Törring Cuirassiers

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Origin and History

The regiment was raised on June 29 1682 by order of Prince-Elector Max Emanuel of Bavaria as the Regiment zu Pferd Haraucourt. Its first Inhaber (owner) was the General of Cavalry Karl Marquis von Haraucourt und Falkenberg, Count von Dalem, Baron von Torquin.

The regiment consisted of six companies, four of them already existed since 1673 and the others were newly raised.

  • The four already existing companies represents the oldest Bavarian Cavalry. The Colonel Company had been established as early as February 14 1661 as the “Höning Company” and formed part of the Kürassier-Regiments Höning from December 3 1675 to October 23 1679 when the regiment was disbanded, the company being the only one to survive. On January 6 1680, upon the death of its owner, Major-general von Höning, the company was given to Colonel Count von St. Bonifacio.
  • The Leib Company had been created as the “Haraucourt Company” in 1672. From December 3 1675 to December 23 1679, it belonged to the Reiter-Regiments Haraucourt which was then disbanded.
  • The Major Company had been raised on December 3 1675 as the “Perouse Company”. From that date to December 23 1679, it belonged to the Reiter-Regiments Haraucourt which was then disbanded.
  • The first Rittmeister Company had been raised in 1674 as the “Spinchal Company” and formed part of the Reiter-Regiments Spinchal from November 15 1674 till October 23 1679 when the regiment was disbanded.

In 1683, at the death of General Karl Marquis von Haraucourt, Colonel Johann Baptist Count von Arco became the new Inhaber of the regiment who, from July 11 1691, took the name of Kürassier-Regiment Count Arco.

In 1710, the Karabiniers-Regiment zu Pferd was disbanded and its troops distributed among the Kürassier-Regimenter von Arco and Kürassier-Regimenter von Poth.

In 1715, at the death of General von Arco, Colonel Ignaz Felix Count von Törring-Jettenbach became Inhaber of this cuirassier regiment.

As per the military État of February 22 1747, all Bavarian cuirassier regiments were dismounted. Only the dragoon regiments were allowed to keep 10 horses per company.

From 1747, the regiment garrisoned Landsberg, Schongau and Donauwörth (4 coys).

From 1749, the regiment garrisoned Burghausen and Neuötting.

From 1751, the regiment garrisoned Burghausen (3 coys), Neuötting (3 coys) and Schärding (3 coys).

From 1753, the regiment garrisoned Braunau, Burghausen and Schärding.

From 1755, 5 companies of the regiment garrisoned Schärding. At this date, the regiment consisted of 9 companies and totalled 297 without any horse.

On April 30 1757, when the “Cuirassier Regiment Frohnberg” was disbanded, all companies of the remaining cuirassier regiments were increased from 33 to 38 men, so that each regiment could now provide two squadrons, each counting 150 men. The regiment then consisted of a staff and 9 companies of 38 men each, organised in 2 squadrons for a total of 36 officers, 283 NCOs and troopers.

The successive regiment Inhaber were:

  • since July 14 1683: Johann Baptist Count von Arco
  • from April 15 1715: Ignaz Felix Count von Törring-Jettenbach
  • from August 23 1763: Karl Count von Minucci
  • from August 29 1778: Friedrich Wilhelm Prince von Ysenburg

The regiment was commanded by:

  • since 1746: Colonel Johann Jacob Winter
  • from 1751: Colonel Anton von Weinberg
  • from 1761: vacant
  • from 1764: Colonel Joseph Baron Zobl

After the Seven Years' War, in 1764, the regiment assumed garrison duty in Landsberg.

Service during the War

At the outbreak the Seven Years' War the regiment had no horses. Purchase of horses began only when a mounted squadron became necessary for field service. The remaining companies did not receive horses and assumed garrison duty and security services along the borders. By the end of the year, the regiment counted 9 companies totalling 328 men and 147 horses. Throughout the war, the regiment remained in the estates of the Elector of Bavaria and did not take part in any campaign. Its main duty was to protect the Upper Palatinate against potential raids of Prussian Freikorps.

In 1756, the regiment garrisoned Stadtamhof.

From 1757, the regiment garrisoned Schärding (6 coys) and Vilshofen (3 coys).

In 1759, the regiment garrisoned Schärding (6 coys) and Neuöttingen (3 coys).

In 1760, the regiment garrisoned Neumarkt. It then counted 9 companies totalling 323 men and 146 horses.

In 1762, 5 companies of the regiment temporarily garrisoned Amberg.

Uniform

Troopers

Uniform in 1757 - Source: Frédéric Aubert
Uniform Details
Headgear black tricorne laced white with a black cockade fastened with a small pewter button
Neckstock black
Coat white, the coat was fasten only with the upper button so the black breastplate worn under the coat remained visible
Collar none
Shoulder strap mid blue fastened with a pewter button
Lapels mid blue with 10 pewter buttons on the right side, 10 buttonholes on the left side
Pockets 2 vertical pockets, each with 3 pewter buttons
Cuffs mid blue, each with 3 pewter buttons
Turnbacks mid blue
Waistcoat straw with pewter buttons
Breeches deer leather
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt white
Waistbelt none
Cartridge Box black
Scabbard black
Footgear black boots with white knee covers
Horse Furniture
Saddlecloth mid blue edged with a white braid
Holster covers mid blue edged with two white braids
Pack mid blue edged white
'Harness black bridles with pewter buckles, black leather halter


Troopers were armed with a black breastplate (worn under the coat), a pallasch (sword) and a pair of pistols.

Officers

The officers wore the same uniform as the troopers with the following exceptions:

  • gold laced tricorne
  • perhaps a blue collar
  • perhaps blue waistcoat
  • perhaps blue breeches
  • blue sash

Musicians

Kettle-drummers wore a field uniform which was probably quite similar to the one of the troopers.

Standards

As mentioned in our article on Bavarian Cuirassiers Standards, no Bavarian cuirassier standards of the Seven Years' War period has survived. However, a few originals from 1700-1743 have, and they seem to follow the same general pattern with only the monogram changing to reflect the successive Electors. The following description is based on the 1743 standard.


Leib Standard (Leibstandarte): white field, heavily embroidered and fringed in silver. In the corners the "CA" monogram, surmounted by an elector´s hat. The staff was light blue. From 1745 to 1777, the monogram would be "MJ".

  • obverse: centre device consisting of a shield, bearing the arms of Bavaria-Palatinate, surmounted by an elector's hat. The shield was surrounded by the Collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Collar of the Order of St. George.
  • reverse: central device depicting a Patrona Bavariae with a red robe and a blue cloak, the cloak covers her head like a hood. The cloak was probably edged with yellow. She is standing on dark grey clouds and surrounded by silver rays. Her head is crowned, she is wearing a silver medallion on her breast and holding a golden scepter in the left hand. Her right arm holding little Jesus, he is dressed with a light grey robe and holding a gold orb in his right hand. Below the clouds a silver scroll with black letters and the motto “PONAM INIMICOS TUOS”.
Reverse of the Leibstandarte – Source: Volker Scholz
Obverse of the Leibstandarte and Reverse of all company standards – Source: Ehrenbuch des Deutschen Heeres, Berlin 1928
Colonel Standard – Source: Frédéric Aubert

Company Standards (Kompaniestandarte): each company had its own standard. Here are a few of these standards. We do not know to which specific companies they belonged.

First example: mid blue field, heavily embroidered and fringed in silver. In the corners the "CA" monogram, surmounted by an elector's hat. The staff was light blue. From 1745 to 1777, the monogram would be "MJ".

  • obverse: centre device consisting of a silver-grey cartouche charged with a silver lion rampant with a red tongue standing on a green ground; in its right paw, a sword with gold hilt and silver blade; in his left paw a green laurel sprig; on his head, an iron-grey, laurel-crowned helmet; around the helmet a silver scroll with black lettering and the motto “AD UTRUMO PARATUS”;
  • reverse: centre device consisting of a shield, bearing the arms of Bavaria-Palatinate, surmounted by an elector's hat. The shield was surrounded by the Collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Collar of the Order of St. George.
First example of a company standard – Source: Volker Scholz
Company Standard 1st example – Source: Frédéric Aubert

Second example: mid blue field, heavily embroidered and fringed in silver. In the corners the "CA" monogram, surmounted by an elector's hat. The staff was light blue. From 1745 to 1777, the monogram would be "MJ".

  • obverse: centre device consisting of a silver grey central oval shield with a silver lion couchant on a green ground; above the shield, a silver scroll with black letters and the motto “ET DORMIO & VIGLIO”;
  • reverse: centre device consisting of a shield, bearing the arms of Bavaria-Palatinate, surmounted by an elector's hat. The shield was surrounded by the Collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Collar of the Order of St. George.
Second example of a company standard – Source: Volker Scholz
Company Standard 2nd example – Source: Frédéric Aubert

Third example: mid blue field, heavily embroidered and fringed in silver. In the corners the "CA" monogram, surmounted by an elector's hat. The staff was light blue. From 1745 to 1777, the monogram would be "MJ".

  • obverse: centre device consisting of a silver-grey cartouche with a lion rampant with a red tongue standing on a green ground; the lion is armoured and helmeted in iron-grey; paws, tail and face in natural colours; in his paws the lion is holding a jousting lance (colour not specified); vertically, to the right side of the lance, a silver scroll with black letters and the motto “ME NEMO IMPUNE”;
  • reverse: centre device consisting of a shield, bearing the arms of Bavaria-Palatinate, surmounted by an elector's hat. The shield was surrounded by the Collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Collar of the Order of St. George (see below).
Third example of a company standard – Source: Volker Scholz
Company Standard 3rd example – Source: Frédéric Aubert

Fourth example: mid blue field, heavily embroidered and fringed in silver. In the corners the "CA" monogram, surmounted by an elector's hat. The staff was light blue. From 1745 to 1777, the monogram would be "MJ".

  • obverse: centre device consisting of a silver-grey oval shield with a silver lion passant with a red tongue on a green ground; the lion faces a silver-grey mirror with two thin silver borders; above the shield, a silver scroll with black letters and the motto “UBIQUE LEO”;
  • reverse: centre device consisting of a shield, bearing the arms of Bavaria-Palatinate, surmounted by an elector's hat. The shield was surrounded by the Collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Collar of the Order of St. George (see below).
Fourth example of a company standard – Source: Volker Scholz
Company Standard 4th example – Source: Frédéric Aubert

References

Bavarian Army Museum, Ingolstadt

Bavaria (Germany) Heeresarchiv, Geschichte des bayerischen Heeres: Geschichte des kurbayerischen Heeres unter Kurfürst Karl Albrecht und Kurfürst Max III. Joseph 1726-1777, J. Lindauer, 1909

Fessmaier, Johann Georg: Versuch einer Staatsgeschichte der Oberpfalz, seitdem sie Oberpfalz heisset, Vol. 2, Attenkofer, 1803

Hutter, Herrmann: Das Koeniglich-bayerische I. Chevaulegers-Regiment "Kaiser Alexander von Russland" 1682-1882 : in Auftrage des Regiments geschichtlich dargestellt - München, 1885

Kraus, Jürgen: Bayerische Fahnen, Die Fahnen und Standarten des bayerischen Heeres vom 16. Jahrhundert bis 1918, Verlag Militaria, Vienna, Austria, 2017

Kühlmann and Papst: Geschichte der bayerischen Fahnen und Standarten mit den Feldzeichen der in Bayern aufgegangenen Staaten, Vol. 1, München 1959

Münich, Friedrich: Geschichte der Entwicklung der bayerischen Armee seit zwei Jahrhunderten, Lindauer, 1864

Muenich, Friedrich: Geschichte des königlich bayerischen I. Chevaulegers-Regiments Kaiser Alexander von Russland, München, 1862

Seefried auf Buttenheim, Ludwig Frhr von: Geschichte des k. b. 1. Chevauxlegers-Regiments vacant Kaiser Alexander von Russland zum 200 jährigen Jubiläum desselben im Auftrage skizzirt, Nürnberg, 1882

Acknowledgement

Volker Scholz for the information on the standards