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West (Outer Kerameikos)
District of Agrai
The district of Agrai was located just outside the city walls, to the southeast along the Ilissos. Several religious precincts, some of them extremely old, as well as the Kallirrhoe cisterns were located in this district. Because of the importance of these cisterns, tanners were prohibited from washing hides in the Ilissos upstream. A light bridge, accessible from the Diomeian Gate (Gate X), crossed the Ilissos above the Kallirrhoe. From there, a road led to the Kynosarges.
The shrine of Herakles, Pankrates and Palaimon, on the east bank of the Ilissos, was erected only at the end of the 4th century BC.
The Panathenaic Stadium was part of Lykourgos building program conducted around 330 BC.
A new stadium was built by Herodes Atticus on the spot of the Panathenaic Stadium around 144 AD. At the same time, he also built a bridge over the Ilissos just in front of the stadium and the Temple of Tyche atop the Ardettos Hill. The grave of Herodes was later erected to the east of the stadium.
The Outer Kerameikos was the continuation outside the city walls of the Kerameikos proper. It was located outside the Dipylon Gate (Thriasian Gate) along the Eridanos and the road leading to the Akademeia. Indeed, this latter road was often simply named Kerameikos. A lesser road ran parallely to the main road to the Akademeia. This secondary road, 4.80 m wide was dedicated to wheeled traffic.
As soon as the 10th century BC, this area was already used as a burying place. A libation vessel and a stone marker indicated each grave. During the 8th century BC, the amphoras and kraters marking each graves became bigger and bigger. During the 7th and 6th BC the burial style changed, the graves being now covered by conical earth mounds from 6 to 10 m of diameter. This latter type of graves were mostly located on the south bank of the Eridanos. Later, graves were marked with some sort of brick boxes with a stone cornice. Burial style continued to evolve and, by the end of 6th century BC, graves were marked by poros or marble stelai. It was now prohibited to dig graves inside the walls. From 430 BC, graves were marked by elaborate monuments.
A section of this quarter was reserved for state burial. It was known as the Demosion Sema.
The tomb of the Lakedaimonians was erected in 403 BC to bury the Spartans who had been killed defending the Thirty Tyrants.
Around 350 BC, the road leading to the Akademeia was widened to 39 m.
Camp, John M.; The Archaeology of Athens, Yale University Press, 2001, pp. 8, 133
Travlos, John, Pictorial dictionary of Ancient Athens, Books that matter, New York, 1971, p. 112-114, 158, 278, 289, 299-301, 498
- Determine if the shrine of Poseidon Helikonios in the district of Agrai existed in 421 BC
- Determine if the Metroon in Agrai existed in 421 BC
- Determine if the relief of Pan were already sculpted on a rock in the district of Agrai in 421 BC
- Determine if the Shrine of Artemis Kalliste and Ariste along the road to the Akademeia was already existing in 421 BC
- Determine if the Temple of Dionysos Eleuthereus along the road to the Akademeia was already existing in 421 BC