Waldeck Infantry

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Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Armies >> Austrian Army >> Waldeck Infantry

Origin and History

The regiment was raised in 1682 for Duke Georg Friedrich von Württemberg-Stuttgard.

In 1683, during the Great Turkish War, half of the regiment took part in the defence of Vienna while the other half accompanied the relief force. In 1685, the regiment took part in the sieges of Epeyres and Caschau. Then part of the regiment was involved in the siege of Neuhäusel where it suffered heavy losses. It finally participated in the expedition in Slavonia. In 1686, it took part in the siege of Ofen; in 1687, in the Battle of Mohacs; and in 1688 in the storming of Belgrade.

In 1697, at the end of the Nine Years' War (1688–97), the regiment was at the siege of Casale.

During the War of the Spanish Succession, in March 1701, the regiment was instructed to march from Austria to Southern Tyrol to reinforce the Army of Prince Eugène for the planned invasion of Northern Italy. At the beginning of December, the regiment took part in the siege and capture of Canneto on the Oglio. In 1702, it took part in the campaign in Northern Italy and participated in the failed attempt to capture Cremona. In 1703, the regiment defended Tyrol against a Bavarian invasion. In 1705, it took part in the Battle of Cassano. In 1706, it was at the relief of Turin. In 1707, it took part in the storming of Gaeta in the Kingdom of Naples. In 1710, it served in Spain where it took part in the battles of Almenar, Saragossa and Villaviciosa. In 1711, it took part in the relief of Cardona.

During the War of the Austrian Succession, the regiment initially served in Bohemia and Silesia in 1741 and 1742, taking part in the battle of Chotusitz (May 17, 1742). In 1745, the regiment fought in the battles of Soor (September 30) and Kesselsdorf (December 15). On October 11 1746, it was at the battle of Rocoux.

As per the Etat nouveau des Troupes de sa Majesté Impériale Royale comme elles se trouvent effectivement l'an 1759 and Etat général des Troupes qui servent sa Majesté Impériale et Royale Apostolique sur pié en 1760, the regiment counted 4 battalions (2 grenadier coys and 16 fusilier coys) for a total of 2,300 men. This was the administrative organisation of the regiment. However, the tactical organisation differed: 2 field fusilier battalions, each of 6 companies; 2 grenadier companies (usually converged with grenadiers from other battalions into an ad hoc unit); and 1 garrison battalion of 4 companies (see Austrian Line Infantry Organisation for more details).

During the Seven Years' War, the chef of the regiment was:

  • since December 1738 to 1763: Carl August Friedrich Fürst von Waldeck

During the Seven Years' War, its colonel-commander was:

  • in 1756: Baron von Biels
  • from 1759: Baron von Formentini
  • from 1760: Joseph Bellizari
  • in ????: Christian Count von Erpach

Regimental numbers were introduced only in 1769 when this regiment was designated as "I.R. 35".

Service during the War

On October 1 1756, the regiment took part in the Battle of Lobositz where it was deployed in the second line of the centre under General C. Kollowrat in the brigade of Major-General Wolffersdorff.

On May 6 1757, two battalions of the regiment took part in the Battle of Prague where they were deployed in Count d’Ursel's Brigade, in the first line of the right wing of infantry under Count Königsegg. In October and November, one battalion of the regiment was attached to Nádasdy's Corps during the siege of Schweidnitz where it was allocated to the force deployed from Säbischdorf (present-day Zawiszów) to Schönbrunn (present-day Słotwina). On November 22, one battalion of the regiment took part in the Battle of Breslau where it was deployed in Wulffen's Brigade, in the second line of the infantry centre under Baron Kheul. On December 5 at the Battle of Leuthen, one battalion of the regiment was deployed in Starhemberg's Division in the second line of the infantry right wing under Kheul while another battalion was deployed in the second line of the Reserve of the left wing under Marshal Forgách as part of Nádasdy's Corps.

By August 2 1758, the regiment served in the second line of the main Austrian army under the command of Daun near Jarmeritz (present-day Jaroměřice nad Rokytnou). Daun was following up the Prussian army retiring through Bohemia after the failure of the Prussian invasion of Moravia. On October 14, one battalion of the regiment took part in the Battle of Hochkirch where it was deployed in the left column (under Duke d'Ursel) of Arenberg's Corps on the Austrian right wing to the east of Rodewitz.

On August 12 1759, the regiment fought in the Battle of Kunersdorf where it was deployed in the reserve of the centre as part of Loudon's infantry corps.

In 1760, two battalions of the regiment were attached to Loudon's Army operating in Silesia. In June, this army was encamped near Frankenstein. On June 23, these two battalions took part in the Battle of Landeshut. On August 15, they also fought in the Battle of Liegnitz where they were deployed on the right wing of Loudon's first line. Charged by the Prussian cavalry, they suffered heavy losses. On September 17, they were present at the Combat of Hochgiersdorf.

On October 1 1761, one battalion of the regiment took part in the [[1761-10-01 - Storming of Schweidnitz|storming of Schweidnitz where it was attached to the first column under the command of Colonel Count Wallis and Major Count O’Donell.

From August to October 1762, one battalion of the regiment was part of the defending forces during the Prussian siege of Schweidnitz, being assigned to the Garten Fort.

To do: more details on the campaigns from 1760 to 1762

Uniform

For the moment we have very few information on the uniform in 1756, at the outbreak of the war. Most of our references describe the uniform in 1762. However, Wrede, Muhsfeldt and Schirmer mention that, in 1756-57, the coat was white lined white (therefore white turnbacks), the distinctive colour was red and the waistcoat and breeches were white. Therefore, the uniform at the beginning of the war seems to have been almost identical to the uniform of 1762.

Privates

Uniform in 1762 - Source: Kronoskaf
Uniform in 1762
as per the Albertina Handschrift

completed with other sources where necessary
Headgear
Musketeer black tricorne laced white; white strap with a yellow button; with a red tassel in each lateral corne
Grenadier bearskin with a poppy red bag probably laced white and a white tassel
Neckstock one red and one black (for parades the regimental commanders agreed before on the colour of the neckstocks)
Coat white lined white with 3 yellow buttons under the right lapel and 1 yellow button in the small of the back on each side
Collar none
Shoulder Straps poppy red fastened by a yellow button (left shoulder only)
Lapels poppy red lapels with 7 yellow buttons (1-3-3)
Pockets horizontal pockets, each with 3 yellow buttons
Cuffs poppy red, each with 3 yellow buttons
Turnbacks white fastened with a red tab edged white and a small yellow button
Waistcoat white with 2 rows of small yellow buttons (3-3-3) and with horizontal pockets, each with 3 yellow buttons
Breeches white
Gaiters one pair of black (for winter) and one pair of white gaiters (for summer and parade)
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt white
Waistbelt white with a brass buckle
Cartridge Box black with a small brass plate carrying the initials “MT”
Bayonet Scabbard black with brass fittings
Scabbard black (grenadiers only)
Footgear black shoes


Troopers were armed with a musket (Model 1745 for fusiliers, Model 1754 for grenadiers). Grenadiers carried a sabre while fusiliers carried only a bayonet.

Other interpretations

The Bautzener Handschrift illustrates the following differences:

  • black tricorne laced white; no strap but a yellow button; white within red pompom
  • no shoulder strap
  • white bordered red tab to fasten the turnbacks

Donath illustrates the following differences:

  • plain white shoulder strap
  • red tab edged white and a small yellow button on each turnback

Knötel illustrates the following differences:

  • black tricorne laced white; white strap with a yellow button; without pompom or tassels
  • plain white shoulder strap
  • plain red tab with a small yellow button to fasten turnbacks

NCOs

no information available yet

Officers

The officers wore the same uniform as the privates with the following exceptions:

  • tricorne laced gold with a white and green cockade
  • black neckstock
  • no turnbacks
  • yellow and black silk sash

Senior officers carried sticks identifying their rank:

  • lieutenant: bamboo stick without knob
  • captain: long rush stick with a bone knob
  • major: long rush stick with a silver knob and a small silver chain
  • lieutenant-colonel: long rush stick with a larger silver knob without chain
  • colonel: long rush stick with a golden knob

Musicians

As per a regulation of 1755, musicians were now distinguished from troopers only by poppy red swallow nests on the shoulders.

The drum had a brass barrel decorated with black flames at the bottom and with a black double headed Eagle on a yellow field. Rims were decorated with red and white diagonal stripes. The bandolier was white.

Colours

All German infantry regiments carried identical colours: a white Leibfahne (colonel) and yellow Regimentsfahne. The hand painted colours were made of silk and measured Size 178 cm x 127 cm. The 260 cm long flagpoles had golden finial and were decorated with black and yellow spirals of cloth.

The colonel colour was carried by the first battalion.

Colonel flag (Leibfahne):

  • field: white
  • border: alternating white and yellow outer waved triangles pointing inwards, red and black inner waved triangles pointing outwards
  • obverse (right): the Immaculate Mother of God (which had been declared the patroness of the army by kaiser Ferdinand III) on a cloud, crushing a snake under her foot and surrounded by rays
  • reverse (left): crowned and armed Imperial double-eagle with the "Lothringen-Toscanian" arms on a shield and the initials of the Emperor CF (Corregens Franciscus) on the left wing and IM (Imperator Magnus) on the right
Leibfahne – Source: Frédéric Aubert

Regimental flags (Regimentsfahne):

  • field: yellow
  • border: alternating white and yellow outer waved triangles pointing inwards, red and black inner waved triangles pointing outwards
  • obverse (right): crowned and armed Imperial double-eagle with the "Lothringen-Toscanian" arms on a shield and the initials of the Emperor CF (Corregens Franciscus) on the left wing and IM (Imperator Magnus) on the right
  • reverse (left): unarmed and crowned Imperial double-eagle with the arms of Hungaria and Bohemia on a shield and the initials M on the left wing and T on the right
Regimentsfahne – Source: Frédéric Aubert

In fact, the situation on the field was slightly more complex than this, since colours were usually replaced only when worn out. It is fairly possible that some regiment who had been issued colours of the 1743 pattern were still carrying them at the beginning of the Seven Years' War. For more details, see Austrian Line Infantry Colours.

References

This article contains texts from the following sources, which are now in the public domain:

  • Seyfart, Kurzgefaßte Geschichte aller kaiserlich-königlichen Regimenter zu Pferde und zu Fuß, Frankfurth and Leipzig, 1762, pp. 16-17

Other sources

Dihm, Dr. Hermann; Oesterreichische Standarten und Fahnen zur Zeit des 7 jährigen Krieges, Die Zinnfigur, Klio

Donath, Rudolf; Die Kaiserliche und Kaiserlich-Königliche Österreichische Armee 1618-1918, 2. Aufl., Simbach/Inn 1979

Etat nouveau des Troupes de sa Majesté Impériale Royale comme elles se trouvent effectivement l'an 1759

Etat général des Troupes qui servent sa Majesté Impériale et Royale Apostolique sur pié en 1760

Funcken, Liliane and Fred, Les uniformes de la guerre en dentelle

Hausmann, Friedrich, Die Feldzeichen der Truppen Maria Theresias, Schriften des Heeresgeschichtlichen Museums, vol. 3, Vienna: 1967

Knötel, Herbert d.J.; Brauer, Hans M.: Heer und Tradition / Heeres-Uniformbogen (so-called “Brauer-Bogen”), Berlin 1926-1962, Österreich-Ungarn – 1756-63

Muhsfeldt, Th.; Abzeichenfarben der K. und K. Regimenter zu Fuss im Jahre 1757 und früher, in Mitteilungen zur Geschichte des militärischen Tracht, No. 12, 1904

Pengel, R. D. and G.R. Hurt; Austro-Hungarian Infantry 1740-1762; On Military Matters; Birmingham, 1982

Schirmer, Friedrich, Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756-1763, hrsg. von der KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg, überarb. u. aktual. Neuauflage 1989

Seidel, Paul; Nochmals österreichische Standarten und Fahnen zur Zeit des 7 jährigen Krieges, Die Zinnfigur, Clio

Thümmler, L.-H., Die Österreichiches Armee im Siebenjährigen Krieg: Die Bautzener Bilderhandschrift aus dem Jahre 1762, Berlin 1993

N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.

Acknowledgments

User:Zahn for gathering most of the information about this regiment