Difference between revisions of "Winterfeldt Infantry"

From Project Seven Years War
Jump to: navigation, search
(Created page with "<small>Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Armies >> Prussian Army >> {{PAGENAME}}</small> ==Origin and History== File...")
 
(Added info from the work of the Grosser Generalstab)
Line 1: Line 1:
<small>Hierarchical Path: [[Main Page|Seven Years War (Main Page)]] &gt;&gt; [[Armies]] &gt;&gt; [[Prussian Army]] &gt;&gt; {{PAGENAME}}</small>
+
<small>Hierarchical Path: [[Main Page|Seven Years War (Main Page)]] &gt;&gt; [[Personalities]] &gt;&gt; {{PAGENAME}}</small>
  
==Origin and History==
+
Hans Karl von Winterfeldt
[[File:Winterfeldt Infantry Schmalen.jpg|right|frame|Uniform in 1759 - Source: Engraving by von Schmalen, Nürnberg 1759]]
+
The regiment originated from the guard of the Margrave of Brandenburg created in 1615.
+
At the end of the War of the Spanish Succession in 1713, the regiment was reorganised as a regular field infantry unit and counted two battalions. From this date it garrisoned Berlin till 1793. It recruited in the districts of Storkow, Beeskow, Teltow and Zauche; and in the towns of Storkow, Buchholtz, Zossen and Beelitz.
+
  
During the War of the Austrian Succession, the regiment fought in the battles of Mollwitz (April 10, 1741) and Hohenfriedberg (June 4, 1745).
+
Prussian Major-General (1745-56), Lieutenant-General (1756-57)
  
During the Seven Years' War, the regiment counted two battalions and was commanded by:
+
born April 4, 1707, Vanselow, Pomerania
*from May 1756: [[Winterfeldt, Hans Karl von|Lieutenant-General Hans Karl von Winterfeldt]]
+
*from January 5 1758: Johann Siegmund von Lattorff
+
*from February 5 1760 till February 6 1768: Karl Christoph von Zeuner
+
  
The numbering system (''Stammliste'') was first used by Leopold I, Fürst von Anhalt-Dessau (''Der alte Dessauer'') in the ''Dessauer Spezifikation'' from 1737. Around 1780, the numbers were used in the printed ''Stammlisten'', still with some variations for the fusilier regiments. It became official by "Cabinets-Ordre" from October 1, 1806. The present infantry regiment was attributed number 1.
+
died September 8, 1757, Görlitz, Lusatia
<br clear="all">
+
==Description==
==Service during the War==
+
Hans Karl von Winterfeldt was the son of Georg Friedrich von Winterfeldt and Christine Elisabeth von Maltzahn.
On August 26 1756, when the [[Prussian Army]] initiated the [[1756 - Prussian invasion of Saxony|invasion of Saxony]], the regiment was part of the centre column led by [[Frederick II]]. More precisely, it belonged to Margrave Karl's Corps. The centre column had concentrated in the area of Brietzen and advanced unopposed upstream along the Elbe River by Torgau and Wittenberg, leaving Meissen to its left. On September 6, it encamped at Rothschönberg and finally reached Wilsdruf. While the Prussian Main Army moved forward to engage the [[Austrian Army]] at Lobositz (October 1), the regiment remained in the Pirna Country to maintain the blockade of the [[Saxon Army]] which surrendered on October 17.  
+
  
On May 6 1757, the regiment took part in the [[1757-05-06 - Battle of Prague|Battle of Prague]] where it was deployed in the first line in [[Ferdinand of Brunswick]]'s Brigade. During this battle, it suffered heavily, loosing two thirds of its strength. At the end of August, the regiment was part of the small Prussian army hastily assembled at Dresden by Frederick to head towards Thuringia to offer battle to the [[1757 - Franco-Imperial invasion of Saxony|Franco-Imperial Army invading Saxony]]. On November 5, at the victorious [[1757-11-05 - Battle of Rossbach|Battle of Rossbach]], the regiment was deployed in the second line of the infantry right wing under Lieutenant-General von Forcade. On December 5 at the [[1757-12-05 - Battle of Leuthen|Battle of Leuthen]], the regiment was deployed in Münchow's Brigade in the first line of the infantry centre.  
+
Wintefeldt's education was imperfect and in later life he always regretted his want of familiarity with the French language.  
  
In the Spring of 1758, the regiment took part in the [[1758 - Prussian invasion of Moravia|invasion of Moravia]]. In May, it guarded Frederick's headquarters at Schmirsitz.
+
In 1723, Winterfeldt entered the cuirassier regiment of his uncle, Major-General Kaspar Dietlof von Winterfeldt.
  
In 1760, the regiment took part in the [[1760-08-15 - Battle of Liegnitz|Battle of Liegnitz]] (August 15) and in the [[1760-11-03 - Battle of Torgau|Battle of Torgau]] (November 3).
+
In 1725, after two years if service, Wintefeldt was promoted cornet in the same cuirassier regiment. His stature and soldierly bearing attracted the attention of Frederick William I, who transferred him to his [[Prussian Grenadier Garde|Giant Grenadiers Regiment]] as a lieutenant. Before long he became a personal aide-de-camp to the king.
  
To do: details for the campaigns from 1758 to 1762
+
In 1732, Winterfeldt was sent with a party of selected non-commissioned officers to assist in the organization of the [[Russian Army]]. While the guest of Marshal Münnich at St. Petersburg, he fell in love with and married his cousin Julie von Maltzahn, who was the marshal's stepdaughter and a maid-of-honour to the Grand-Duchess Elizabeth.
  
'''N.B.''': During the war, the grenadiers from the wing grenadier companies were put together with the grenadiers of [[Forcade Infantry]] forming the [[1/23 Bandemer Grenadiers|Grenadier Batallion 1/23]] (''please refer to this article for the details of the service of the grenadiers during the war'').
+
In 1734, Winterfeldt became intimate with [[Frederick II|Crown Prince Frederick]] whom he accompanied in the Rhine campaign. This intimacy with Frederick made his position very delicate and difficult during the period when King Frederick William and his son were estranged. Nevertheless, Winterfeldt remained Frederick's constant friend throughout this period.
  
==Uniform==
+
In 1740, on the accession of [[Frederick II]] to the throne, Winterfeldt was promoted major and appointed aide-de-camp to the new sovereign. The same year, when the [[War of the Austrian Succession]] broke out, Winterfeldt was sent on a mission to St. Petersburg, which, however, failed.  
*[http://dfg-viewer.de/v1/?set%5Bimage%5D=105&set%5Bzoom%5D=default&set%5Bdebug%5D=0&set%5Bdouble%5D=0&set%5Bmets%5D=http%3A%2F%2Fdigital.slub-dresden.de%2Foai2.php%3Fverb%3DGetRecord%26metadataPrefix%3Dmets%26identifier%3Durn%3Anbn%3Ade%3Absz%3A14-ppn3163418948 Uniformen der Preußischen Armee, 1758] (Sächsische Landesbibliothek - Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Dresden)
+
*[http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b8426836v/f4.image.pagination.r=accurate+vorstellung.langFR Accurate Vorstellung der sämtlich Koeniglichen Preusischen Armee] Worinnen zur eigentlichen Kenntniss der Uniform von jedem Regiment ein Officier und Gemeiner in Völliger Montirung und ganzer Statur nach dem Leben abgebildet sind. Nebst beigefügter Nachricht 1.) von der Stiftung. 2.) Denen Chefs. 3.) der Staerke und 4.) der in Friedenszeiten habenden Guarnisons jedes Regiments. Hrsg. u. gezeichnet I.C. v. S.(chmalen), Nürnberg 1770 (Bibliothèque nationale de France)
+
  
===Privates===
+
On April 10 1741, at the Battle of Mollwitz, Winterfeldt commanded a grenadier battalion with great distinction. On May 17, Winterfeldt won further glory in the celebrated minor combat of Rothschloss, where the Prussian hussars defeated the Austrians. On March 5 1742, Winterfeldt was made a colonel, as also was [[Zieten, Hans Joachim von|Zieten]], the cavalry leader who had actually commanded at Rothschloss. After this Frederick chiefly employed Winterfeldt as a confidential staff officer to represent his views to the generals, a position in which he needed extraordinary tact and knowledge of men and affairs and, as a matter of course, made many enemies.
[[File:Winterfeldt Infantry Uniform Plate.jpg|left|frame|Uniform in 1759 - Source: Kronoskaf]]
+
{| class="tblunout"
+
|+<big>'''Uniform Details'''</big>
+
|-
+
|'''Headgear'''||
+
{| class="tblunin"
+
|-
+
|'''Musketeer'''||black tricorne laced white, white pompoms
+
|-
+
|'''Grenadier'''||mitre with silver-plated front plate, white headband with white metal ornaments, dark blue back with white piping, white pompom (''see [[1/23 Bandemer Grenadiers|Grenadier Batallion 1/23]] for an illustration'')
+
|}
+
|-
+
|'''Neck&nbsp;stock'''||red
+
|-
+
|'''Coat'''||Prussian blue with two white pointed braid loops on each side under the lapel (hidden by the sleeve in our illustration, see insert for details) and a pewter button with a white pointed braid loop on each side in the small of the back
+
{| class="tblunin"
+
|-
+
|'''Collar'''||red
+
|-
+
|'''Shoulder&nbsp;Straps'''||Prussian blue fastened with a pewter button (left shoulder only)
+
|-
+
|'''Lapels'''||red, each with 6 pewter buttons and 6 white pointed braid loops arranged 2-2-2
+
|-
+
|'''Pockets'''||horizontal pockets, each with 3 pewter buttons and 2 white pointed braid loops
+
|-
+
|'''Cuffs'''||red (Prussian pattern), each with 2 pewter buttons and 2 white pointed braid loops on the sleeve flap
+
|-
+
|'''Turnbacks'''||red fastened with a pewter button
+
|}
+
|-
+
|'''Waistcoat'''||white
+
|-
+
|'''Breeches'''||white
+
|-
+
|'''Gaiters'''||black
+
|-
+
|'''Leather&nbsp;Equipment'''||
+
{| class="tblunin"
+
|-
+
|'''Cross-belt'''||one white belt over the left shoulder for the cartridge box and one narrower white belt over the right shoulder for the haversack
+
|-
+
|'''Waist-belt'''||white
+
|-
+
|'''Cartridge Box'''||black
+
|-
+
|'''Bayonet Scabbard'''||brown
+
|-
+
|'''Scabbard'''||brown
+
|-
+
|'''Footgear'''||black shoes
+
|}
+
|}
+
<br clear="all">
+
  
Privates were armed with a musket, a bayonet and a sabre with a curved blade.
+
In the short peace before the outbreak of the Second Silesian War (the second part of the War of the Austrian Succession), Winterfeldt was constantly in attendance upon the king.
===NCOs===
+
NCOs wore uniforms similar to those of the privates with the following distinctions:
+
*tricorne with wide silver lace and black and white pompoms
+
*silver laced lapels, cuffs and sleeve flaps
+
*no braid loop below the lapels, on the cuffs and at the small of the back
+
*no shoulder strap
+
*yellowish leather gloves
+
*black and white sabre tassel
+
  
NCOs were armed with a sabre and a light half-pike measuring 10 Rhenish feet (3.06 m.) in the musketeer companies and 13 Rhenish feet (4.10 m.) in the grenadier companies (carried by the 3 most senior NCOs while other grenadier NCOs were armed with rifled muskets since 1744).
+
In 1744, when the Second Silesian War broke out, Frederick II employed Winterfeldt in the same capacity as before. Winterfeldt was instrumental in winning a series of successful minor engagements.
  
NCOs also carried canes (normally attached to a button at the top of the right front while carrying the half-pike).
+
On May 23 1745, Winterfeldt was promoted to major-general. His promotion was to date from December 1 1743. After the battle of Hohenfriedberg, which took place on June 4 1745, Frederick gave Winterfeldt the captaincy of Tatiau for his great services during this combat. On November 24, at Katholisch-Hennersdorf, where the sudden and unexpected invasion of the Austro-Saxons was checked by the vigour of Zieten, Winterfeldt arrived on the field in time to take a decisive share.  
===Officers===
+
[[File:Winterfeldt Infantry Officer.jpg|right|frame|Winterfeldt Infantry Officer - Source: Menzel, Adolph von, ''Die Armee Friedrich's des Großen'']]
+
Sash and sword knot. Small silver hat lace. White neck stock. No collar. Red lapels laced silver without braid loop. Two silver loops below the lapel. Red cuffs laced silver, two silver loops on the pockets as well as one sidewise on the waist and one on the back. Silber buttons.
+
  
Officers carried light brown spontoons measuring 7 ½ Rhenish feet (2.36 m.).
+
During the ten years' peace that preceded the next great war, Winterfeldt was in constant attendance upon the king, except when employed on confidential missions in the provinces or abroad.
[[File:Winterfeldt Infantry Officer Lace.jpg|left|frame|Lace of the officer uniform in 1755 - Source: Tressenmusterbuch von 1755]]
+
<br clear="all"/>
+
  
===Musicians===
+
In May 1756, Winterfeldt was appointed ''Chef'' of the former [[Winterfeldt Infantry|Kacke Infantry]]. On June 8, he was promoted to lieutenant-general and received the Order of the Black Eagle. On August 21, he was appointed governor of Colberg. During the same year, he was very active in collecting information as to the coalition that was secretly preparing to crush Prussia, and in preparing for the war. He took a leading part in the discussions which decided Frederick to strike the first blow. He took part in the [[1756 - Prussian invasion of Saxony|Prussian invasion of Saxony]]. He was at Pirna with the king, and advised him against absorbing the Saxon prisoners into his own army.  
[[File:Winterfeldt Infantry Drummer Lace.jpg|right|frame|Lace of the drummer uniform in 1755 - Source: Tressenmusterbuch von 1755]]
+
White and red drummer lace. Swallow nests with four vertical bars and one horizontal bars on each shoulder. Nine chevrons on each sleeve. Lace on the lapels, pockets, cuffs and on the front and back of the coat.  
+
<br clear="all"/>
+
 
+
==Colours==
+
'''Colonel colour''' (''Leibfahne''): White field. Centre device consisting of an orange medallion surrounded by a silver laurel wreath and surmounted by a silver crown. The medallion is decorated with a black eagle surmounted by a white scroll bearing the silver motto "Pro Gloria et Patria". Corner monograms (crowns, laurel wreaths, ciphers) and grenades in silver.
+
 
+
'''Regimental colours''' (''Kompaniefahnen''): Orange field. Centre device consisting of a white medallion surrounded by a silver laurel wreath and surmounted by a silver crown. The medallion is decorated with a black eagle surmounted by an orange scroll bearing the golden motto "Pro Gloria et Patria". Corner monograms (crowns, laurel wreaths, ciphers) and grenades in silver.
+
 
+
{|
+
|- valign="top"
+
|[[File:Winterfeldt Infantry Colonel Flag.jpg|frame|Colonel Colour - Source: Hannoverdidi]]
+
||[[File:Winterfeldt Infantry Ordonnance Flag.jpg|frame|Regimental Colour - Source: Hannoverdidi]]
+
|}
+
 
+
The pikes used as staffs for the colours were light brown with brass finials.
+
  
 +
In 1757, when the Prussian army proceeded to the [[1757 - Prussian invasion of Bohemia|invasion of Bohemia]], Winterfeldt accompanied [[Schwerin, Kurt Christoph, count von|Schwerin]] in the advance on Prague. On May 6, he took part in the ferocious [[1757-05-06 - Battle of Prague|Battle of Prague]]. In June, after the [[1757-06-18 - Battle of Kolin|defeat of Kolin]], Winterfeldt, who had the confidence of Frederick, was entrusted with the conduct of the retreat. During these operations, Winterfeldt was obliged to work in close contact with the king's brother, [[August Wilhelm|Prince Wilhelm]], the [[Braunschweig-Bevern, August Wilhelm, Duke of|Duke of Brunswick-Bevern]], [[Zieten, Hans Joachim von|Zieten]] and others of his enemies. The situation degenerated into an open conflict and the Prince of Prussia retired from the army. After these events, when Frederick gave Winterfeldt renewed marks of his confidence, the general animosity reached its height. On September 7, Winterfeldt fell a victim to his own bravery in the [[1757-09-07 - Combat of Moys|Combat of Moys]] near Gorlitz. His wound, the first serious wound he had ever received, proved fatal and he died on September 8.
 
==References==
 
==References==
Bleckwenn, Hans: ''Die Uniformen der Preußischen Infanterie 1753-1786'', Teil III/Bd. 3, Osnabrück 1973
+
This article incorporates texts from the following books who are now in the public domain:
 
+
*"Winterfeldt, Hans Karl von" in Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed. London: Cambridge University Press, 1911
Duffy, Christopher, ''The Army of Frederick the Great'', Purnell Book Services Limited, 1974
+
*Grosser Generalstab Kriegsgeschichtliche Abteilung II: ''Die Kriege Friedrichs des Grossen'', Part 3 ''Der siebenjährige Krieg 1756-1763'', Vol. 4 ''Groß-Jägersdorf und Breslau'', Berlin, 1902, Anhang 40
 
+
Engelmann, Joachim and Günter Dorn, ''Die Infanterie-Regimenter Friedrich des Grossen'', Podzun-Pallas, 2000
+
 
+
Funcken, Liliane and Fred, ''Les uniformes de la guerre en dentelle''
+
 
+
Haythornthwaite, Philip, ''Frederick the Great's Army (2)'', Osprey Publishing, 1992
+
 
+
Hohrath, Daniel: ''The Uniforms of the Prussian Army under Frederick the Great from 1740 to 1786''; Vol. 2; Verlag Militaria, Vienna: 2011, pp. 12-17
+
 
+
Letzius, Martin, ''Das Zeitalter Friedrichs des Grossen'', Sturm Zigaretten, Dresden: 1932
+
 
+
Summerfield, Stephen: ''Prussian Musketeers of the War of the Austrian Succession and Seven Years War: Uniforms, Organisation and Equipement of Musketeer Regiments'', Ken Trotman Publishing: Huntingdon, 2012, pp. 53-58
+
  
Thümmler, L.-H., [http://www.grosser-generalstab.de/ Preußische Militärgeschichte]
+
'''Other Sources'''
  
N.B.: the section ''Service during the War'' is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.
+
German Wikipedia - [https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hans_Karl_von_Winterfeldt Hans Karl von Winterfeldt]
  
[[Category:Prussian Land Unit]]
+
[[Category:Personality]]

Revision as of 13:08, 24 August 2017

Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Personalities >> Winterfeldt Infantry

Hans Karl von Winterfeldt

Prussian Major-General (1745-56), Lieutenant-General (1756-57)

born April 4, 1707, Vanselow, Pomerania

died September 8, 1757, Görlitz, Lusatia

Description

Hans Karl von Winterfeldt was the son of Georg Friedrich von Winterfeldt and Christine Elisabeth von Maltzahn.

Wintefeldt's education was imperfect and in later life he always regretted his want of familiarity with the French language.

In 1723, Winterfeldt entered the cuirassier regiment of his uncle, Major-General Kaspar Dietlof von Winterfeldt.

In 1725, after two years if service, Wintefeldt was promoted cornet in the same cuirassier regiment. His stature and soldierly bearing attracted the attention of Frederick William I, who transferred him to his Giant Grenadiers Regiment as a lieutenant. Before long he became a personal aide-de-camp to the king.

In 1732, Winterfeldt was sent with a party of selected non-commissioned officers to assist in the organization of the Russian Army. While the guest of Marshal Münnich at St. Petersburg, he fell in love with and married his cousin Julie von Maltzahn, who was the marshal's stepdaughter and a maid-of-honour to the Grand-Duchess Elizabeth.

In 1734, Winterfeldt became intimate with Crown Prince Frederick whom he accompanied in the Rhine campaign. This intimacy with Frederick made his position very delicate and difficult during the period when King Frederick William and his son were estranged. Nevertheless, Winterfeldt remained Frederick's constant friend throughout this period.

In 1740, on the accession of Frederick II to the throne, Winterfeldt was promoted major and appointed aide-de-camp to the new sovereign. The same year, when the War of the Austrian Succession broke out, Winterfeldt was sent on a mission to St. Petersburg, which, however, failed.

On April 10 1741, at the Battle of Mollwitz, Winterfeldt commanded a grenadier battalion with great distinction. On May 17, Winterfeldt won further glory in the celebrated minor combat of Rothschloss, where the Prussian hussars defeated the Austrians. On March 5 1742, Winterfeldt was made a colonel, as also was Zieten, the cavalry leader who had actually commanded at Rothschloss. After this Frederick chiefly employed Winterfeldt as a confidential staff officer to represent his views to the generals, a position in which he needed extraordinary tact and knowledge of men and affairs and, as a matter of course, made many enemies.

In the short peace before the outbreak of the Second Silesian War (the second part of the War of the Austrian Succession), Winterfeldt was constantly in attendance upon the king.

In 1744, when the Second Silesian War broke out, Frederick II employed Winterfeldt in the same capacity as before. Winterfeldt was instrumental in winning a series of successful minor engagements.

On May 23 1745, Winterfeldt was promoted to major-general. His promotion was to date from December 1 1743. After the battle of Hohenfriedberg, which took place on June 4 1745, Frederick gave Winterfeldt the captaincy of Tatiau for his great services during this combat. On November 24, at Katholisch-Hennersdorf, where the sudden and unexpected invasion of the Austro-Saxons was checked by the vigour of Zieten, Winterfeldt arrived on the field in time to take a decisive share.

During the ten years' peace that preceded the next great war, Winterfeldt was in constant attendance upon the king, except when employed on confidential missions in the provinces or abroad.

In May 1756, Winterfeldt was appointed Chef of the former Kacke Infantry. On June 8, he was promoted to lieutenant-general and received the Order of the Black Eagle. On August 21, he was appointed governor of Colberg. During the same year, he was very active in collecting information as to the coalition that was secretly preparing to crush Prussia, and in preparing for the war. He took a leading part in the discussions which decided Frederick to strike the first blow. He took part in the Prussian invasion of Saxony. He was at Pirna with the king, and advised him against absorbing the Saxon prisoners into his own army.

In 1757, when the Prussian army proceeded to the invasion of Bohemia, Winterfeldt accompanied Schwerin in the advance on Prague. On May 6, he took part in the ferocious Battle of Prague. In June, after the defeat of Kolin, Winterfeldt, who had the confidence of Frederick, was entrusted with the conduct of the retreat. During these operations, Winterfeldt was obliged to work in close contact with the king's brother, Prince Wilhelm, the Duke of Brunswick-Bevern, Zieten and others of his enemies. The situation degenerated into an open conflict and the Prince of Prussia retired from the army. After these events, when Frederick gave Winterfeldt renewed marks of his confidence, the general animosity reached its height. On September 7, Winterfeldt fell a victim to his own bravery in the Combat of Moys near Gorlitz. His wound, the first serious wound he had ever received, proved fatal and he died on September 8.

References

This article incorporates texts from the following books who are now in the public domain:

  • "Winterfeldt, Hans Karl von" in Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed. London: Cambridge University Press, 1911
  • Grosser Generalstab Kriegsgeschichtliche Abteilung II: Die Kriege Friedrichs des Grossen, Part 3 Der siebenjährige Krieg 1756-1763, Vol. 4 Groß-Jägersdorf und Breslau, Berlin, 1902, Anhang 40

Other Sources

German Wikipedia - Hans Karl von Winterfeldt