Russian Horse Grenadiers Organisation

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Introduction

Horse grenadiers regiments had disappeared from the Russian army since 1726. They were re-introduced in 1756 when the Russian cavalry was reorganised. At this occasion, six former dragoon regiments were converted into horse grenadier units.

Of these 6 horse grenadier regiments, 5 took an active part to the Seven Years' War. The real strength of all horse grenadier regiments remained well under the theoretical strength during the entire Seven Years' War. In 1757, most of them could field only 4 squadrons. From 1758, the horse grenadier regiments usually fielded 3 sqns while 1 or 2 sqns were used as depot for replacements. In 1759, the 5th squadron was designated as a reserve squadron.

Composition and Organisation

A horse grenadier regiment totalled some 1,000 men (32 officers and 915 men including 150 non-combatants) and consisted of:

  • staff:
    • 1 colonel
    • 1 lieutenant-colonel (also leading a squadron)
    • 1 first-major (also leading a squadron)
    • 1 second-major (also leading a squadron)
    • 1 quartermaster
    • 1 warrant officer
    • 95 non-combatants (coachmen, horse keepers...), including
      • 2 commissaries
      • 1 chief of train
      • 1 chaplain
      • 1 doctor
      • 1 assistant doctor
      • 3 clerks
      • 2 provision clerks
      • 2 trumpeters
      • 8 oboists
      • 1 kettle-drummer
      • 2 provosts
  • 5 squadrons, each of:
    • 2 companies, each of :
      • 1 captain
      • 1 first lieutenant
      • 1 second lieutenant
      • 6 NCOs
      • 2 drummers (trumpeters according to the Grosser Generalstab's work)
      • 69 horse grenadiers
      • 5 non-combatants

The companies were grouped into squadrons as follows:

  • 1st squadron: 1st company and 6th company
  • 2nd squadron: 2nd company and 7th company
  • 3rd squadron: 3rd company and 8th company
  • 4th squadron: 4th company and 9th company
  • 5th squadron: 5th company and 10th company

For combat, the best troopers of each squadron were combined into a Reserve half squadron. The role of this latter squadron was to protect the flanks and rear of the line.

Regimental guns

The regulation stated that each regiment of horse grenadiers had a regimental artillery consisting of:

  • 2 x 3-pdr cannon (each with 2 small 6-pdrs mortars affixed to its carriage)

These pieces were served by 6 gunners, 4 fusiliers and 6 wagoners from the Russian artillery. Furthermore, the regiment was accompanied by 4 two-horses artillery ammunition wagon and 6 two-horses cartridge ammunition wagons and an additional two-horses wagon transporting grenades.

In the field, a regiment rarely had more than 1 piece.

From 1758, the guns were gradually replaced by 8-pdr unicorns.

Train

The train of a horse grenadier regiment counted between 60 and 70 vehicles including ammunition, cartridge and hand grenades carts.

References

Großer Generalstab, Kriegsgeschichtliche Abteilung II (Publisher). Die Kriege Friedrichs des Großen, Part 3: Der Siebenjährige Krieg 1756–1763. Vol. 4 Groß-Jägersdorf und Breslau, Berlin 1902

  • chapter A: Das Kaiserlich Russiche Heer, page 1-46
  • appendix: supplement 1, Das Kaiserlich Russiche Heer, page 3-18

Konstam, Angus, and Bill Younghusband, Russian Army of the Seven Years War, Vol. 2, Osprey Men at Arms Series, No. 297, 1996

Schirmer, Friedrich, Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756-1763, published by the KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg, Neuauflage 1989, pp. 54-55

Ziegler, Volker: Die Russische Kavallerie zur Zeit des 7-jährigen Krieges (1756-1763), in: Jahrbuch der Gesellschaft für hessische Militär- und Zivilgeschichte, vol. 4, 2007, pp. 62-80

Zweguintzov, L'Armee Russe, 1973