Template:Area of Colberg

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Description of the surroundings of Colberg

The mouth of the Persante river (actual Parsęta river) and its wharf were not far from the northern outskirts of Colberg. The town was located on the right bank of this river.

On the left bank of the Persante, there were some buildings, three surrounding hills, a lake, forests and small streams flowing into the river. The biggest hills stretched from the village of Spinhauser to those of Werder and Sellnow. Farther west, in the direction of Treptow, the village of Bork stood around a small lake in the middle of the forest along a road leading to this big hill. The other hills stretched to the south behind forests separating coastal hills from the villages of Prettmin (actual Przećmin) and Spie, towering over the track leading to Treptow. Prolonging these hills to the east, in a straight line passing to the south of Sellnow and at right angle of Kartofelsberg, the Kauzberg hills blocked the approaches. Narrow strips of forests and patches of bogs extended behind these hills to the south.

On the right bank of the Persante river stood a group of four hills stretching southeastwards. The first and widest hill, called the Binnenfeld, extended from the waterside to the almost to the small Matzweise stream which separated it from a wood to the south, a little bit lower than the fortress. The hill of Wolfenberg dominated a plateau. To the south, almost at right angle with Wolfenberg, there was a row of end moraines. These platforms formed a semicircle linking the Persante river with a pond. The highest points on this bank were Klosterfeld and Hoheberg. A thick forest extended eastwards, making the access to Colberg difficult almost from the waterside all the way to the villages of Tramm and Stoikow to the south.

Further south, an overflow area forbade the access to the Persante river from the west side while bogs and the Matzikerteich lake blocked the eastern approach. However, the Green Hill facilitated the access to this strip of moraine hills. It was a key position and the only way to get access to these end moraines. These two separate groups of hills were linked by a third one. In the front of it was the so-called Bullewinkel. This position guarded the access to the area near Colberg. It was a key position very difficult to avoid, its left slope reached the lake. To the south of the Bullewinkel and Green Hill was a tongue shaped row of hills with many rivers and woods impeding communications. The Persante river was difficult to cross from both banks since it ran in a floodplain and its banks were covered with bogs. Furthermore, the Persante branched out into 3 or 4 smaller rivers as it drew near the fortress of Colberg. These rivers then flowed into a single one at the place known as the Munde.

Fortifications of Colberg

Map of the fortress of Colberg in 1761.
 
Legend:
 1 Halberstadt bastion
 2 Munde hornwork
 3 Preussen bastion
 4 Neumark bastion
 5 Pommern bastion
 6 Magdeburg bastion
 7 Cleve bastion
 8 Geldern I bastion
 9 Geldern II bastion
10 Tête de pont
11 Batardeau
12 Geldern gate
13 Leborsk gate
 A Ravelins
 B Lunettes
 C Contregarde
 D Redans
 
Source: Tomasz Karpiński's collection

The fortifications of Colberg consisted of entrenchments surrounding the fortress, bastions and the surrounding curtain walls which extended from west to east through the swamps along the Persante river. The shape of the entrenchements was irregular. A strip of entrenchment stretched along the left bank of the Persante supported by bastions Geldern I, Geldern II and Cleve. The entrenchments on the right bank of the Persante were in the shape of a trapezium with bastions in each corners. In the suburb of Ujście, was the “Munde” hornwork. The “Bulow” ravelin ran in front of the fortress while the Lauenburg ravelin ran from the river to Matz Wiese (actual Stramniczanka). In the 4 corners of the city walls, there were bastions: Halberstadt, Preussen, Neumark and Pommern. Overall, 130 guns and 14 mortars of various calibre were planted in the entrenchments and bastions surrounding the fortress.

The outline of these entrenchments looked as illustrated below.

Profile of Colberg fortifications.
 
Source: Tomasz Karpiński's collection