskiy

11. Schlusselburgskiy
12. Kazanskiy
13. Sibyrskiy
14. Pskovskiy
15. Smolenskiy
16. Azovskiy
17. Voronezhskiy
18. Nizhegorodskiy
19. Chernigovskiy
20. Ryazanskiy
21. Suzdalskiy

22. Rostovskiy

23. Velikolutskiy
24. Arkhangelogorodskiy
25. Yaroslavlskiy
26. Permskiy
27. Belozerskiy
28. Vyatskiy
29. Vologodskiy
30. Narvskiy
31. Tobolskiy
32. Nevskiy
33. Koporskiy
34. Ladozhskiy

35. Muromskiy

36. Uglitskiy
37. Vyborgskiy
38. Keksgolmskiy
39. Kabardinskiy
40. Shirvanskiy
41. Apsheronskiy
42. Nizovskiy
43. Nasheburgskiy
44. Kurinskiy
45. Navaginskiy
46. Tenginskiy

Observation Corps

The Observation Corps was created in October 1756 as an autonomous multi-arms corps. It was finally ready at the beginning of 1758 even though it counted only 12,000 men instead of the planned 30,000. The corps was disbanded at the beginning of 1760 and its troops were incorporated into the field artillery as fusiliers.

Organisation

Grenadier Regiment
1st Musketeer Regiment
2nd Musketeer Regiment N.B.: 2nd Musketeer Regiment was never completed
3rd Musketeer Regiment
4th Musketeer Regiment
5th Musketeer Regiment

Mecklenburg Corps

This unit first served in Russia in 1719. The Duke of Mecklenburg, Karl Leopold, had married one of Peter the Great's niece. When hostilities broke out between England and Russia in 1719, the Duchy of Mecklenburg was occupied by English forces. The Duke with his military force of about 1,900 men made for Russia. This force was stationed in Ukraine. This Corps had no fixed organization or strength.

The Mecklenburg Corps was disbanded in 1743 and its personnel expatriated to Mecklenburg or distributed among garrison regiments.

Garrison Infantry

Organisation

Ostsee Garrison Infantry

There were 20 "Ostzeiskiy" (Ostsee/Baltic) garrison regiments stationed in the area of the Baltic. They were garrisoning fortresses along the western frontier of Russia.

1. Sankt-Peterbúrgskiy

2. Névskiy
3. Kopórskiy
4. Yámburgskiy
5. Kronshtádtskiy
6. Kronshlótskiy
7. Keksgólmskiy

 8. Nárvskiy

 9. Výborgskiy
10. Kyumenegórskiy
11. Fridrikhsgámskiy
12. Révelskiy
13. Estlyándskiy
14. Dérptskiy

15. Liflyándskiy

16. Ézelskiy
17. Rízhskiy
18. Petershánskiy
19. Véndenskiy
20. Pérnovskiy

Besides the garrison infantry regiments, there was also one independent garrison battalions

1. Ládozhskiy Сanal

Inner Garrison Infantry

The Inner garrison regiments were primarily used for police duty in the inner regions of Russia.

21. Kolómenskiy 3-battalion

22. Kíevskiy
23. Chernígovskiy
24. Poltávskiy
25. Starodúbskiy
26. Nézhinskiy
27. Glúkhovskiy
28. Sviyázhskiy
29. Nizhegoródskiy

30. Pénzenskiy

31. Ufímskiy
32. Pávlovskiy
33. Belgoródskiy
34. Tambóvskiy
35. Korotoyatskiy
36. Elétskiy
37. Tobólskiy
38. Eniséyskiy

39. Yakútskiy 3-battalion

40. Arkhangelogoródskiy
41. Ustyúzhskiy
42. Smolénskiy
43. Dorogobúzhskiy
44. Simbírskiy
45. Samárskiy
46. Tsarítsynskiy
47. Térskiy

Besides the garrison infantry regiments, there were also three independent garrison battalions.

1. Moskóvskiy Leib-Guard
2. Velikolútskiy
3. Bákhmutskiy

Cavalry

Line Cavalry

Cuirassiers

Russian cuirassiers, dragoons and hussars from 1756 to 1762. - Source: Richard Knötel Uniformkunde

Organisation
Generalities about the uniforms

Leib Cuirassier
His Imperial Highness aka Prince Fedorovitch or Altesse Impériale
3rd Cuirassier
Kazanskiy
Kievskiy
Novotroitskiy

Horse Grenadiers

Russian cuirassiers, dragoons and horse grenadiers in 1756. - Source: Richard Knötel Uniformkunde

Organisation

Astrakhanskiy
Kargopolskiy
Narvskiy
Sankt-Peterburgskiy
Rizhskiy
Ryazanskiy

Dragoons

Organisation
Generalities about weapons and equipment

Moskovskiy

Troitskiy
Vladimirskiy
Novgorodskiy
Olonetskiy
Sibirskiy
Pskovskiy

Tverskoy

Permskiy
Vyatskiy
Nizhegorodskiy
Rostovskiy
Arkhangelogorodskiy
Azovskiy

Ingermanlandskiy

Vologodskiy
Yamburgskiy
Tobolskiy
Revelskiy
Lutskiy

Garrison Cavalry

The Garrison Dragoons counted 7 regiments and 2 independent squadrons. They were deployed along the southern border and in the Government of Siberia. During the war, only 1 regiment and 1 independent squadron were transferred to the west.

Organisation
Generalities about the uniforms

Garrison Dragoons

Garrison Dragoon Regiments

1. Kazánskiy

2. Vorónezhskiy
3. Sibírskiy
4. Astrakhánskiy

5. Orenbúrgskiy

6. Ufímskiy
7. Novouchrezhdyónniy ("Newly established")

Garrison Dragoon Independent Squadrons

1. Moskóvskiy
2. Roslávlskiy

Hussars

Field Hussars

Russian Vengerskiy, Moldavskiy, Gruzinskiy and Serbskiy hussars in 1756. - Source: Richard Knötel Uniformkunde

Organisation

Serbskiy (Serbian)
Gruzinskiy (Georgian)
Vengerskiy (Hungarian)
Moldavskiy (Moldavian)
Slobodskiy (Slobodian)
Makedonskiy (Macedonian)
Zholtiy (Yellow)
Bolgarskiy (Bulgarian)

Settled Hussars

1st Novoserbskiy or Horvat
2nd Novoserbskiy
Shevich
Preradovich

Irregular Cavalry

Generalities about Cossacks Organisation
Generalities about the Cossack Uniforms

Enlisted Irregular Cavalry

Most Cossacks were subordinated to the Military Collegium. In reports, they are listed as irregular forces. As per the 1755 report, they counted a total of 35,204 men including:

Cossack Hosts

Don Cossacks (15,732 men)
Volga Cossacks (1,061 men)
Yaik Cossacks (3,574 men)
Greben Cossacks (495 men)

Cossack Regiments

Azov Cossacks (513 men)
Chuguev Cossacks (543 men)
Slobodian Cossacks (5,925 men in 5 regiments)
Khopyor Cossacks (122 men)
Bakhmut Cossacks (311 men)
Orenburg Cossacks (1,093 men)

Other Cossack Units

Orenburg Town Cossacks (3,765 men)
Stavropol Christianized Kalmyks (830 men)
Astrakhan Cossacks (498 men)
Kizlyar Cossacks (742 men)

Other Irregular Cavalry

Some Cossacks were not subordinated to the Military Collegium but were still considered as potential irregular forces:

  • Malorussian Cossacks formed the Kiev Governorate, which had exclusive administrative division of 10 regiments. During the 1757 campaigns of the Seven Years' War, these Cossacks fielded the Companeyskiy (volunteer) Cossack Regiment.
  • Zaporozhje Cossacks settled to the south of the Ukrainian defence line. They were considered as a buffer zone on the border with Crimean Khanate, a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire).
  • Siberian Cossacks settled to the east of the Orenburg Cossacks along the southern border of Russian Siberian lands.

In addition to Cossacks, the Russian Army could also field irregular cavalry of some semi-nomad and nomad nations who were considered as "natural cavalrymen":

Militias

Ukrainian Landmilitia

The 20 Ukrainian Landmilitia mounted regiments were military settlements on the southern border of Russia in Ukraine.

Organisation

1. Lívenskiy

2. Tambóvskiy
3. Borisoglébskiy
4. Orlóvskiy
5. Efrémovskiy
6. Slobódskiy
7. Kozlóvskiy

8. Ryázhskiy

9. Bélevskiy
10. Rýlskiy
11. Belgoródskiy
12. Elétskiy
13. Novooskólskiy
14. Kúrskiy

15. Bryánskiy

16. Vorónezhskiy
17. Valúyskiy
18. Sévskiy
19. Starooskólskiy
20. Putívlskiy

Trans-Kama Landmilitia

The 4 Trans-Kama (Zakamskaia) Landmilitia regiments were military settlements in the region of Orenburg, near the Kama River. There were 3 mounted regiments and 1 infantry regiment.

Organisation

Mounted:

1. Sheshminskiy
2. Bilyárskiy
3. Sérgievskiy

Infantry:

4. Alekséevskiy

Artillery

Regular Artillery

Equipment - Guns, Howitzers, Mortars, Carriages
Organisation

1st Field Artillery Regiment
2nd Regimental Artillery Regiment
Observation Corps Field Artillery Train
Secret Howitzer Corps (Shuvalov's)
Siege (Fortress) Artillery Trains

In 1760, the troops of the disbanded Observation Corps were used to create Fusilier regiments assigned to the escort of the artillery.

1st Fusilier Regiment
2nd Fusilier Regiment
Fusilier Reserve

Garrison Artillery

The Garrison Artillery totalled some 6,000 men distributed among the various fortresses and artillery parks.

Engineers

Regular Engineers

Organisation

Engineer Regiment
Pontoon Company

Garrison Engineers

There were 600 engineers distributed among the various fortresses of the empire.

Light Troops

Organisation

1st Pandur
2nd Pandur
3rd Pandur

Jägers (raised in August 1761)

Logistic

n/a

References

Books:

  • Duffy, Christopher: Russia's military way to the West, London 1981, pp. 120-121
  • Großer Generalstab, Kriegsgeschichtliche Abteilung II (Publisher). Die Kriege Friedrichs des Großen. Dritter Teil: Der Siebenjährige Krieg 1756–1763. Vol. 4 Groß-Jägersdorf und Breslau, Berlin 1902,

    - chapter A: Das Kaiserlich Russiche Heer, page 1-46
    - appendix: supplement 1, Das Kaiserlich Russiche Heer, page 3-18

  • Konstam, Angus; Younghusband, Bill: Russian Army of the Seven Years War (1), Men-At-Arms Series 297, Osprey Punblishing 1996
  • Konstam, Angus; Younghusband, Bill: Russian Army of the Seven Years War (2), Men-At-Arms Series 298, Osprey Punblishing 1996
  • Masslowski, Dmitrij F.: Der Siebenjährige Krieg nach russischer Darstellung

    - Band 1: Der Feldzug Apraxin's in Ostpreussen 1756 - 1757, Berlin 1888
    - Band 2: Der Feldzug des Grafen Fermor in den östlichen Gebieten von Preussen (1757 - 1759), Berlin 1891
    - Band 3: 1759 - 1762, die Feldzüge des Grafen P.S. Ssaltykow I. und A. B. Buturlin's, Berlin 1893

Manuscripts and working papers:

  • Pengel, R.D.; Hurt, G.R.: Russian Infantry of the Seven Years War, Birmingham 1976
  • Pengel, R.D.; Hurt, G.R.: Russian Uniforms and Flags of the Seven Years War, Birmingham 1980
  • Schirmer, Friedrich: Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756-1763, hrsg. von der KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg, überarb. u. aktual. Neuauflage 1989

Contemporary documents, paintings, "Bilderhandschriften" and copper engraving series:

  • ETAT nouveau. De toutes les Troupes tant régulières qu'irregulières de l'Imperatrice de toute la Russie, comme elles étoint effectivement l'an ... Jacques Andre Frederic, Augsbourg
    • 1758 (Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin - Preußischer Kulturbesitz)
    • 1759 (Staats- und Stadtbibliothek Augsburg)
  • Entwurf einer Vorstellung der Russisch-Kayserlichen Armee, 1760 (Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin - Preußischer Kulturbesitz)

Prints:

  • Knötel, Richard: Uniformkunde, Lose Blätter zur Geschichte der Entwicklung der militärischen Tracht, Rathenow 1890-1921, Vol. III, No. 21; Vol. III, No. 26; Vol. III, No. 27; Vol. III, No. 33; Vol. III, No. 34; Vol. VI, No. 46
  • Friedrich Schirmer: Zweifarben-Tücher - Eine Folge von Bildtafeln militärischer Uniformen usw. Burgdorf Hann. o.J., Group 106 and Groups 139-144
  • Viskovatov, A.V.: Istoritsheskoe opisanie odezhdy i voisk , vol. 3, St. Petersburg 1844-1856, Viskovatov, Viskovatov

Articles:

  • Brock, Dr.: Russische Truppen im siebenjährigen Kriege, in: Mittheilungen zur Geschichte der militärischen Tracht, Beilagen zum V. Bande der "Uniformkunde", No. 4, 1894, page 16
  • Ellfeldt, Hans-Günter: 1756-1763 die Russische Armee 1757-1758 in zeitgenössischer Sicht, in: Das Sponton (1961), vol. 1, no. 1, page 6-14; (1961), vol. 1, no. 2/3, page 17-22; (1962), vol. 2, no. 4/5, page 3-11
  • Knötel, Richard: Russiche Truppen in der Neumark 1758, in: Mittheilungen zur Geschichte der militärischen Tracht, Beilagen zum X. Bande der "Uniformkunde", No. 6, 1899, page 21-23
  • Lubimow, A.J.: Die Feldzeichen der russischen Armee 1741-1761, in: Die Zinnfigur, Uniformheft 18, o.J.
  • Ziegler, Volker: Das russische Observationskorps im siebenjährigen Krieg, in: Jahrbuch der Gesellschaft für hessische Militär- und Zivilgeschichte, Band 1, 2001, page 29-33
  • Ziegler, Volker: Die Infanterie der russischen Garde zur Zeit des 7-jährigen Krieges (1756-1763), in: Jahrbuch der Gesellschaft für hessische Militär- und Zivilgeschichte, Band 2, 2003, page 45-51
  • Ziegler, Volker: Die Russische Linien-Infanterie zur Zeit des 7-jährigen Krieges (1756-1763), in: Jahrbuch der Gesellschaft für hessische Militär- und Zivilgeschichte, Band 3, 2005, page 73-86
  • Ziegler, Volker: Die Russische Kavallerie zur Zeit des 7-jährigen Krieges (1756-1763), in: Jahrbuch der Gesellschaft für hessische Militär- und Zivilgeschichte, Band 4, 2007, page 62-80
  • Ziemer, Erich: Russiche Fahnen und Standarten unter der Zarin Elisabeth 1741-62. in: Artikel für KA7-Sammler aus alten "Zinnfigur" Heften (1924-1944), KLIO-Arbeitsgruppe 7jähriger Krieg, Manuskript, Köln 1980, page 123-124
  • Ziemer, Erich: Russiche Fahnenwappen aus der Zeit 1741-62. in: Artikel für KA7-Sammler aus alten "Zinnfigur" Heften (1924-1944), KLIO-Arbeitsgruppe 7jähriger Krieg, Manuskript, Köln 1980, page 126-127

Internet: