1758 - British operations in Deccan
The campaign took place from October to December 1758
Situation in Bengal
Affairs in Bengal in the autumn of 1758 stood on no very sure footing. Nawab Mir Jafar Khan was not wholly resigned to his puppet-hood; but his nobles were disaffected, his treasury was empty and he was threatened on his northern frontier by invasion from Oudh (present-day Awadh); so he was obliged reluctantly to throw himself upon the protection of Lieutenant-Colonel Robert Clive. So unstable a condition of affairs presented no ideal moment for weakening the small force on which British influence in those provinces might depend.
In September, accounts arrived at Calcutta (present-day Kolkata) of the French operations on the coast of Coromandel where Fort St. David, near Cuddalore, had fallen and been destroyed and where the French had ultimately failed before Tanjore (present-day Thanjavur). Nevertheless, Clive determined not to send troops to Madras.
Situation in Deccan
In September, Bussy, who was commanding a French corps in Deccan, was recalled with his troop to reinforce Lally-Tollendal's Corps and support him for the siege of Madras (present-day Chennai). The only French military presence in this region now consisted of a very small corps under M. de Conflans occupying the Northern Circars. This country lies to the south of Bengal, extending 750 km along the sea-coast in the direction of Madras, and inland to a depth varying from 50 to 160 km.
Clive, perceiving that Bussy's withdrawal from Hyderabad gave him a chance to substitute British for French ascendancy at the court of the Deccan, determined at all hazards to seize it. When the French army proceeding to operations on the coast of Coromandel retreated from Tanjore in August, the ruler of one district of the Northern Circars, the Rajah Anunderaj of Visanapore (unidentified location), seized the opportunity and rose in revolt against the French, assembling an army of 3,000 men.
On September 2, Anunderaj captured Vizagapatam (present-day Visakhapatnam), took the French chief prisoner, plundered the factory, and hauled down the French flag. Knowing that war existed between France and Great Britain in Europe, and hoping to obtain assistance from the latter, he hoisted the British flag.
The Marquis de Conflans marched from Masulipatam (present-day Machilipatnam) on Visanapore to punish the rajah who at once dispatched a messenger to the Council at Calcutta informing them what he had done. He pointed out that his countrymen were only anxious to rid themselves of the French control, and that with the assistance of a small British force he would drive the enemy from his country. Mr. Johnstone was appointed by the Council to act as political agent and sent to concert operations with Anunderaj while Clive made arrangements for an expeditionary force consisting of two-thirds of his force.
Clive's preparation for his expedition
Lieutenant-Colonel Francis Forde, formerly of the 39th Foot, had lately been sent from Madras to command the Company's troops in Bengal; and Clive, entertaining the highest opinion of his judgement, coolness, and capacity, entrusted to him the military command of the expedition. The troops with Forde comprised:
- Bengal European Regiment (5 coys totalling 500 men) under Captain Adnet, assisted by Captains Christian Fischer, Martin, Yorke, and Moltimore, and Captain-Lieutenant Patrick Moran
- Lascars (100 men)
- Sepoys (2,000 men)
- 1st Battalion of the Bengal Sepoys (1 bn) under Captain Ransfur Lee Knox
- 2nd Battalion of the Bengal Sepoys (1 bn) under Captain -Lieutenant Lachlan MacLean
- Remnants of the contingent of Madras Sepoys (1 bn) sent to Bengal in 1756
- 2nd Company of the Bengal European Artillery (1 coy)
- 6 x short brass 6-pdrs
- 1 x howitzer
- 4 x iron 24-pdrs
- 4 x iron 18-pdrs
- 1 x 8-in mortar
- 2 x 5½-in royal mortars.
By the end of September, the British expeditionary force was ready at Calcutta but its departure was protracted by foul weather.
On October 12, the British expeditionary force embarked on board several vessels:
- Indiaman Hardwicke
- 2 unidentified Indiamen
- Thames (a 700 tons ship)
- 2 unidentified pilot sloops
The British expeditionary force then sailed for Vizagapatam. Only 300 men of the Bengal European Regiment, along with the 3rd and 4th battalions of Bengal Sepoys were left behind in Bengal.
The British enter into Deccan
On October 20, Forde's Corps finally reached Vizagapatam, and the men and stores were disembarked without delay. As soon as this was effected, two of the Indiamen returned to Calcutta, leaving only the Hardwicke, the Thames, and the two sloops to co -operate with the land force.
The rajah’s army (some 3,500 men) was encamped about 50 km from that place. It was anticipated that General Conflans would have resented the capture of Vizagapatam before the arrival of the British troops, but he was timidly awaiting reinforcements at Rajahmundry, some 200 km from Vizagapatam, with a force of 600 French soldiers, 5,500 Cipayes and a brigade of artillery with 30 guns, and about 500 native cavalry.
At Vizagapatam more delay was caused by the unwillingness of Rajah Anunderaj to fulfill his engagement to pay the British troops. After considerable difficulty carriage was provided.
On November 1, Lieutenant-Colonel Forde set off from Vizagapatam, leaving behind a small garrison of Sepoys.
On November 3, Forde reached Cossimcotah (present-day Kasimkota) where he made a junction with Anunderaj's Army (now counting 5,000 men for the most part undrilled and unarmed). Forde was also joined by 40 Europeans of different nationalities with 4 field-pieces, under an adventurer named Bristol. Forde and Anunderaj then determined to march on Rajahmundry.
Great delays however occurred in procuring bullocks, koolies, etc. but more especially from the rajah’s repugnance to furnish any money for the expenses of the force, upon which implicit understanding they had left Bengal.
On November 15, Mr. Andrews, who had been dispatched from Madras to arrange terms, concluded the following treaty with the Rajah Anunderaj:
- The rajah to pay the extra expenses of the British army during the time it should be employed - ₤ 5,000 a month - and pay the officers double batta, ₤ 600 a month - these sums being payable as soon as the rajah should be put in possession of the town of Rajahmundry.
- The rajah to be possessed of all the inland territory belonging to the country powers, but the company to retain all the sea-coast from Vizagapatam to Masulipatam, with the several towns and ports on that line.
- No treaty for the subsequent disposal or restitution, whether of the rajah's or the Company's possessions, to be made without the consent of both parties.
- All plunder and prize to be equally divided.
On December 1, the combined forces of Rajah Anunderaj's and Lieutenant-Colonel Forde marched towards Rajahmundry.
On December 3, Forde and his ally came in sight of the French who were encamped 60 km north of Rajahmundry within sight of the Fort of Peddapore (present-day Peddapuram), a position well chosen and commanding the high road to the south. The French force was commanded by M. Conflans and consisted of his entire army and a quantity of native levies. Forde's Army, on his side, had received the accession of 500 horse and 5,000 foot, chiefly armed with pikes and bows, which represented the contingent of Anunderaj.
On December 6, Forde advanced along the high road to within 6 km of Conflans and took possession of an eminence called Chambole (maybe Chebrolu), but each officer thought the other too strong to be attacked. Inaction continued for two days.
Battle of Condore
On December 8, both commanders simultaneously framed independent designs for extricating themselves from the dead-lock. Conflans' plan was to send 6 guns with a sufficient force to a height which commanded the British camp, and which Forde had omitted to occupy. Forde, for his part, had decided to make a detour of 5 km to Condore (present-day Chendurthi), from which he could turn Conflans' position and regain the high road to Rajahmundry.
On December 9, the two armies clashed in the Battle of Condore where Forde won a clear victory. The French retired on Rajahmundry. After the battle, the British battalion being much fatigued was halted in the French camp. During the evening, Captain Knox with the 1st Battalion of Bengal Sepoys of the right wing, along with Anunderaj's cavalry employed as scouts, was sent forward to pursue the French who were retreating towards Rajahmundry. Knox was instructed to wait there for the arrival of the main body.
The French retire to Rajahmundry
On December 10, Forde was informed that the French had rallied most of their European troops and some Cipayes at Rajahmundry. He detached Captain Maclean with two Sepoy bns to reinforce Knox’s forces. After the junction of Maclean’s and Knox’s detachments, the three Sepoy bns advanced on Rajahmundry. The French, still under the influence of panic, evacuated the fort. The British caught them while they were crossing the river in boats. They killed some Europeans and took 15 prisoners. The French Cipayes threw down their arms and dispersed. Captain Knox at once took possession of the fort of Rajahmundry and cannonaded the French across the river, forcing them to abandon the four filed-pieces that they had managed to bring back with them, and one howitzer. At Rajahmundry, the British captured more artillery, ammunition and stores with about 500 draught and carriage bullocks, some horses and camels. Forde reserved all the military stores for the company, and the remainder of the effects were sold by auction and divided as reward to the troops. The army encamped outside the town along the river. One Sepoy coy was assigned to the guard of the fort and another posted in the town.
Thus Rajahmundry, the gate and barrier of the district of Vizagapatam, passed into the hands of the British.
On December 11, Forde arrived at Rajahmundry with the rest of the army, eager to pursue his success by an advance on Masulipatam.
On December 12, Conflans reached the Fortress of Masulipatam. En route, he had instructed all his outpost commanders to follow him as quickly as possible.
On DEcember 23, Forde crossed the Godavari River, preparing to advance on Masulipatam. This, the most important town and the centre of French influence in the province, was doubly important to the French as a base from which they might at any time recover their lost territory. Forde, however, was in want of money, for which he had relied on the promises of Anunderaj. The rajah now refused either to supply funds or to set his army in motion to accompany Forde.
On December 26, much to his disgust, Forde was obliged to recross the river; upon which, Anunderaj, thinking that Forde was returning to punish him for his perfidy, fled with his troops to the hills, where they concealed themselves.
Forde, without money, was unable to prosecute his war. He, therefore, left a small force to protect Rajahmundry and marched to Peddapore, about 16 km from Condore, and there entrenched himself.
At length after much negotiation Anunderaj was induced to fulfil his undertaking but 50 precious days had been lost and the French had gained time to recover themselves.
Therefore, on January 28, 1759, Forde undertook an expedition against Masulipatam to definitively oust the French from Deccan.
This article is essentially a compilation of texts from the following books which are now in the public domain:
- An anonymous staff officer; Historical Record of the Honourable East India Company's First Madras Regiment, London: Smith, Elder and Co; 1843, pp. X-xvi, 143-148
- Cambridge, Richard Owen: An Account of the War in India between the English and French on the Coast of Coromandel from the Year 1750 to the Year 1760 together with a Relation of the late Remarkable Events on the Malabar Coast, and the Expeditions to Golconda and Surat; with the Operations of the Fleet, London: T. Jefferys, 1761, pp. 201-207
- Fortescue, J. W., A History of the British Army, Vol. II, MacMillan, London, 1899, pp. 441-445
- Innes, P. R.; The History of the Bengal European Regiment, now the Royal Munster Fusiliers and how it helped to win India, 2nd ed., London: Simpkin, Marshall & Co., 1885, pp. 72-82
- Broome, Captain Arthur: History of the Rise and Progress of the Bengal Army, Vol. 1, Calcutta, 1850, pp. 210-223