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Revision as of 09:38, 22 November 2017
Origin and History
After the signature of the Treaty of Rastatt, on March 6 1714 and of the Treaty of Baden on September 7 1714, the former Spanish Netherlands became the property of the Habsburg monarchy and were then known as the Austrian Netherlands. Units raised in this province were thus incorporated into the Austrian Army. FM Josef Lothar Count Königsegg informed Emperor Charles VI of the present condition of these units. On April 24 1716, he recommended a new organisation for them. Initially, his recommendations were not accepted.
In 1725, the interim governor of the Netherlands, FM Wirich Philipp Lorenz Count Daun, received orders to reorganize the troops of the Austrian Netherlands. He adhered to FM Königsegg's old proposal and added some suggestions made by the Marquis de Prié, minister of the government of the Austrian Netherlands. At that time, the national troops of the Austrian Netherlands comprised 7 infantry regiments and 1 cavalry regiment. The infantry totalled 267 officers and 4,203 men and consisted of:
- Marquis los Rios (36 officers and 621 men) stationed in Antwerp
- Duke de Ligne (37 officers and 505 men) stationed in Antwerp
- Count Bournonville (38 officers and 626 men) stationed in Mons
- Count Maldeghem (39 officers and 696 men) stationed in Oudenaarde
- Count Lannoy (39 officers and 517 men) stationed in Mons
- Marquis de Prié (39 officers and 602 men) stationed in Mons
- Comte de Gand (39 officers and 606 men) stationed in Termonde
On August 1 1725, these 7 infantry regiments were reorganised in three “Walloon regiments”:
- Prié-Turinetti Infantry (the present regiment) formed by the amalgamation of Prié, Maldeghem and Lannoy
- de Ligne Infantry formed by the amalgamation of de Ligne and Gand
- Los Rios Infantry formed by the amalgamation of Los Rios and Bournonnville
Emperor Charles VI appointed FZM Johann Anton de Turinetti, Marquis de Prié et de Pancarlier as proprietor of the present regiment. Lieutenant-Colonel Daniel d'Oconnor from the former Prié regiment assumed effective command of the new regiment. The theoretical strength of the regiment should be 1,700 men in peacetime and 2,000 men in wartime.
Each of the three newly formed regiments consisted of 15 fusilier companies organized in 3 battalions (each of 5 companies) and two grenadier companies.
On September 12 1727, Colonel d'Oconnor informed the Vienna authorities about the poor conditions of Prié-Turinetti Infantry which was stationed in Antwerp. A lot of troopers were ill or had deserted, uniforms and weapons were unusable. As result of his report, the regiment transferred to Luxembourg the same year.
In 1729, each Walloon regiment was increased by 300 troopers.
The regiment remained in the Austrian Netherlands and in Luxembourg until 1740 without taking part in any action.
In 1740, the regiments were reorganized. Each one now consisted of 4 fusilier battalions of 4 companies each.
At the outbreak of the War of the Austrian Succession, part of Prié-Turinetti Infantry (2 fusilier battalions and the 2 grenadier companies) was allocated to the corps of FM Duke Ahremberg while the 2 other battalions remained at Nieuport and Ostende. At the end of February 1743, Ahremberg's Corps was sent to join the so called “Pragmatische Armee” built form British and Hanoverian troops and marched with them to Frankfurt am Main. On June 27, the regiment (2 battalions and the grenadiers) took part in the Battle of Dettingen where it lost 30 men killed, 24 wounded and 9 missing. At the end of the year, the regiment returned once more to Luxembourg. In 1744, 3 battalions and the grenadiers were at Nieuport and 1 battalion at Termonde. They would remain in these places until 1756.
In 1753, the Marquis de Prié-Turinetti ceded the regiment to Wilhelm Prince zu Sachsen-Gotha.
As per the Etat nouveau des Troupes de sa Majesté Impériale Royale comme elles se trouvent effectivement l'an 1759 and Etat général des Troupes qui servent sa Majesté Impériale et Royale Apostolique sur pié en 1760, the regiment counted 4 battalions (2 grenadier coys and 16 fusilier coys) for a total of 2,300 men. This was the administrative organisation of the regiment. However, the tactical organisation differed: 2 field fusilier battalions, each of 6 companies; 2 grenadier companies (usually converged with grenadiers from other battalions into an ad hoc unit); and 1 garrison battalion of 4 companies (see Austrian Line Infantry Organisation for more details).
Since its creation in 1725, the successive chefs of the regiment were:
- since August 1 1725: Johann Anton de Turinetti, Marquis de Prié et de Pancarlier
- from 1753 until May 1771: Wilhelm Karl Duke Sachsen-Gotha
Since its creation in 1725, its successive colonel-commanders were:
- since August 26 1725: Daniel d'Oconnor
- from January 1744 to March 1748: Maritius Count Castiglione
- from May 1748 to December 14 1750: Karl Duke d'Ursel
- from February 10 1751 to January 8 1754: Otton Taye, Marquis de Wemmel
- from February 28 1754 to March 31 1758: Franz von Baxerras
- from April 2 1758: Peter Josef de Navarro
- from August 10 1760 to February 26 1763: Josef Peter Baron de Langlois
- from March 1 1763 until May 1 1773: Josef Count Clerfayt de la Croix
Regimental numbers were introduced only in 1769 when this regiment was designated as "I.R. 30".
Service during the War
In 1756, at the outbreak of the war, 2 battalions remained at Luxembourg while 1 battalion watched the coast near Nieuport and, on October 31, the “Leib-Bataillon” with the grenadiers set off with the corps of GFWM Count Arberg and marched through Luxembourg to Donauwörth where it boarded ships who transported it on the Danube River to Regensburg. From there this battalion and the grenadiers joined the army assembling near Königgrätz (present-day Hradec Králové/CZ) under the command of GdC Count Serbelloni.
In April 1757, the “Leib-Bataillon” and the grenadiers arrived at the camps near Humpoletz (present-day Humpolec/CZ), Ledetsch (present-day Ledeč nad Sázavou/CZ) and Svietla (present-day Světlá nad Sázavou/CZ). On May, FM Leopold von Daun replaced Serbelloni at the head of the army and marched towards Prague. On June 18 1757, the “Leib-Bataillon” and the grenadiers took part in the Battle of Kolin where they were part of Müffling’s Brigade in the corps of Count Colloredo held in reserve behind the centre. The army followed the Prussians towards Upper Lusatia. On September 7, when General Nádasdy attacked Winterfeldt's isolated corps during the Combat of Moys (present day part of Zgorzelec/PL), the “Leib-Bataillon” and the grenadiers were deployed in the third line of the first column of attack led by FML Duke Ahremberg. During the storming of the Prussian entrenchments on the Holzberg, Nádasdy personally led the grenadiers. The latter shouted: “Vive Marie Thérèse, à la baionette les Wallons” and drove the Prussians back. Grenadier Captain Josef Baron Hérissem distinguished himself there. In this combat the grenadiers lost 1 officer and 3 men killed; 2 officers and 41 wounded; and 8 men missing. For their part, the fusiliers lost 4 men killed and 32 wounded. On November 22, the “Leib-Bataillon” and the grenadiers took part in the Battle of Breslau where they were part of the Reserve Corps of the Duke Ahremberg in Baron Wolff's Brigade. Grenadier Captain Baron Hérissem, as eldest officer that day, was commander of the whole fusilier battalion. When Hérissem got knowledge, that the grenadier division had been ordered to storm a Prussian battery north of Schmiedefeld, he immediately rejoined his grenadiers and led the attack on the battery which was captured after heavy fighting. On December 5 at the Battle of Leuthen, the “Leib-Bataillon” and the grenadiers were deployed in the first line of the far right Reserve under Major-General von Luzinsky. This corps covered the retreat of the army and the regiment suffered heavy losses (Major Count Saint-Genois, 1 officer and 60 men killed; 5 officers and 91 men wounded; 1 officer and 14 men taken prisoners. After the battle, the various contingents of the Walloon regiments were so weak that they were combined in one temporary battalion (de Ligne Infantry with 254 men, Arberg Infantry with 265 men, Sachsen-Gotha Infantry with 221 men and Los Rios Infantry with 361 men). This ad hoc battalion was allocated to the brigade of Major-General Los Rios and took up its winter-quarters around Königgrätz.
The same year (1757), the regiment contributed its “Obrist-Battalion” led by by Colonel Franz von Baxerras and 1 grenadier company (especially raised for the occasion) to the Austrian Contingent under Major-General Baron Dombasle sent to the assistance of the French Army during the invasion of Hanover. The four battalions strong Austrian Contingent assembled at Ruremonde. On April 4, Dombasle effected a junction with a French Corps under the Prince de Soubise between the Meuse and the Rhine. Soubise ordered the Austrian Contingent to move into the Cleve and Gueldre Duchies and occupy them. On April 6, 3 battalions of the Austrian Contingent, under the Comte de Dombasle, entered into Cleve. On May 21, the Maréchal d'Estrées set off from Wesel. In June, the “Obrist-Battalion” was in the camp of Bielefeld with the French Lower Rhine Army under the Comte d'Estrées. The so-called “Observationsarmee” led by the Duke of Cumberland had gradually retired to Minden to avoid battle. On July 26, the “Obrist-Battalion” was at the Battle of Hastenbeck where it was part of the right wing under d'Armentières. It took part in the attack on Cumberland's batteries. After the victory, the “Obrist-Battalion” encamped at Grosselsen near Hameln with the main body of the French Army of the Lower Rhine from July 31 to August 2. In November, Dombasle's Corps took up its winter-quarters at Osterwieck. At the end of the year, the “Obrist-Battalion” took up its winter-quarters in the first line of the French Army at Duderstadt (at Gifhorn and later at Wolfenbüttel according to Hailig).
During the winter of 1757-58 in Bohemia, the ad hoc Walloon battalion was quartered around Königgrätz. In March 1758, some new recruits arrived from the Austrian Netherlands. The “Leib-Bataillon” of Sachsen-Gotha Infantry and a battalion of Los Rios Infantry were combined in one temporary battalion. On March 12, this battalion along with the 2 grenadier companies marched to Stösser (present-day Stěžery/CZ) while a regimental depot was established in Prague. On April 29, the combined battalion marched to Daun's new camp at Skalitz (present-day Skalice nad Metují/CZ). During the unsuccessful Siege of Olmütz by the Prussians and their subsequent retreat to Saxony, the combined battalion remained with Daun's Army and saw no action. In June, additional recruits arrived from the Austrian Netherlands and the “Leib-Bataillon” formed again an independent battalion of 646 men with 2 grenadier companies totalling 208 grenadiers. On September 4, the “Leib-Bataillon” went to Stolpen.
On April 2 1758 in Luxembourg, Lieutenant-Colonel Peter Josef de Navarro was promoted to colonel and took command of the battalions stationed there. Furthermore, Lieutenant-Colonel Peter Franz von Maringh (formerly from Hildburghausen Infantry) was transferred to Sachsen-Gotha Infantry and took command of the field battalion.
Meanwhile, in April 1758 on the Rhine, when the Comte de Clermont redeployed the French army along the Rhine, the “Obrist-Battalion” remained in Wesel. In May, Dombasle received order from the Hofkriegsrat (war Council) to effect a junction with the Reichsarmee commanded by the Prince von Zweibrücken. In June, Dombasle's Corps marched through Bamberg, Hof, Zwickau and Chemnitz to Glashütte where it arrived on July 25. By August 28, Dombasle's Corps was in the main camp of the Reichsarmee at Struppen. In September, this corps took part in the siege of the Fortress of Sonnenstein. After the capitulation of the fortress, it occupied Pirna. On October 4, Dombasle's Corps effected a junction with Daun's Army at Stolpen where the “Obrist-Battalion” was reunited with the “Leib-Bataillon”. On October 10, these 2 battalions and the 2 grenadier companies took part in the battle of Hochkirch where they were deployed in the left column (under Duke d'Ursel) of Arenberg's Corps on the Austrian right wing to the east of Rodewitz. At midnight, Major-General Duke d'Ursel left his positions with his troops and marched to Rodewitz. Around 7:00 a.m., d'Ursel's column attacked a big Prussian battery and capture its guns. During this fight, the regiment lost 25 men killed; 6 officers and 85 men wounded; and 9 men taken prisoners. These 2 battalions remained with Daun's Army without further action. On November 21, the army marched to its winter-quarters in Bohemia where the regiment went to Horešowitz (present-day Horaždovice/CZ).
On December 28, Lieutenant-Colonel Peter Baron Langlois was transferred from Hildburghausen Infantry to the regiment and promoted to second colonel (agregierter Obrist).
On March 1 1759, the “Leib-Bataillon” and the “Obrist-Battalion” (now totalling 39 officers and 1,328 men) went to Böhmisch Leipa (present-day Česká Lípa/CZ) and from there to Daun's main army. They were allocated to the corps of FZM Harsch which should watch the border between Bohemia and Silesia. In June, these 2 battalions were at Trautenau (present-day Trutnov/CZ). In July, they were assigned to FML Wolfersdorf's detachment (6,000 men) and went to Goldenölse (present-day Zlatá Olešnice/CZ). On August 1, Wolfersdorf's detachment was attacked by a superior Prussian force under General Fouqué and retired to Trautenau. On December 24, Harsch's Corps marched by Reichenberg to Saxony, the regiment took up its winter-quarters at Rabenau.
In January 1760, one battalion of each Walloon regiment (including the “Obrist-Battalion” of the present one) returned to the Austrian Netherlands. The “Leib-Battailon” and the 2 grenadier companies remained with the Austrian army operating in Saxony. They remained in their quarters at Rabenau until May and were then assigned to the corps of FZM Count Wied at Dippoldiswalde. In July, they were transferred to the corps of FML Guasco who marched to the support of the the Reichsarmee. In July, the “Leib-Battailon” and the grenadiers took part in the defence of Dresden where the grenadiers particularly distinguished themselves during several successful sorties. Colonel Baron Langlois, who was commander of the grenadier corps during siege, and captain O'Byrne also distinguished themselves. On August 12, Langlois was promoted to major-general (he would nevertheless remain colonel and regiment commander until February 26 1763). When the Prussians raised the siege, the “Leib-Battailon” and the grenadiers rejoined the corps of FML Count Guasco and, on August 20, took part in the Combat of Strehla. On August 27, the Prince of Zweibrücken intended to attack General Hülsen's troops in their camp at Süptitz but Hülsen retired to Torgau. FML Guasco with his troops attacked the Prussians in Torgau, 2,600 Prussians surrender. During the engagement, the regiment lost 21 men killed and 27 wounded. On October 2, Zweibrücken once more tried to attack Hülsen at Wittenberg. In this new engagement, the regiment lost 34 men killed; 3 officers and 56 men wounded; and 5 men missing. Hülsen retired from Wittenberg but the garrison under General Salenmon refused to capitulate and the Austrians laid siege to Wittenberg. On October 14, Salenmon and his 15,000 men capitulated. On November 4, the Austrian contingent previously attached to the Reichsarmee received orders to rejoin the Austrian main army. The “Leib-Battailon” and the grenadiers took up their winter-quarters at Dippoldiswalde. By then, the battalion and the grenadiers totalled 1,078 men.
The “Leib-Battailon” and the grenadiers remained at Dippoldiswalde until May 1761. They were then assigned for a short time to the corps of GdC Count O'Donell. In July, they were transferred to Loudon's Army operating in Silesia. The “Leib-Battailon” was in the second line under FML Butller while the grenadiers were converged with those of Arberg Infantry and Los Rios Infantry in a grenadier battalion led by FML Baron Ellrichshausen. The battalion and the grenadiers took part in all further actions of Loudon's Army. On October 1, the grenadiers, under Captain d´Hérissem, distinguished themselves during the Storming of Schweidnitz. The battalion and the grenadiers then remained in Schweidnitz until October 23. They were then assigned to the corps of FML Baron Beck. They took up their winter-quarters at Rengersdorf (present-day Stankowice/PL).
In May 1762, the “Leib-Battailon” and the grenadiers (a total of 1,082 men) joined the main army and were attached to the corps of FML Baron Ellrichshausen posted to the north-east of Schweidnitz. On July 1, FM Daun took a new camp between Bögendorf (present-day Witoszow/PL) and Freiburg (present-day Swiebodzice/PL). One grenadier company of the regiment (Captain Baron d´Hérissem) and 151 fusiliers under Lieutenant Franz de Piza supported the garrison of Schweidnitz. On October 8, during the Siege of Schweidnitz the powder magazine in the Jauernicker Fort exploded, Captain d'Hérissem and 64 grenadiers were killed. On October 9, when the fortress finally capitulated, the entire garrison became prisoners of war. On November 2, the “Leib-Battailon” and the remaining grenadier company joined the corps of FZM Lacy in Bohemia and took up their winter-quarters at Falkenau (present-day Falknov/CZ).
After the signature of the Treaty of Hubertusburg in February 1763, the “Leib-Battailon” and the grenadiers returned to the Austrian Netherlands. At the end of May, they arrived at Luxembourg where they rejoined the 2 other battalions of the regiment and its staff. The regiment then garrisoned Luxembourg.
On March 1 1763, GFWM Peter von Langlois left the regiment. His functions were taken by Josef Count Clerfayt who was promoted to colonel.
|Neck stock||one red and one black (for parades the regimental commanders agreed before on the colour of the neckstocks)|
|Coat||white lined ultramarine (lined white in 1762) with 3 yellow buttons under the right lapel and 1 yellow button in the small of the back on each side
|Waistcoat||ultramarine (white in 1762) with 2 rows of yellow buttons and with horizontal pockets, each with 3 yellow buttons|
|Breeches||ultramarine (white in 1762)|
|Gaiters||one pair of black (for winter) and one pair of white gaiters (for summer and parade)|
Troopers were armed with a musket (Model 1745 for fusiliers, Model 1754 for grenadiers). Grenadiers carried a sabre and a bayonet while fusiliers carried only a bayonet.
Muhsfeldt mention red as the distinctive colour in 1757. Furthermore, he mentions that the uniform was white lined red with red cuffs and that the waistcoat was red...
no information found yet
The officers wore the same uniform as the privates with the following exceptions:
- tricorne laced gold with white plumes, a white and green cockade
- black neckstock
- a golden aiguillette on the left shoulder
- no turnbacks
- yellow and black silk sash around the waist
- red sash across the right shoulder (worn under the coat)
Senior officers carried sticks identifying their rank:
- lieutenant: bamboo stick without knob
- captain: long rush stick with a bone knob
- major: long rush stick with a silver knob and a small silver chain
- lieutenant-colonel: long rush stick with a larger silver knob without chain
- colonel: long rush stick with a golden knob
Sergeants carried a halberd and a wooden stick.
Corporals carried a halberd.
Until 1760, despite the new regulation of 1755, musicians wore a reversed colour uniform:
- ultramarine coat with white distinctives
- white swallow nests edged yellow
- white cuffs edged yellow
From 1760, they wore uniforms identical to those of the privates with swallow nests on the shoulders.
The drum had a brass barrel decorated with black flames at the bottom and with a black double headed Eagle on a yellow field. Rims were decorated with red and white diagonal stripes. The bandolier was white.
All German infantry regiments carried identical colours: a white Leibfahne (colonel) and yellow Regimentsfahne. The hand painted colours were made of silk and measured Size 178 cm x 127 cm. The 260 cm long flagpoles had golden finial and were decorated with black and yellow spirals of cloth.
The colonel colour was carried by the first battalion.
Colonel flag (Leibfahne):
- field: white
- border: alternating white and yellow outer waved triangles pointing inwards, red and black inner waved triangles pointing outwards
- obverse (right): the Immaculate Mother of God (which had been declared the patroness of the army by kaiser Ferdinand III) on a cloud, crushing a snake under her foot and surrounded by rays
- reverse (left): crowned and armed Imperial double-eagle with the "Lothringen-Toscanian" arms on a shield and the initials of the Emperor CF (Corregens Franciscus) on the left wing and IM (Imperator Magnus) on the right
Regimental flags (Regimentsfahne):
- field: yellow
- border: alternating white and yellow outer waved triangles pointing inwards, red and black inner waved triangles pointing outwards
- obverse (right): crowned and armed Imperial double-eagle with the "Lothringen-Toscanian" arms on a shield and the initials of the Emperor CF (Corregens Franciscus) on the left wing and IM (Imperator Magnus) on the right
- reverse (left): unarmed and crowned Imperial double-eagle with the arms of Hungaria and Bohemia on a shield and the initials M on the left wing and T on the right
In fact, the situation on the field was slightly more complex than this, since colours were usually replaced only when worn out. It is fairly possible that some regiment who had been issued colours of the 1743 pattern were still carrying them at the beginning of the Seven Years' War. For more details, see Austrian Line Infantry Colours.
This article contains texts from the following sources, which are now in the public domain:
- Hailig, E.: Geschichte des K. und K. Infanterie-Regiments Nr. 30, Lemberg, 1896
- Seyfart, Kurzgefaßte Geschichte aller kaiserlich-königlichen Regimenter zu Pferde und zu Fuß, Frankfurth and Leipzig, 1762, p. 33
Accurate Vorstellung der sämtlichen KAYSERLICH KOENIGLICHEN ARMEEN zur eigentlichen Kentnis der UNIFORM von jedem Regimente. Nebst beygefügter Geschichte, worinne von der Stiftung, denen Chefs, der Staercke, und den wichtigsten Thaten jedes Regiments Nachricht gegeben wird., Nürnberg auf Kosten der Raspischen Buchhandlung. Ao. 1762
Bilderhandschrift Delacre: Militair Etat der Ganzen Kayl., Königl. Armee Wienn 1757
Bleckwenn, Hans; Die Regimenter der Kaiserin, Gedanken zur "Albertina Handschrift" 1762 des Heeresgeschichtlichen Museums Wien, Köln: 1967
Dihm, Dr. Hermann; Oesterreichische Standarten und Fahnen zur Zeit des 7 jährigen Krieges, Die Zinnfigur, Klio
Donath, Rudolf; Die Kaiserliche und Kaiserlich-Königliche Österreichische Armee 1618-1918, 2. Aufl., Simbach/Inn 1979
Etat nouveau des Troupes de sa Majesté Impériale Royale comme elles se trouvent effectivement l'an 1759
Etat général des Troupes qui servent sa Majesté Impériale et Royale Apostolique sur pié en 1760
Friese, Ulf-Joachim, Quellen zur Uniformierung der österreichisch-ungarischen Armee 1740-1763
Funcken, Liliane and Fred , Les uniformes de la guerre en dentelle
Hausmann, Friedrich, Die Feldzeichen der Truppen Maria Theresias, Schriften des Heeresgeschichtlichen Museums, vol. 3, Vienna: 1967
Knötel, Herbert d.J.; Brauer, Hans M.: Heer und Tradition / Heeres-Uniformbogen (so-called “Brauer-Bogen”), Berlin 1926-1962, Österreich-Ungarn – 1756-63
Kornauth, Friedrich, Das Heer Maria Theresias: Faksimile-Ausgabe der Albertina-Handschrift, "Dessins des Uniformes des Troupes I.I. et R.R. de l'année 1762", Wien: 1973
Muhsfeldt, Th.; Abzeichenfarben der K. und K. Regimenter zu Fuss im Jahre 1757 und früher, in Mitteilungen zur Geschichte des militärischen Tracht, No. 12, 1904
Schirmer, Friedrich, Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756-1763, hrsg. von der KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg, überarb. u. aktual. Neuauflage 1989
Rogge, Christian; The French & Allied Armies in Germany during the Seven Years War, Frankfurt, 2006
Service historique de l'armée de terre - Archives du génie, article 15, section 1, §5, pièce 23.
Seidel, Paul; Nochmals österreichische Standarten und Fahnen zur Zeit des 7 jährigen Krieges, Die Zinnfigur, Clio
Thümmler, L.-H., Die Österreichiches Armee im Siebenjährigen Krieg: Die Bautzener Bilderhandschrift aus dem Jahre 1762, Berlin 1993
N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.
Harald Skala and Michael Zahn for gathering most of the information about this regiment