Schultze Infantry

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Origin and History

Schultze Infantry Private in 1759 - Source: Engraving by von Schmalen, Nürnberg 1759

The regiment was raised in Wesel in 1723 as a fusilier regiment. Its troops consisted of smaller soldiers contributed by several Prussian infantry regiments.

In 1740, this fusilier regiment became a regular musketeer regiment.

During the War of the Austrian Succession, on April 10 1741, one battalion of the regiment took part in the Battle of Mollwitz. On May 17 1742, the regiment fought at the Battle of Chotusitz. In 1743, it became part of the garrison of Breslau and was permanently transferred to Silesia. On June 4 1745, it took part in the Battle of Hohenfriedberg.

After its transfer to Silesia, the regiment recruited in the districts of Liegnitz, Lüben and Trebnitz. It garrisoned Breslau.

During the Seven Years' War, the regiment was commanded by:

  • since April 13 1747: Hans Caspar Ernst von Schultze
  • from January 5 1758 to April 3 1758: Carl Heinrich von Wedell
  • from April 3 1758 to May 22 1764: vacant (known as Vacant Wedell)
  • from May 22 1764: Carl Gottfried von Knobloch

The numbering system (Stammliste) was first used by Leopold I, Fürst von Anhalt-Dessau (Der alte Dessauer) in the Dessauer Spezifikation from 1737. Around 1780 the numbers were used in the printed Stammlisten, still with some variations for the fusilier regiments. It became official by "Cabinets-Ordre" from October 1, 1806. The present infantry regiment was attributed number 29.

In 1806, the regiment was disbanded after the capitulations of Pasewalk and Breslau.

Service during the War

In 1756, the regiment was part of the Army of Silesia under Field-Marshal Schwerin. During this campaign, this army undertook operations in Eastern Bohemia.

In 1757, the regiment took part in the invasion of Bohemia. On May 6, it fought at the Battle of Prague where it was deployed in the first line in Hautcharmoy's Brigade. On June 18, the regiment took part in the Battle of Kolin where it was deployed in the van at the extreme left under Hülsen. Around 2:00 p.m., this corps assaulted and took Krzeczhorz Height. At the end of the afternoon, it managed to capture a nearby oak-wood but, being totally unsupported, soon lost it. Fierce attacks of the Austrian cavalry then forced Hülsen to retreat with heavy losses. On September 7, when an Austrian force under the command of General Nádasdy attacked Winterfeldt's isolated corps in the Combat of Moys, one battalion of the regiment was sent as reinforcement by Bevern from Görlitz. On November 22, the regiment took part in the Battle of Breslau where it was deployed in Prince Carl von Bevern's Brigade, in the first line of the infantry centre. When the brigade of Prince Ferdinand was repulsed a first time, the regiment, counting many recruits, advanced from Gräbschen (present-day Grabiszyn) and came to its support. When Prince Ferdinand's Brigade retired, the regiment fled to Gräbschen but it was soon driven out of this village by Austrian troops and took refuge in Breslau. Schultze, its colonel, died from his wounds a few days after the battle. When Breslau capitulated, 90% of the regiment deserted and it had to be reconstituted in Berlin.

In 1758, the regiment was part of the Army of Prince Henri who tried to stop the Austrian invasion of Saxony. On July 25, when Prince Henri was informed of the departure of the Austro-Imperial Army from Saatz, he immediately detached Knobloch with this regiment along with Bredow Fusiliers to occupy the Heights of Lungwitz near Dippoldiswalde and to stop the incursions of Austrian light troops. On October 14, the regiment took part in the Battle of Hochkirch where it was initially deployed in the centre of the first line, en potence towards the village of Wawitz.

On August 12 1759, the regiment fought in the Battle of Kunersdorf where it was deployed in the first line of the right centre as part of Knobloch's Brigade. On November 20, one battalion the regiment took part in the battle of Maxen where it was attached to Lindstädt's brigade. Completely surrounded, the entire Prussian force finally surrendered as prisoners of war.

On September 17 1760, the regiment took part in the Combat of Hochgiersdorf.

At the end of June 1761, the regiment took part in a first raid in Greater Poland under Zieten to destroy Russian magazines. In September, it participated in a second raid in Greater Poland under Platen. After this raid, Platen's Corps marched towards Pomerania to reinforce Prussian forces charged with the defence of Colberg.

From August to October 1762, the first battalion of the regiment took part in the siege and recapture of Schweidniz while the second was garrisoning Breslau.


N.B.: During the war the grenadiers from the wing grenadier companies were put together with the grenadiers of Infanterie Regiment 31, forming the Grenadier Batallion 29/31 (please refer to this article for the details of the service of the grenadiers during the war).

Uniform

Privates

Uniform in 1756 - Source: Dal
Uniform Details
Headgear
Musketeer black tricorne laced white with one brass button and blue within red within white pompoms
Grenadier mitre with polished brass front plate; red headband with a white/red/blue braid and polished brass ornaments, white backing with white/red/blue braid, blue within red within white pompom (see Grenadier Batallion 29/31 for an illustration)
Neckstock red
Coat Prussian blue lined red with 6 brass buttons and 8 white and red braided loops arranged 2-2-2-2 on each side on the chest and 1 brass button and 1 braided loop on each side in the small of the back
Collar none
Shoulder Straps Prussian blue
Lapels none
Pockets horizontal pockets edged in red, each with 3 brass buttons
Cuffs red (in the Prussian pattern) with 2 brass buttons on the sleeve
Turnbacks red
Waistcoat white
Breeches white
Gaiters black
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt one white belt over the left shoulder for the cartridge box and one narrower white belt over the right shoulder for the haversack
Waistbelt white
Cartridge Box black
Bayonet Scabbard brown
Scabbard brown
Footgear black shoes


Privates were armed with a musket, a bayonet and a straight bladed pallasch.

NCOs

NCOs wore uniforms similar to those of the privates with the following distinctions:

  • tricorne with wide gold lace and black and white quartered pompoms
  • 8 golden lace-loops on each side on the chest
  • no shoulder strap
  • yellowish leather gloves
  • black and white sabre tassel

NCOs were armed with a sabre and a black half-pike measuring 10 Rhenish feet (3.06 m.) in the musketeer companies and 13 Rhenish feet (4.10 m.) in the grenadier companies (carried by the 3 most senior NCOs while other grenadier NCOs were armed with rifled muskets since 1744).

NCOs also carried canes (normally attached to a button at the top of the right front while carrying the half-pike).

Officers

Schultze Infantry Officer in 1759 - Source: Engraving by von Schmalen, Nürnberg 1759

The uniforms of the officers were very similar to those of the privates with the following exceptions:

  • black tricorne laced gold (officers always wore tricornes notwithstanding if they were commanding musketeers, fusiliers or grenadiers)
  • white neck stock
  • no shoulder strap on the coat
  • no turnback on the coat
  • 8 elaborate golden embroidered loops on each side on the chest
  • 1 elaborate golden embroidered loop on each side in the small of the back
  • 2 elaborate golden embroidered loops on each sleeve flap
  • black and silver sash around the waist

Officers carried black spontoons measuring 7 ½ Rhenish feet (2.36 m.) and an officer stick.

Musicians

The drummer lace for this regiment consisted of a central white stripe bordered on each side by blue, red and white stripes.

The uniforms of the drummers were similar to those of the privates but had much more elaborate lacing and other peculiarities:

  • no shoulder strap
  • shoulders decorated with swallow nests, each consisting of vertical narrow drummer laces and 1 horizontal narrow drummer lace
  • coat, pockets and cuffs edged with the drummer lace
  • all buttonholes edged with the drummer lace
  • each sleeve decorated with 9 narrow drummer laces arranged in a chevron pattern

Colours

Colonel colour (Leibfahne): White field with yellow corner wedges. Centre device consisting of a blue medallion surrounded by a golden laurel wreath and surmounted by a gold crown. The medallion is decorated with a black eagle holding a sword and lightning bolts surmounted by a white scroll bearing the golden motto "Pro Gloria et Patria". Corner monograms (crowns, laurel wreaths, “FR” ciphers) and grenades in gold.

Regimental colours (Kompaniefahnen): Blue field with yellow corner wedges. Centre device consisting of a white medallion surrounded by a golden laurel wreath and surmounted by a gold crown. The medallion is decorated with a black eagle holding a sword and lightning bolts surmounted by a blue scroll bearing the golden motto "Pro Gloria et Patria". Corner monograms (crowns, laurel wreaths, “FR” ciphers) and grenades in gold.

Colonel Colour - Source: Hannoverdidi
Regimental Colour - Source: Hannoverdidi

The pikes used as staffs for the colours were black.

References

Accurate Vorstellung der sämtlich Koeniglichen Preusischen Armee Worinnen zur eigentlichen Kenntniss der Uniform von jedem Regiment ein Officier und Gemeiner in Völliger Montirung und ganzer Statur nach dem Leben abgebildet sind. Nebst beigefügter Nachricht 1.) von der Stiftung. 2.) Denen Chefs. 3.) der Staerke und 4.) der in Friedenszeiten habenden Guarnisons jedes Regiments, published by I.C. v. S.(chmalen), Nürnberg, 1759

Engelmann, Joachim and Günter Dorn: Die Infanterie-Regimenter Friedrich des Grossen, Podzun-Pallas, 2000

Deutsche Uniformen, Vol. 1, Das Zeitalter Friedrich des Großen, 240 illustrations of Herbert Knötel d. J., Text and explanations by Dr. Martin Letzius, published by Sturm-Zigaretten GmbH, Dresden, 1932

Die Bewaffnung und Ausrüstung der Armee Friedrichs des Großen: Eine Dokumentation aus Anlaß seines 200. Todesjahres, 2 erw. Auflage, Raststatt 1986

Grosser Generalstab Kriegsgeschichtliche Abteilung II: Die Kriege Friedrichs des Grossen, Part 3 Der siebenjährige Krieg 1756-1763, Vol. 1 Pirna und Lobositz, Berlin, 1901, App. 1

Guddat, Martin: Grenadiere, Musketiere, Füsiliere: Die Infanterie Friedrichs des Großen, Herford 1986

Hohrath, Daniel: The Uniforms of the Prussian Army under Frederick the Great from 1740 to 1786; Vol. 2; Verlag Militaria, Vienna: 2011, pp. 236-241

Schirmer, Friedrich: Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756-1763, published by KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg, Neuauflage 1989

N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.