1759 - Austrian campaign in Upper Silesia and Lusatia
The campaign lasted from March to September 1759
At the end of 1758, the Elector of Bavaria recalled his troops, who had campaigned with the Austrian Army, and declared that he would remain neutral. Meanwhile, the British Parliament voted a subsidy of 670,000 £ to Prussia for the year of 1759.
With the losses suffered during the campaign of 1758, the Prussian Army needed a large number of recruits to replenish its ranks. Frederick II estimated that he would need 22,000 men to bring back his main army in Silesia to its original strength. The large number of officers needed also caused particular difficulties. However, the Prussians still occupied Saxony and Silesia where they could raise a large number of recruits. They could also recruit in several principalities of Germany. Finally Prussian land militias could provide recruits for the field regiments. Nevertheless, the East Prussian regiments had lost their recruiting cantons which were occupied by the Russians. Overall, the large number of recruits affected the general quality of the Prussian infantry rgts. The effective strength of Prussian hussar rgts was also increased.
In the Austrian Army, the Slavonisch and Warasdiner Grenzer rgts (a total of 5 rgts) fielded a total of 15,000 men (each rgt consisting of 1 grenadier coy and 16 fusilier coys) while 5,400 men (1,080 men per rgt) were kept ready in their native land.
For the campaign of 1759, Empress Maria Theresa wished to form a large army under the command of Daun to operate in Silesia and the Oder. With these measures, she not only intended to regain Silesia, but also to effect a junction with the Russians because, at the end of the last campaign, they had bitterly complained that instead of supporting Fermor's army, Daun had left for Saxony. In fact, Russian operations could only be effective if they closely cooperated with the Austrians.
Daun planned to assemble a very large army (approx. 100,000 men) under his command in the region of Trautenau (present-day Trutnov/CZ) and Königgrätz (present-day Hradec Králové/CZ) around mid-March. Meanwhile, a Russian army of approx. 45,000 men would advance southwards from Thorn (present-day Toruń/PL), and would reach Upper Silesia at the end of May.
For the campaign of 1759, Frederick considered that the superiority of his enemies would probably reduced him to the defence of his own kingdom.
For the first half of 1759, the confrontation between the Austrian and Prussian armies was centered around Lusatia with related operations in the neighbouring regions of Silesia, Bohemia and Saxony. Then in August the main theatres of operation shifted to Brandenburg and Saxony. These related campaigns are covered in two other articles:
However, the multiple maneuverings which took place in the aforementioned regions until July are, for the moment, all grouped within the current article.
Preparation and Initial Manoeuvres
At the opening of the campaign of 1759, Prussian armies were deployed as follows:
- Frederick II's Army in Silesia (54 bns, 88 sqns, 143 heavy artillery pieces). More precisely, the heavy artillery comprised:
- 30 x heavy 12-pdr guns
- 50 x “Austrian style” 12-pdr guns
- 20 x light 12-pdr guns
- 24 x 7-pdr howitzers
- 12 x 10-pdr howitzers
- 7 x 25-pdr mortars
- Fouqué's Corps in Upper-Silesia (18 bns, 20 sqns, 36 heavy artillery pieces). More precisely, the heavy artillery comprised:
- 10 x “Austrian style” 12 pdr-guns
- 20 x light 12-pdr guns
- 6 x 10-pdr howitzers
- Prince Heinrich's Corps in Saxony (43 bns, 60 sqns, 63 heavy artillery pieces). More precisely, the heavy artillery comprised:
- 20 x heavy 12-pdr guns
- 28 x “Austrian style” 12 pdr-guns
- 6 x light 12-pdr guns
- 5 x 7-pdr howitzers
- 4 x 10-pdr howitzers
- Dohna's Corps in Pomerania (26 bns, 55 sqns, 56 heavy artillery pieces). More precisely, the heavy artillery comprised:
- 19 x “Austrian style” 12 pdr-guns
- 18 x light 12-pdr guns
- 1 x 24-pdr gun
- 15 x 7-pdr howitzers
- 1 x 10-pdr howitzer
- 2 x 18-pdr howitzers
For their part, the Austrian armies were deployed as follows:
- de Ville's Corps in Moravia (26 bns, 32 sqns (including the Saxon cavalry) and 3,500 Grenzers consisting of: Karlstädter-Lykaner, Karlstädter-Ottochaner and Karlstädter Grenz-Hussars). This corps had been reinforced by 8 depot bns (third bns): 2 sent from Brünn (present day Brno/CZ) and 6 from Olmütz (present-day Olomouc/CZ).
- Loudon's Corps at Trautenau in Bohemia between the Elbe and Silesia (10 bns, 20 sqns, 5,917 Grenzers)
- Beck's Corps near Politz (present-day Police nad Metují/CZ) in Bohemia (10 bns, 15 sqns, 5,900 Grenzers)
- Vehla's detachment near Gabel (present-day Jablonné v Podještědí/CZ) in Bohemia (2,031 Grenzers)
- Harsch's Corps near Náchod in Bohemia (16 bns, 25 sqns, 3,300 Grenzers)
- Daun's Army at Gitschin (present-day Jičín/CZ) in Bohemia (47 bns, 60 sqns)
- Gemmingen's Corps at Postelberg (present-day Postoloprty/CZ) on the Eger on the frontier between Saxony and Bohemia (9 bns, 39 sqns, 3,154 Grenzers)
Another Austrian Corps of 15,000 men (including 6,546 Grenzers from Banal-Grenzinfanterieregiment nr. 1, Karlstädter-Lykaner, Karlstädter-Oguliner, Karlstädter-Szluiner, and 1,454 men from the Karlstädter Grenz-Hussars) under Hadik had already joined the Reichsarmee cantoned in Franconia near the Saxon border with another division on the Werra near Hesse. Globally these Austro-Imperial forces amounted to about 45,000 men.
To improve the bridging material of the Austrian Army, 80 tin pontoons were sent from Vienna to Prague, to replace older pontoons. Furthermore, 59 old wooden pontoons were kept along this new material.
In February, Frederick promoted Finck and Wedel to lieutenant-generals. Major-generals Prince Karl von Braunschweig-Bevern and Baron von Schönaich, who felt neglected in these promotions, protested and were authorised to leave service.
At the end of February, Frederick sent parties against the Russian magazines on the Warthe (present-day Warta river) and at Posen (present-day Poznań/PL). These parties successfully destroyed some magazines.
At the beginning of March, Austrian troops began to assemble on the border between Silesia and Bohemia. Seeing that the Austrian troops in the vicinity of Friedland had been reinforced, Lieutenant-General von Zieten sent Grenadier Battalion Busche to support his outposts at Kupferberg (present-day Miedzianka/PL) and Spiller (present-day Pasiecznik/PL). However, the Austrians remaining idle, this bn marched back to the region of Jauer (present-day Jawor/PL) and Schweidnitz (present-day Swidnica/PL).
In mid-March, Frederick instructed Major-General von Puttkamer to take position near Spremberg in Lusatia with the Puttkamer Hussars to protect the line of communication between his own army and that of Prince Heinrich.
By March 17, Frederick had 40 bns and 58 sqns (excluding his hussars) with him in Silesia. He took up quarters between Schweidnitz and Jauer. He had also let 20 bns (excluding troops placed in garrison) to Fouqué to defend Upper and Lower Silesia.
By March 19, Frederick had received intelligence that part of the Austrian army would stay in the region of Königgrätz, another part in Moravia, a corps of 18,000 men would join the Reichsarmee near Eisenach, and the main Austrian army would assemble near Budin (present-day Budyně nad Ohří/CZ) in Bohemia. He was also informed that the Russians were still waiting for troops from home and that their army on the Vistula was in bad condition. Frederick was confident that the Russians would not be a threat for the next two months.
On March 24
- Daun arrived at his cantonments of Jermer (present-day Jaroměř/CZ), expecting a Prussian invasion. He had been ordered by the Kriegshofrath (Court War Council) to take no offensive actions until the arrival of the Russian army would draw away part of Frederick's Army.
- Beck, commanding the Austrian advanced posts in Upper Lusatia and Bohemia, had been informed that the Grenadier Battalion Diringshofen occupied an isolated post at Greiffenberg (present-day Gryfów Śląski/PL). He resolved to capture this post.
- Frederick’s army began to gradually come out of its winter-quarters and assembled in the region between Jauer and Schweidnitz. Frederick moved his headquarters from Breslau (present-day Wrocław/PL) to Rohnstock (present-day Roztoka/PL). The Prussian infantry and cavalry units were back at full strength, but the artillery was still missing a few hundreds recruits.
- Lieutenant-General von Zieten remained in command of the troops posted on the border between Greiffenberg and the Tannhausen Pass (present-day Jedlina-Zdrój/PL).
- Fouqué’s Corps secured Upper Silesia and the left flank of the Frederick’s Army. At the news of the concentration of the Austrians in Moravia and Austrian Silesia, Fouqué’s Corps moved out of its winter-quarters between Neustadt (present-day Prudnik/PL), Ratibor (present-day Racibórz/PL) and Cosel (present-day Koźle/PL) and assembled between Neustadt and Oberglogau (present-day Głogówek/PL).
In the night of March 25 to 26, FML von Beck marched from Friedland on Greiffenberg with 10 grenadier coys, 4 bns, 2,000 Grenzer light troops, 1,000 horse, 1,200 hussars and 6 heavy artillery pieces. Diringshofen received intelligence of his advance but decided to make a stand.
On March 26
- Before daybreak, Beck’s Grenzer light troops and hussars crossed the Queis to cut the line of retreat of the Prussian garrison of Greiffenberg towards Löwenberg (present-day Lwówek Śląski/PL). With his regulars, Beck then attacked the positions of Lieutenant-Colonel von Diringshofen near Greiffenberg. When Diringshofen realised that the enemy vastly outnumbered his own bn, he abandon the idea to retreat towards Löwenberg. After a fierce combat where it lost many men, Diringshofen Grenadier Battalion (500 men) was finally taken prisoners. A detachment of 400 foot accompanied by the Freibataillon Salenmon, which had been sent from Löwenberg, arrived to late.
- Strong Austrian detachments of light troops also attacked Prussian outposts at Liebau (present-day Lubawka/PL) and Schömberg (present-day Chełmsko Śląskie/PL), but they were driven back after brief skirmishes.
- To prevent further advance of the Austrians against his right wing, Frederick instructed Zieten to take position with 6 bns (Grenadier Battalion Busche, Grenadier Battalion Nimschöfsky, Markgraf Carl Infantry, Lattorff Infantry) and 15 sqns (Czettritz Dragoons, Möhring Hussars) on the banks of the Bober near Lähn (present-day Wleń/PL); and to act in conjunction with Major-General Puttkamer’s 5 bns (Prinz Ferdinand Infantry, Freibataillon Salenmon and part of Itzenplitz Infantry) and with the Zieten Hussars which were posted at Löwenberg.
On March 27
- Beck returned to Friedland with his corps.
On March 29, Daun arrived at his headquarters at Münchengrätz (present-day Mnichovo Hradiště/CZ). He ordered to concentrate his army in the area of Braunau (present-day Broumov/CZ), Nachod, Königgrätz, Turnau (present-day Turnov/CZ) and Trautenau at the beginning of April.
On April 1, Frederick moved his army closer to Landeshut (present-day Kamienna Góra/PL), the main pass between Silesia and Bohemia, transferring his headquarters from Rohnstock to Bolkenhain (present-day Bolków/PL). He was informed that Austrian troops were concentrating near Braunau. He would remain in these positions until the first days of July, almost three months, watching Daun.
On April 2
- Frederick sent Major-General von Ramin with 5 bns (Kalckstein Infantry, Manteuffel Infantry, Freibataillon Le Noble) to occupy the Wartha Pass.
- Lieutenant-General von Seydlitz was sent with 25 sqns (Horn Cuirassiers, Schmettau Cuirassiers, Vasold Cuirassiers, Seydlitz Cuirassiers, Württemberg Dragoons) to the vicinity of Frankenstein (present-day Ząbkowice Śląskie/PL) to support Ramin’s detachment and to keep open the line of communication with Fouqué’s Corps (21 bns, 25 sqns and 36 heavy artillery pieces) posted near Neustadt.
On April 7, an exchange of 18,494 Prussian prisoners against 22,709 Austrian prisoners took place.
From April 12, Frederick’s Army took up cantonments around Landeshut and the king established his headquarters in Landeshut.
By April 15, a Prussian corps of 14 bns and 24 sqns with 21 heavy artillery pieces under Lieutenant-General von Wedel had been posted to protect the passes of Liebau and Schömberg in response to the concentration of large Austrian forces on the Upper Elbe and on the frontier near Trautenau. Frederick also instructed Zieten to move with his troops from Greiffenberg, Löwenberg and Lähn to Hirschberg (present-day Jelenia Góra/PL) to support Wedel. Zieten left only 3 sqns of the Möhring Hussars near Lähn to observe the enemy. Zieten’s Corps then advanced from Hirschberg towards Kupferberg.
|Order of Battle|
|Detailed OoB of the Prussian army in mid-April.
Detailed OoB of the Austrian army in mid-April.
By mid April, Frederick’s Army (44,500 men) was quartered around Landeshut where Frederick had established his headquarters. Strong detachments also occupied the passes near Liebau and Schömberg. Meanwhile, Lieutenant-General von Zieten was posted with a small corps near Kupferberg and had a detachment near Lähn. Major-General von Ramin was posted at the Wartha Pass with 5 bns to secure the line of communication with Glatz (present-day Klodzko/PL) while Lieutenant-General von Seydlitz was near Frankenstein with 25 sqns to support Ramin’s detachment. Furthermore, 500 men of Zieten Hussars under Major von Reitzenstein were posted near Glogau (present-day Głogów/PL) to observe the Cossacks occupying Posen.
By mid-April, the Austrian Army was deployed as follows:
- Field-Marshall Daun with the main army (43 bns, 42 grenadier coys, 70 sqns, 14 elite cavalry coys and 94 heavy artillery pieces for a total of 42,000 men) between Jermer, Königgrätz and Turnau
- FML de Ville with a corps (20 bns, 22 grenadier coys, 8 garrison bns, 33 sqns, 8 elite cavalry coys, 2,500 Grenzer light troops and 14 heavy artillery pieces for a total of 28,000 men) near Troppau in Austrian Silesia
- FML Baron von Beck with a corps (4 bns, 4 grenadier coys, 15 sqns, 1 horse grenadier coy, 3,500 Grenzer light troops and 4 heavy artillery pieces for a total of 7,000 men) near Braunau
- FZM Count Harsch with a corps (23 bns, 24 grenadier coys, 5 sqns, 1 horse grenadier coy, 3,000 Grenzer light troops and 22 heavy artillery pieces for a total of 19,000 men) near Nachod
- FML Baron Loudon with a corps (4 bns, 4 grenadier coys, 30 sqns, 2 elite cavalry coys, 2,500 Grenzer light troops and 6 heavy artillery pieces for a total of 10,000 men) near Trautenau
- Major-General von Vehla with a corps (2 bns, 2 grenadier coys, 10 sqns, 2 elite cavalry coys, 2,000 Grenzer light troops and 500 Grenzer hussars for a total of 5,000 men) near Gabel
- FML Baron von Gemmingen with a corps (5 bns, 6 grenadier coys, 20 sqns, 3 carabinier coys, 3,000 Grenzer light troops, 500 Grenzer hussars and 12 heavy artillery pieces for a total of 10,000 men) west of the Elbe between the Eger and the Saxon border
In mid April, Frederick sent Fouqué in a raid in Moravia to destroy Austrian magazines. Simultaneously, Frederick sent Prince Heinrich in a raid inside Bohemia. Prince Heinrich destroyed large depots belonging to the Reichsarmee but then retired towards Saxony.
De Ville’s Corps (28,000 men) had assembled near Hof when the Prussian corps of General Fouqué (25,000 men) had penetrated in Austrian Silesia.
On April 17, de Ville concentrated his corps near Heidenplitsch (present-day Bílčice/CZ) and established his camp between Troppau (present-day Opava/CZ) and Jägerndorf (present-day Krnov/CZ).
At about this time, Frederick was incorrectly informed that Daun had recalled Beck’s Corps from the vicinity of Braunau. Based on these news, Frederick thought that the right wing of Loudon’s Corps was dangerously exposed. He planned to march with a strong detachment in the direction of Braunau, Politz and Nachod and to drive Loudon out of his positions.
On April 24, de Ville’s Corps, which was following Fouqué’s Corps, encamped near Löwitz (probably Lewice/PL) and Bleischwitz (present-day Bliszczyce/PL), east of Jägerndorf.
On the night of April 24 to 25
- Fouqué, fearing to be cut from Neisse (present-day Nysa/PL), set off from Leobschütz (present-day Głubczyce/PL) and force marched to the vicinity of Neustadt, where he encamped between Jassen (unidentified location) and Leuber (present-day Lubrza/PL).
- De Ville followed Fouqué’s movement, marching in parallel to the Prussian corps, pushing troops forwards to Ziegenhals (present-day Głuchołazy/PL).
On the night of April 25 to 26, Fouqué escaped the trap that de Ville had planned.
Frederick, who had abandoned his design against Braunau after realising that he had received bad information about Beck’s Corps, was closely observing the movements of de Ville’s Corps. He now hoped that de Ville would come out of the mountains and advance in the plain of Silesia where he could attack him.
On April 27, Frederick sent 10 bns (Braunschweig Infantry, Kalckstein Infantry, Lindstedt Infantry, Manteuffel Infantry, Münchow Fusiliers), 38 sqns (Garde du Corps (3 sqns), Gens d'Armes, Leib-Carabiniers, Bredow Cuirassiers, Schmettau Cuirassiers, Seydlitz Cuirassiers, Vasold Cuirassiers, Herzog von Württemberg Dragoons) and 22 heavy artillery pieces from Landeshut, Wartha (present-day Bardo/PL) and Frankenstein to reinforce Fouqué’s Corps.
On April 28
- Fouqué’s Corps reached the camp of Oppersdorf (present-day Wierzbięcice/PL), to the southeast of Neisse.
- De Ville’s Corps reached Zuckmantel (present-day Zlaté Hory/CZ).
On April 29, Frederick personally rode out of Landeshut and join the reinforcements, which had already reached Neisse.
On April 30
- Frederick’s reinforcements effected a junction with Fouqué’s Corps near Oppersdorf. Lieutenant-General von Seydlitz rode out with the 10 sqns of Werner Hussars to reconnoitre de Ville’s positions and came back to report that the Austrians were posted on an unassailable height near Zuckmantel.
- His scouts informed de Ville about Frederick’s arrival with reinforcements. Realising the danger of being attacked by a larger force, he immediately took dispositions to retire.
By the end of April, the Austrian field armies counted a total of 480 artillery pieces (324 x 3-pdrs, 72 x 6-pdrs, 46 x 12-pdrs, 6 x 24-pdrs, 32 x 7-pdr howitzers). In addition, there was an artillery train of 155 artillery pieces (12 x 10-pdr, 18 x 20-pdr, 70 x 24-pdr, 25 x 10-pdr howitzers, 18 x 40-pdr of 50-pdr mortars, and 12 x 100-pdr mortars) kept ready in Olmütz. Each battalion of the field armies had two 3-pdr guns.
On May 1
- De Ville retired to Hermannstadt (present-day Heřmanovice/CZ).
- Frederick went to the height of Arnoldsdorf (present-day Gmina Głuchołazy/PL), escorted by 6 bns and 30 sqns, to personally reconnoitre de Ville’s positions. From there, he could see that the Austrians were in full retreat through the mountains towards Hermannstadt where he took advantageous positions.
- Prussian hussars caught up with troops from the Karlstädter-Lykaner Grenzer and Karlstädter-Ottochaner Grenzer near Arnoldsdorf and dispersed them, capturing 6 officers and 271 men.
- Frederick returned to the vicinity of Landeshut with the reinforcements, while Fouqué’s Corps remained encamped near Oppersdorf.
At the beginning of May, Frederick decided to send the Prussian Army of Saxony against the Reichsarmee to put it out of action for a certain time so that he could redirect his Army of Saxony against the Russians. Accordingly, Prince Heinrich made an incursion in Franconia where he operated until the beginning of June.
On May 2, according to Daun's plan agreed with the Russians, the main Austrian army left its quarters and encamped near Schurz (present-day Žireč/CZ), covered by the corps already posted on the frontier, to pin down Frederick’s Army in Silesia until the Russian army had gathered near Posen and could begin its march to the Upper Oder to effect a junction with the Austrians. The Russians planned to set of from Posen on July 6.
Frederick did not dare to weaken his forces in Silesia and could count only on Dohna’s small army to contain the Russians. He hoped to engage Daun in an open battle and to decisively defeat him.
On May 6, a Prussian force attacked and drove back Graf Renard Uhlanen at Hennersdorf (present-day Dolní Branná/CZ). However Major-General Renard was soon supported by the Karlstädter-Lykaner Grenzer, Karlstädter-Ottochaner Grenzer and Karlstädter Grenz-Hussars, forcing the Prussians to retire.
On May 8, Major-General Baron von Tillier arrived at Daun’s headquarters near Schurz. He had previously participated with the Russian staff in St. Petersburg in the preparation of a plan for the campaign. He had afterwards visited the empress in Vienna and obtained her approval. This plan called for a simultaneous advance of the Russians from Posen and of the Austrians from Bohemia at the beginning of July to make a junction between Glogau and Breslau. Daun represented to General von Springer, the Russian plenipotentiary assigned to him, that the Prussian fortresses on the Oder would constitute a threat and that Frederick could take a strong position between these fortress and severely impede the junction of the Austrian and Russian armies. Daun proposed to effect the junction in the vicinity of Crossen (present-day Krosno Odrzańskie/PL) which he could reach by marching along the left banks of the Queis and Bober. The Russians would then cross the Oder at the mouth of the Bober and join Daun’s Army. Daun sent Springer to Fermor’s headquarters in Nakel (present-day Nakło nad Notecią/PL).
In mid May, Frederick resolved to destroy a second time the Russian magazine at Posen to delay the advance of the Russian army. He charged General Wobersnow of this mission.
On May 15, Major-General von Wobersnow set off from Breslau with 6 bns (Jung-Stutterheim Infantry, Jung Braunschweig Fusiliers, I./Garrison Regiment V Jung-Sydow, II./Garrison Regiment V Jung-Sydow), 5 sqns (Herzog von Württemberg Dragoons) and 10 heavy artillery pieces and marched in the direction of Guhrau (present-day Góra/PL) to effect a junction with Dohna’s Army in Farther Pomerania.
On May 16, learning that enemy cavalry had advanced from Zittau against Senftenberg in Lusatia, Frederick gave orders to Major-General von Czettritz to advance from Kupferberg by way of Bunzlau with 5 sqns of Czettritz Dragoons, 2 sqns of Möhring Hussars and Freibataillon Salenmon to attack the rear of the enemy cavalry.
On May 18
- Taking advantage of the gaping hole created in the Prussian position by Prince Heinrich advance into Franconia, Daun had sent Vehla towards Berlin at the head of 4,000 men. To support this manoeuvre, the Austrian General Gemmingen marched on Chemnitz and Zwickau.
- Wobersnow's detachment reached Guhrau, after marching by way of Trebnitz (present-day Trzebnica/PL), Trachenberg (present-day Żmigród/PL) and Herrnstadt (present-day Wąsosz/PL). At Guhrau, Wobersnow effected a junction with 500 of the Zieten Hussars under Major von Reitzenstein who had been posted in the area to observe the Russians at Posen.
- Frederick also instructed Major-General von Puttkamer, who was posted at Spremberg in Lusatia with 8 sqns of Puttkamer Hussars (the 2 other sqns being at Dresden), to march by way of Glogau with 6 of his sqns and join Wobersnow’s detachment at Guhrau.
- More reports confirmed that the Austrians were advancing in Lusatia and Frederick began to fear for Berlin. He recalled Puttkamer to Lusatia and instructed Wobersnow to interrupt his march against the Russians and to redirect his march towards Naumburg on the Bober (present-day Nowogrod Bobrzanski/PL). Lieutenant-General von Seydlitz with 2 cuirassier rgts (Leibregiment, Schmettau Cuirassiers) advanced from Frankenstein by way of Bunzlau to take command of all Prussian troops assembling in Lusatia.
On May 19
- Seydlitz’s and Czettritz’s detachments effected a junction near Bunzlau.
- Major-General von Bülow took position with 4 bns (Lindstedt Infantry, Münchow Fusiliers) near Barzdorf (present-day Božanov/CZ) on the left flank of Frederick’s Army to secure the Tannhausen Pass on the road coming from Braunau and entering into Silesia.
Major-General von Vehla, who had made a reconnaissance towards Bunzlau (present-day Bolesławiec/PL), Muskau (present-day Bad Muskau/DE), and had advanced up to Spremberg, feared to be cut from his base and finally retired towards Bohemia by Hoyerswerda.
On May 20
On May 21
- Loudon's Corps moved closer to observe the position of Frederick's main army.
- Daun was threatening Glatz, hoping to force Frederick to abandon his strong position.
- Seydlitz’s Corps reached Sorau (present-day Żary/PL).
- Wobersnow’s detachment reached Freistadt (unidentified location).
On May 22
- The Austrians having retired from Lusatia, Seydlitz took position between Sagan (present-day Zagan/PL) and Naumburg am Queis (present-day Nowogrodziec/PL) with 3 cavalry rgts (Leibregiment, Schmettau Cuirassiers, Czettritz Dragoons, 2 sqns of Möhring Hussars and Freibataillon Salenmon.
- Puttkamer returned to Spremberg and Muskau with the Puttkamer Hussars.
On May 22, Wobersnow took up quarters between Glogau and Sagan. Major von Reitzenstein remained near Glogau with 500 men of the Zieten Hussars.
On May 25, Fouqué’s Corps set off from Oppersdorf to get closer to Frederick’s main army.
Now that Prince Heinrich had successfully completed his incursion in Franconia and was returning to his quarters in Saxony, Frederick recalled Seydlitz and Wobersnow from the Queis.
Hoping to induce Daun to launch an offensive in Silesia, Frederick spread the rumour that he was preparing to march against the Russians with a strong corps. This rumour soon reached Vienna, provoking the intended reaction and Maria Theresa instructed Daun to take advantage of Frederick's absence and of the weakening of the Prussian Army of Silesia to advance into this province. However, Daun was better informed than the Viennese Court and he did not fall into the trap set for him.
On May 29
On May 30, Fouqué’s Corps reached the vicinity of Frankenstein.
At the end of May, several reports arrived at Frederick’s headquarters in Landeshut, confirming that the Russians intended to gradually concentrate their army near Posen so that they could initiate operations around mid-June. Other reports announced that the entire Russian army would advance against Glogau in Silesia. Frederick, who had initially thought that the Russians would launch offensives against Colberg (present-day Kołobrzeg/PL) or Neumark, or both, was finally convinced by these reports. That meant that Daun's army would soon get on the move to effect a junction with the Russians.
By the end of May, all Prussian troops had gradually come out of their winter-quarters around Landeshut and assembled in a fortified camp near Reich-Hennersdorf (present-day Przedwojów/PL), between Landeshut and Liebau. The right wing of the camp was anchored on the Bober River near Johnsdorf (present-day Janiszów/PL) and the left wing had the town of Ober-Zieder (present-day Czadrów/PL) to its front. Batteries, entrenchments and stockades made this camp a very strong position on the main road leading from Bohemia to Silesia.
During this time, the Austrian Main Army under the command of Daun was still encamped at Schurz. Loudon, Beck and Harsch still occupied the same positions.
At the beginning of June, Prince Heinrich's forces were deployed between Dresden and Zwickau. For its part, the Reichsarmee encamped at Forchheim with its vanguard at Wustenstein. G.d.C. Hadik was recalled from the Reichsarmee with a large part of the Austrian Contingent and instructed to join Daun’s main army. Indeed, the empress was very displeased by the behaviour of the Prince of Zweibrücken during the Prussian incursion in Franconia and had decided to put her regiments to better use. Only Trautmansdorf Cuirassiers, Prinz Savoyen Dragoons, Baranyay Hussars, Szechényi Hussars and 2,000 Grenzer light troops were left behind to assist the Reichsarmee.
On June 1, now that Fouqué had retired from the vicinity of Neisse, FML de Ville advanced with his corps (including the Saxon cavalry) from Hermannstadt to Weidenau (present-day Vidnava/CZ).
Frederick thought that de Ville’s troops were the leading elements of more important Austrian forces marching from the region of Glatz and from Braunau against his left flank. He gave instructions to Fouqué to secure the mountain passes on these invasion axis.
On June 2, the Reichsarmee left its camp at Forchheim.
On June 4, Frederick recalled Seydlitz’s and Wobersnow’s detachments from Hirschberg and Striegau. They encamped on the right wing of his entrenched camp of Reich-Hennersdorf. Frederick also sent Prinz Ferdinand Infantry to reinforce them.
On June 5, Prince Heinrich detached Hülsen with 10 bns and 20 sqns from his Army of Saxony to reinforce Dohna's Army which was facing the Russians. Finck with 4 bns and 5 sqns then moved towards Dresden to observe the Austrian Army operating in Lusatia.
On June 6
- Major-General Balthasar Rudolf von Schenckendorff marched with 4 bns (Ramin Infantry and Markgraf Heinrich Fusiliers), 5 sqns of Gersdorff Hussars and 9 heavy artillery pieces to reinforce Bülow’s detachment at Barzdorf at the Tannhausen Pass.
- Major-General von Meyer occupied Peterswaldau (present-day Pieszyce/PL) with 5 bns (1 bn of volunteers from various rgts under Major von Prittwitz, Grenadier Battalion von Buddenbrock, Grenadier Battalion Carlowitz, Queiss Infantry) and the 10 sqns of the Bayreuth Dragoons to block the mountain road leading from Glatz by way of Neurode (present-day Nowa Ruda/PL) to Reichenbach (present-day Dzierżoniów/PL).
- Major-General von Ramin detached Manteuffel Infantry from the Wartha Pass near Eichau (present-day Dębowiec/PL) to Weigelsdorf (present-day Wigancice/PL); and Kalckstein Infantry from Wartha to Silberberg (present-day Srebrna Góra/PL) and Schönwalde (present-day Budzów/PL), to block the roads coming from the mountains. He kept only Freibataillon Le Noble with him at the Wartha Pass.
- I./Garrison Regiment V Jung-Sydow and II./Garrison Regiment V Jung-Sydow, which had previously been detached from Wobersnow’s troops, arrived at Glogau.
On June 7, Frederick reconnoitred de Ville's outpost at Jestiten-Meierhof near Lampersdorf (present-day Lampertice/CZ) and drove it back. An Austrian reinforcement of hussars and Grenzer light troops was despatched from Grünsdorf (unidentified location) and Frederick retired.
The Austrians enter into Lusatia
At this juncture, Frederick had come to the conclusions that Daun would not launch an offensive in Lower Silesia nor in Upper Silesia but would rather march by way of Greiffenberg towards Löwenberg and then try to effect a junction with the Russian army through Lusatia. In this case, the Austrians would be forced to secure their line of communication against any enterprise by Prince Heinrich by sending a corps to the region of Bautzen. Frederick then planned to advance against Daun’s main army in Lusatia while Prince Heinrich would harass its lines of communication.
Frederick was right. Daun did not consider an offensive in Lower Silesia but a breakthrough in Lusatia towards the Oder. However, Daun wanted to reinforce his main army before opening the campaign. Therefore, he interrupted de Ville’s offensive and charged him of the protection of Bohemia against Prussian incursions. Since de Ville did not need as much troops as he currently had to accomplish this mission, Daun recalled 14 bns under FML von Wolfersdorff from de Ville’s corps.
On June 10, de Ville marched with the rest of his corps from Weidenau to Wildschütz (present-day Vlčice/CZ) to guard the road leading to Frankenstein and Glatz.
On June 13, Major-General Springer arrived at Schurz with Fermor’s answer to Daun’s proposed operational plan. Fermor agreed that a junction between Glogau and Breslau would not be ideal but he argued that a march towards Crossen would pose serious difficulties because the Russian army would be too far from its supply bases at Posen, Schrimm (present-day Śrem/PL) and Kalisch (present-day Kalisz/PL) which would be dangerously exposed to Prussian raids. Fermor chose Carolath (present-day Siedlisko/PL), approx. 23 km northwest of Glogau, as target for the junction of both armies, mentioning that the Russians would arrive there on July 18 or 19 and would then wait for the Austrians for ten days. Afterwards, he would be forced to retire to resupply his army. Daun had nothing to object about Fermor’s choice of Carolath for the junction. However, he wondered why the Russians would not cross the Oder and would wait only ten days for his arrival. He estimated that he needed more time to reach Carolath, mentioning that he would need eight days just to march across the Riesengebirge (present-day Krkonoše Mountains). Daun proposed to Fermor to cross the Oder at Carolath and to advance southwards.
Fermor soon realised that Daun would not dare to advance along the Oder to make a junction with the Russian army and preferred to expose the latter to a dangerous march beyond the Oder to join the Austrians on the border between Silesia and Bohemia. No doubt that Daun’s line of communication would be threatened during an advance between the two Prussian armies posted in Silesia and Saxony, but he still had enough troops to protect these communications. If Daun had acted quickly and decisively now, he could secure the support of the Russians, but, by his hesitations, he only made Fermor even more suspicious than he was already after the experiences of the past year.
Fermor complained to the Russian court about the difficulties Daun repeatedly raised in the apparent attempt to have the Russians carrying the brunt of the military effort.
On June 14, seeing that he was unable to persuade Fermor to follow his own plan, Daun wrote to Empress Maria Theresa to inform her that the planned march towards the Queis no longer had any purpose and to ask her to which of the fortresses of Neisse or Glatz he should lay siege.
Maria-Theresa too had very little hope that the Russians would come to her help in Silesia. However, she recognized that they would pin down 40,000 men to the Prussian army (Dohna’s Army), and therefore she still wanted to offer some support to Fermor.
On June 20, FML Beck sent forward a detachment of 200 hussars and 50 grenzers from Braunau under Major-General Nauendorf to attack Friedland (present-day Mieroszów/PL).
On June 21, Maria Theresa answered to Daun that, although she was not satisfied with Fermor's proposals, they did not violate the joint plan of operation drawn up by both courts, which in no way mentioned the crossing of the Oder by the Russian army. The plan only specified that both armies would move closer to the Oder and operate jointly on both banks of the river. She agreed to write to St. Petersburg to press for Fermor to be given the order to cross the Oder, but she also made clear that she could not wait for an answer. Daun had to advance to the Oder immediately, otherwise she would break herself the agreement concluded with the Russian Court. Maria Theresa also pointed out that a battle against Frederick, so feared by Daun, was in fact what she wanted, because, without a victory over Frederick, the sieges of Neisse or Glatz could not be undertaken with serious chances of success. To conclude, she pointed out that she would be very disappointed if the campaign was spent on the defensive.
Daun was reluctant to comply with the empress’ orders to advance towards Lusatia, but the War Council in Vienna notified Fermor, that Daun would march towards the Queis at the end of June. The final agreement with the Court of St. Petersburg was that the Russian army would advance to Carolath and wait for the arrival of the Austrian army. If for some reasons, Daun was unable to reach Carolath, the Russians would march to Crossen, in an attempt to establish communication with Daun’s Army. However, Daun would have to continue his advance towards the Oder and to provide provisions and supply to the Russians.
On June ??, Count Saltykov replaced Fermor as commander-in-chief of the Russian army in Poland. He mentioned that he would march towards Carolath only if Dohna’s Army did not threaten his line of communication with the Vistula and East Prussia.
On June 23, the Reichsarmee occupied a new camp at Hofheim (Hofheim in Unterfranken) on the road from Haßfurt to Königshofen (present-day Bad Königshofen im Grabfeld) while its light troops took the direction of the Werra towards Meiningen and Salzungen and other detachments formed a chain of posts from Saalfeld by Schleitz up to Hof.
Towards the end of June, Frederick gave orders to Major von Reitzenstein to rejoin Dohna’s Army with his sqns of Zieten Hussars. However, he also had to make an incursion against Kosten (present-day Kościan/PL) with his hussars, I./Garrison Regiment V Jung-Sydow and II./Garrison Regiment V Jung-Sydow to induce the Russians to think that this small force was the vanguard of a Prussian army advancing from Glogau.
On June 24, Reitzenstein’s detachment set off from Glogau,
Early on June 25, Reitzenstein’s detachment reached Fraustadt (present-day Wschowa/PL) where Major Reitzenstein was informed of the presence of a party of Cossacks at Kosten. In the evening, he advanced with his hussars to attack the Cossacks. However, he found the Cossacks in well defended positions with guns belonging to a regiment of horse grenadier.
On June 26, I./Garrison Regiment V Jung-Sydow and II./Garrison Regiment V Jung-Sydow advanced to Schmiegel (present-day Śmigiel/PL), only 12 km from Kosten, but soon retired to Glogau, Meanwhile, Major von Reitzenstein marched westwards with the Zieten Hussars to join Dohna’s Army.
On June 28
- Daun set off from Schurz with the main army and marched two columns in the direction of Lusatia. Beforehand, he had taken measures to protect his magazines on the sough bank of the Elbe. His first column, consisting of the first line of infantry, the heavy field artillery and the 2 lines of cavalry of the right wing, marched on Horzitz (present-day Hořice/CZ). His second column, consisting of the second line of infantry and of the 2 lines of cavalry of the left wing, took the road of Neudorf (present-day Skála/CZ).
- Loudon and Beck kept their positions with their light troops (Loudon near Trautenau and Beck near Braunau) while their regular troops marched to Pless (probably Starý Ples/CZ) and Schurz where they joined about 1,000 Grenzer light troops and hussars under the command of General Harsch to cover the Bohemian border.
- Regular regiments who were previously under the command of Harsch at Neustadt an der Mettau (present-day Nové Město nad Metují/CZ), marched to Pless to join the Austrian Main Army. Harsch was now at the head of 15 line regiments and 3,000 grenzers (Slavonisch-Gradiskaner and Slavonisch-Brooder).
- Hadik and Gemmingen were ordered to pass the Elbe with their divisions and to march towards Upper Lusatia to cover the left flank of the main army against the enterprises of Prince Heinrich.
- Major-General von Brentano remained on the Saxon border with light troops.
- Frederick was informed of activities in the positions of Beck and Loudon. Frederick immediately marched to Wernersdorf (present-day Vernéřovice/CZ) with 8 grenadier bns and 15 sqns to reconnoitre the surroundings. No noticeable manoeuvre was detected and Frederick returned to camp at the beginning of the afternoon, leaving some hussars at Friedland to observe the Austrians.
On June 29
- Loudon marched with 1 dragoon rgt, 8 hussar sqns and 6,000 Grenzer light troops from Trautenau to Hennersdorf near Hohenelbe (present-day Vrchlabí/CZ).
- Beck marched with 8 hussar sqns and 6,500 grenzers from Braunau to Eipel (present-day Úpice/CZ) to cover the march of the main army.
- Daun’s main army encamped in 3 divisions at Gitschin, Lomnitz (present-day Lomnice nad Popelkou/CZ) and Horzitz.
- In the morning, Prussian reconnaissance parties detected that the Austrians had retired from their advanced posts at Liebau and Schatzlar (present-day Žacléř/CZ). Frederick took 4 bns (Grenadier Battalion Heyden, Grenadier Battalion Kleist, Freibataillon Angelelli, Freibataillon Quintus), 9 sqns (Krockow Dragoons, 4 sqns of Gersdorff Hussars) along with the cavalry piquets and marched to Schatzlar whose castle was still occupied by 100 Grenzer light troops. These grenzers were routed and 2 hussars and 19 grenzers taken prisoners. The prisoners informed Frederick that Daun had quitted the day before and Loudon at daybreak. However, the prisoners were unable to indicate the direction they had taken.
- Leaving 4 bns at Schatzlar under the command of Rebentisch, Frederick returned to his camp with the 9 sqns. He still ignored Daun's destination.
- To give the Austrians the impression that he intended to launch an offensive in Bohemia, Frederick decided to send Lieutenant-General von Wedel forwards in the direction of Trautenau with 12 bns and 14 sqns.
On the night of June 29 to 30, Fouqué decided to attack a 1,000 men strong detachment of Grenzer light troops posted near Maisritzdorf (unidentified location), to the northwest of Reichenstein (present-day Złoty Stok/PL). He detached 2 bns (Grenadier Battalion Unruh and 1 bn of volunteers form his infantry rgts) and 5 sqns of Werner Hussars under Major-General Grant from Laubnitz (unidentified location). Meanwhile, Colonel Le Noble advanced from Schönau (present-day Smreczyna/PL) by way of Rosenkranz (present-day Růženec/CZ) with 2 bns (Freibataillon Le Noble and 1 bn of picked foot) and 2 sqns of Werner Hussars to envelop the enemy’s positions. However, Grant’s column came to contact with the Grenzers before Le Noble could arrive. Grant was driven back with heavy casualties (1 officer and 22 men killed; 1 officer and 64 men wounded or missing), losing 2 battalion guns which had been deployed in a sunken road.
On June 30
- The main army remained in its positions.
- Loudon took position at Hochstadt (present-day Vysoké nad Jizerou/CZ).
- At 3:00 a.m., according to Frederick's order, Lieutenant-General von Wedel marched to Schatzlar with 8 bns and 14 sqns where he was joined by Rebentisch's 4 bns. Now at the head of 12 bns (Grenadier Battalions Bähr, Benckendorff, Heyden, Kleist, Pieverlingk, Rathenow, Forcade Infantry, Alt-Stutterheim Infantry, Freibataillon Angelelli, Freibataillon Quintus) and 14 sqns (Krockow Dragoons, Normann Dragoons, 4 sqns of Gersdorff Hussars), he then marched southwards on Trautenau. The Austrian light troops retired and Wedel occupied Trautenau.
- Frederick also detached Lieutenant-General von Seydlitz with 8 bn (Grenadier Battalion Nimschöfsky, Prinz Ferdinand Infantry, Jung-Stutterheim Infantry, Jung Braunschweig Fusiliers, Freibataillon Salenmon) and 30 sqns (Leib-Carabiniers, Schmettau Cuirassiers, Czettritz Dragoons, Herzog von Württemberg Dragoons, and the 10 sqns of Zieten Hussars) from the camp near Reich-Hennersdorf to reconnoitre towards Lähn because he suspected that Daun was advancing towards Lusatia.
- Frederick also instructed Bülow, who still was at the Tannhausen Pass to join him with 8 bns, leaving 1 bn and 6 sqns at Barzdorf. Bülow joined the main army during the evening.
By June 30, the Austrian forces (145,350 men) were organised as follows:
- Daun’s main army (60,550 men and 2,600 light troops under FML Esterházy)
- Loudon’s Corps (8,550 men) to cover the right flank of the main army
- Beck’s Corps (7,900 men) to cover the right flank of the main army
- Harsch’s Corps (23,600 men) posted at Neustadt an der Mettau and Schurz to cover Bohemia
- de Ville’s Corps (14,850 men) posted at Wildschütz and subordinated to Harsch
- Vehla’s Corps (3,500 men)
- Gemmingen (7,000 men and 1,000 light troops under Major-General von Brentano)
- Hadik’s Corps (15,800 men)
At the end of June, when Prince Heinrich was informed that Daun had quitted his camp near Schurz, he immediately realised that the main Austrian army was advancing towards Lusatia. He also thought that Gemmingen’s and Hadik’s corps would join the main army. Accordingly, he made preparations to follow them to Lusatia. He sent reconnaissance parties across the Elbe and towards Neustadtl Schluckenau to the southwest of Zittau on the border between Saxony and Bohemia. He also assembled his whole army near Zschopau with the exception of Finck’s Corps which remained at Plauen.
On July 1
- The main army moved to Turnau, Bredl (unidentified location) and Gitschin.
- Loudon marched to Gablonz (present-day Jablonec nad Nisou/CZ).
- Beck marched to Hennersdorf.
- Lieutenant-General von Wedel detached Major-General von Rebentisch with 4 bns (Heyden, Kleist, Freibataillon Angelelli, Freibataillon Quintus) and 9 sqns (Normann Dragoons, 4 sqns of Gersdorff Hussars) by way of Deutsch-Prausnitz (present-day Hajnice/CZ) towards Königinhof (present-day Dvůr Králové nad Labem/CZ). Rebentisch advanced up to Königreich-Wald (present-day Les Království/CZ), but fearing an ambush, he returned to Trautenau. However, he managed to get accurate information about the whereabouts of Daun’s main army and Harsch’s Corps.
On July 2
- Two columns of Daun’s main army joined at Reichenberg (present-day Liberec) while the third marched to Turnau.
- Loudon marched to Busch-Ullersdorf (present-day Oldřichov v Hájích/CZ).
- Beck marched to Hochstadt.
- Frederick received a message from Wobersnow, informing him that the Russian had now completed the concentration of their army near Posen. Frederick expected that Dohna would easily defeat the Russians or, at least, that his advance towards Thorn would force the Russians to retire to the Vistula.
On July 3
- The main army remained in its positions at Reichenberg awaiting the artillery train to catch up in these mountainous countries. The third column joined the rest of the main army.
- Frederick was still encamped near Landeshut.
- Wedel was at Trautenau.
- Fouqué was at Ullersdorf (present-day Orłowice/PL).
- Prince Heinrich was near Dresden.
- Seydlitz was marching to Lähn.
On July 4
- The main army remained at Reichenberg.
- Loudon at the head of a strong reconnaissance party advanced from Busch-Ullersdorf towards Liebenthal (present-day Lubomierz/PL) and engaged a detachment of Zieten Hussars belonging to Seydlitz’s Corps. Loudon then retired to Gebhardsdorf (present-day Giebułtów/PL) where the rest of his corps soon joined him.
- Hadik's Corps was at Töpplitz (present-day Teplice).
- Beck’s Corps was at Hochstadt.
- Harsch’s Corps and de Ville’s detachment were near Königsdorf (unidentified location).
- The Reichsarmee was at Hofheim in Franconia.
- Gemmingen’s Corps was marching from Aussig (present-day Ústí nad Labem/CZ) to Gabel.
- Vehla’s light corps was marching into Saxony from Gabel to Zittau and sending 60 hussars forward to occupy Bernstadt auf dem Eigen and 408 Grenzer light troops and 90 Grenz-hussars to occupy Hirschfelde. The latter two detachments pushed up to Bautzen and Görlitz.
FZM Count Harsch was not fooled by Frederick’s manoeuvres and informed Daun that a Prussian invasion of Bohemia was very unlikely. Furthermore, based on Loudon’s reconnaissance, Daun knew that the road to the Queis River was still open.
On the night of July 4 to 5, Frederick retired towards Lähn/Bober, reaching Hirschberg with his vanguard. Meanwhile, Wedel’s Corps retired from the passes of Liebau and Schömberg to Frederick’s previous camp near Reich-Hennersdorf.
On July 5
- Daun marched to Friedland (present-day Frýdlant/CZ) while his reserve remained at Reichenberg. Meanwhile.
- The Reichsarmee left its camp of Hofheim and marched towards Auerstädt.
- Fouqué attacked, from his positions at Frankenstein, the Karlstädter-Ottochaner Grenzer (1,300 men under Lieutenant-Colonel Kalinić) posted at Mährisch Weisswasser (present-day Bílá Voda u Šilperka/CZ). The grenzers initially retired into a wood but they soon counter-attacked with such impetuosity that the Prussians retired.
- Wedel marched with 12 bns and 18 sqns from Reich-Hennersdorf to Hirschberg.
On July 6
- The Austrian carabiniers marched to Marklissa (present-day Lesna/PL) in Görlitz Country in Lusatia.
- Daun's main army marched from Friedland to Marklissa and his Reserve to Friedland.
- Frederick marched to Waltersdorf (present-day Nielestno/PL) with his vanguard while his main army marched in two columns to Hirschberg, leaving only 6 bns and 10 sqns under Major-General von Krockow at Landeshut. The latter retired to Hirschberg as soon as he saw the first elements of Fouqué’s Corps arriving in the neighbourhood, leaving only Freibataillon Angelelli at Landeshut to join Fouqué.
- Wedel’s Corps marched from Hirschberg to Lähn.
On July 7
- The Reserve joined the main army at Marklissa.
- Gemmingen’s Corps marched to Ober-Ullersdorf (present-day Kopaczów/PL).
- In Lower Silesia, de Ville’s Corps set off from Wildschütz and retired towards Bohemia, by way of Grulich (present-day Králíky/CZ) to make a junction with Harsch’s Corps. De Ville left only 6 garrison bns, Grenzer light troops and Grenzer hussars to secure Moravia and Austrian Silesia.
- After recalling all his detachments, Fouqué reached Landeshut where he replaced Frederick’s main army. He took strong positions on the heights south of the city to cover Lower Silesia against the incursions of Harsch’s and de Ville’s corps. Fouqué was at the head of 24 bns and 20 sqns for a total of 19,000 men. More precisely:
- Infantry (24 bns)
- Grenadier Battalion Buddenbrock (1 bn)
- Grenadier Battalion Carlowitz (1 bn)
- Grenadier Battalion Naumeister (1 bn)
- Grenadier Battalion Rath (1 bn)
- Grenadier Battalion Unruh (1 bn)
- Kalckstein Infantry (2 bns)
- Manteuffel Infantry (2 bns)
- Mosel Infantry (2 bns)
- Ramin Infantry (2 bns)
- Queiss Infantry (2 bns)
- Fouqué Fusiliers (2 bns)
- Markgraf von Brandenburg-Schwedt Fusiliers (2 bns)
- IV./Garrison Regiment No. VI Lattorf (1 bn)
- Volunteers (1 bn) coming from all foot rgts and placed under Major von Zaremba
- Freibataillon de Angelelli (1 bn)
- Freibataillon Le Noble (1 bn)
- Freibataillon Lüderitz (1 bn)
- Cavalry (20 sqns)
- Infantry (24 bns)
- Besides securing the passes at Liebau and Schömberg, Fouqué detached 400 light troops (300 men from the three Freibataillons and 100 hussars) under Lieutenant-Colonel von Lüderitz to Friedland to watch the road leading to Trautenau and Braunau.
- After recalling all his detachments, Fouqué reached Landeshut where he replaced Frederick’s main army. He took strong positions on the heights south of the city to cover Lower Silesia against the incursions of Harsch’s and de Ville’s corps. Fouqué was at the head of 24 bns and 20 sqns for a total of 19,000 men. More precisely:
On July 8
- Gemmingen advanced from Oberullersdorf in Northwestern Bohemia with 7,000 men and took position to the southeast of Zittau.
- Vehla’s light corps (3,500 men) took position between Zittau and Ostritz.
- Beck’s Corps marched to Neustadt (maybe Neustadt in Sachsen).
- Hadik’s Corps, which had been recalled from the Reichsarmee, reached the Elbe near Aussig.
- In Lower Silesia, Mosel Infantry was sent to Neisse.
On July 9
- Frederick was finally informed that Daun had chosen to encamp in unassailable positions near Marklissa.
On July 10
- Loudon’s Corps marched from Gebhardsdorf to Lichtenau (present-day Zareba/PL) near Lauban (present-day Luban/PL) to cover the left wing of the main army.
- Beck’s Corps marched from Hochstadt by way of Gablonz and Neustadt towards Gebhardsdorf to secure the right wing of the main army.
- Frederick’s main army marched from Lähn and Hirschberg and encamped close to the village of Schmottseiffen (present-day Pławna Dolna/PL) near Liebenthal opposite and eastward of Daun. From this new camp Frederick could make a junction with the army of Prince Heinrich, or attack Daun, or support Fouqué.
- 3 bns (Grenadier Battalion Kleist, Rebentisch Infantry) and 2 sqns of Gersdorff Hussars under Major-General von Krockow were left in Hirschberg to secure the line of communication with Fouqué’s Corps at Landeshut.
- In Saxony, Prince Heinrich assembled his army near Dresden.
|Order of Battle|
|Detailed OoB of Frederick's Army in mid-July.|
Frederick’s main army (42 bns, 86 sqns and 143 heavy artillery pieces for a total of 43,400 men) was now encamped at Schmottseiffen while Krockow’s detachment was at Hirschberg. During this time, Daun was at Marklissa with the Austrian main army (59,200 men, including Esterházy’s light corps); Beck’s Corps (7,360 men) near Gebhardsdorf; Loudon’s Corps (8,900 men) near Lauban; Vehla’s Corps (3,500 men) near Zittau; Hadik’s Corps (16,300 men) on the Elbe in the vicinity of Leitmeritz (present-day Litoměřice/CZ) and Aussig; Gemmingen’s Corps (7,000 men) near Ober-Ullersdorf in the vicinity of Zittau; and Harsch’s Corps (34,800 men, including de Ville’s Division) in Bohemia; Austrian garrisons (9,400 men) in Bohemia. There were also Austrian garrisons (5,150 men) in Moravia and Austrian Silesia.
Expecting the Russians to arrive on the Oder around July 18, Daun was planning to march downstream along the Queis River, even though Frederick’s Army was already approaching.
Around mid-July Major-General Jahnus moved closer to the Silesian border with the Austrian vanguard.
On July 12
- Daun received a message from the Russian headquarters at Posen, informing him that the departure of Saltykov's Army was delayed because of the unexpected advance of Dohna’s Army on the Warthe near Obornik (present-day Oborniki/PL) and Wronke (present-day Wronki/PL). Daun then decided to remain in his camp at Marklissa and to fortify it.
- In Lower Silesia, a large Austrian reconnaissance party appeared in front of the Prussian outposts near Liebau.
- De Ville’s Corps arrived at Trautenau where it joined Harsch’s Corps. Harsch was now at the head of approx. 38,500 men with 20 heavy artillery pieces.
On the night of July 12 to 13, Grenzer light troops, supported by some cavalry, twice attacked the outposts of Lieutenant-Colonel von Lüderitz at Friedland, defeating this Prussian detachment and capturing Lüderitz.
The main Prussian and Austrian armies were separated only by the Queis and one of its tributary, the Ölse-Bach, which flows into the Queis near Greiffenberg, on the left flank of the Prussian camp. The main road leading from Reichenberg and Zittau, by way of Friedland, to Löwenberg, crossed the Queis at this place.
Frederick had encamped in a strong position which he had significantly strengthened with defensive works. Normann Dragoons were posted at Neundorf (unidentified location) to cover Frederick’s headquarters in Dörings (unidentified location). Freibataillon Salenmon, Freibataillon Quintus and the Feldjäger zu Fuß manned the entrenchments extending from the road leading from Neundorf to Welkersdorf (present-day Rząsiny/PL) to the marshy meadows near Krummöls (present-day Oleszna Podgórska/PL) on the Ölse-Bach (present-day Oľdza stream). Frederick had also detached Lieutenant-General Prince von Württemberg with 16 sqns (Krockow Dragoons, Jung-Platen Dragoons, 3 sqns of Möhring Hussars and 3 sqns of Zieten Hussars) to Nieder-Görisseifen (present-day Płóczki Dolne/PL) to patrol on the eastern side of Hadik's and Loudon's corps.
When Frederick heard of the departure of the Russian army from Posen, he was more and more inclined to believe the rumours that Daun intended to send an Austrian corps to reinforce the Russians.
On July 13
- Harsch’s and De Ville’s corps made a junction at Trautenau. Their combined forces totalled 33 bns, 51 sqns, a division of light troops under Colonel Knežević (2,000 men of the Karlstädter Grenzer and 500 hussars) and another division of light troops under Jahnus (2,410 men of the Slavonisch-Brooder Grenzer, 3,744 men of the Slavonisch-Gradiskaner Grenzer and 490 men of the Pálffy Hussars).
- The battalion of Slavonisch-Brooder Grenzer of Major Friedrich Count Dönhoff attacked a detachment of 300 Prussian light troops from Frei-Infanterie le Noble, Frei-Infanterie de Angelelli and Frei-Infanterie von Lüderitz at Friedland, capturing Lüderitz along with 7 officers and 38 men.
- Prince Heinrich marched towards Dresden in Saxony while Finck marched to Bischofswerda.
Daun resolved to send a corps towards Brandenburg along the Spree and the Neiss to draw Prince Heinrich away from Saxony. This project called for a simultaneous advance of the Reichsarmee on Erfurt and Leipzig and for the junction of de Ville's and Harsch's Corps against the Prussian Corps of Fouqué (20 bns, 3 freikorps, 20 sqns) at Reich-Hennersdorf near Landeshut in Lower Silesia.
On July 14, Hadik’s Corps marched from Aussig towards Leitmeritz where it crossed the Elbe. Hadik left 8 bns and 10 sqns, a total of 6,000 men, in Aussig under FML Count Maquire to cover his march.
On July 16
- Gemmingen’s and Hadik’s corps marched towards Bautzen.
- Frederick received intelligence that Daun intended to reinforce Loudon’s Corps, posted at Lauban, with 8,000 men. This corps would then march to Crossen. Frederick immediately detached Prince Eugen von Württemberg with 6 bns (Grenadier Battalion Busche, Heyden, Markgraf Carl Infantry, Prinz Heinrich Fusiliers), 16 sqns (Krockow Dragoons, Jung-Platen Dragoons, with the Horse Artillery battery, 3 sqns of Möhring Hussars and 3 sqns of Zieten Hussars) and 10 heavy artillery pieces to Sprottau to harass Loudon’s Corps. Prince Eugen’s detachment would be replaced at Nieder-Görisseifen by Major-General von Lentulus with the Leib-Carabiniers and Schmettau Cuirassiers.
- Finck ran after some Austrian troops, which had advanced on Crossen. He then received direct orders from Frederick, who thought that Loudon’s Corps was marching towards Sagan, to follow this corps and to try to join the corps of Prince Eugen von Württemberg that Frederick had sent towards Sagan.
On July 17
- In Lower Silesia, Jahnus reached the vicinity of Schömberg with the vanguard of Harsch’s Army, sending advanced parties to Leutmannsdorf (present-day Lutomia Dolna/PL) and Dittersbach (present-day Podgórze/PL).
- The combined corps of Harsch and de Ville, now under de Ville's command, marched to Schömberg and pushed advanced parties up to Konradswaldau (present-day Grzędy/PL).
- Finck's detachment marched to Marienstern.
- In Lower Silesia, the corps of the Prince of Württemberg marched to Bunzlau.
- Fouqué’s Corps was still at Reich-Hennersdorf.
On July 18
- The Reserve marched towards Lauban to replace Loudon's Corps there.
- Frederick realised that despite the recently received reinforcements, Loudon did not seem to prepare for a march. Therefore, he stopped Prince Eugen’s Corps at Bunzlau. However, Frederick was soon afterwards informed that Loudon had marched from Lauban towards Sagan. He then ordered Prince Eugen to resume his advance. Once at Sagan, Prince Eugen had to establish communication with Finck’s Corps, belonging to Prince Heinrich’s Army of Saxony, which had been instructed to march from Bautzen to Priebus (present-day Przewóz/PL) to support Prince Eugen.
- In Lower Silesia, early in the morning, Fouqué detached Major-General Ramin with 5 bns (Freibataillon Angelelli , Freibataillon le Noble, Freibataillon Lüderitz, Grenadier Battalion Buddenbrock, Grenadier Battalion Carlowitz) and 5 sqns of Werner Hussars towards Lindenau (unidentified location) to reconnoitre the Austrian positions. However, he soon engaged with a strong outpost belonging to Jahnus’ vanguard and, after a combat of about an hour, he was forced to retired to his camp with heavy casualties (29 men killed, 1 officer and 37 men wounded, 81 men missing).
In Lower Silesia, informed that Austrian light troops had cross the mountains near Landeshut, the Prussian commander of the Fortress of Schweidnitz established an observation post at Freiburg (present-day Świebodzice/PL) with 150 foot, 40 hussars and a few artillery pieces under Major Fraencklin.
On July 19
- Prince Eugen arrived at Sagan but he was unable to establish communication with Finck’s Corps.
- Meanwhile, Frederick had become convinced that Loudon’s Corps was still at Lauban.
On July 20
- In Lower Silesia, de Ville's Corps marched to Konradswaldau in an attempt to turn Fouqué’s positions and to cut his communications with Schweidnitz.
- De Ville sent FML von Wolfersdorff with 6,000 men to Goldenöls (present-day Zlatá Olešnice/CZ) to protect his line of communication with his magazines in Trautenau.
- Harsch being sick, he personally returned to Bohemia, leaving command to de Ville.
- Prince Heinrich was informed of Hadik's manoeuvres and, leaving a detachment under Knobloch at Bischofswerda in Saxony, marched northwards to Kamenz.
On July 21
- Maquire’s detachment marched from Aussig to Wernstadt (present-day Verneřice/CZ).
- Gemmingen’s Corps arrived at Grosshennersdorf, north of Zittau.
- Daun remained at Marklissa with the main army.
- The Reichsarmee was advancing on Saxony through Gotha.
- Jahnus, covering de Ville’s left flank, had taken a very advantageous position on the height behind Grüssau (present-day Krzeszów/PL).
- Frederick recalled Prince Eugen and instructed him to take position at Bunzlau.
- Frederick remained at Schmottseiffen with his main army.
- In Lower Silesia, Fouqué, in face of de Ville's advance to Schömberg, advanced in three columns by way of Forst (present-day Fořt/CZ), Görtelsdorf (present-day Gorzeszów/PL) and Ullersdorf, in an attempt to attack de Ville’s rearguard but his plan failed. He retired to Grüssau but did not dare to attack Jahnus and after a brief cannonade, he resumed his retreat to his fortified positions on various hills round Landeshut. There, redoubts, curtains and communications made his position unassailable and his camp was adequately supplied. These preparations allowed Fouqué to remain in his positions at Landeshut despite de Ville's manoeuvres, thus protecting the passes of Silesia.
- Schenckendorff retired to Ullersdorf. During this movement one of his Freikorps was attacked in the valley of Ullersdorf by Lieutenant-Colonel Dimić von Papilla at the head of the grenadier company of Slavonisch-Gradiskaner Grenzer, the Grenzers losing 10 men killed and 17 wounded in the skirmish while inflicting heavy losses to the Prussians.
Daun now planned to assemble a 30,000 men strong corps at Sagan and to send it forward to join the Russian army. Meanwhile, his main army and Harsch’s Corps would pin down Frederick’s Army in Silesia and Lusatia. To bring Hadik’s Corps to 30,000 men (including Maquire’s detachment), Daun sent 5 infantry rgts and 2 cavalry rgts from his camp near Marklissa.
On July 22
- Early in the morning, Frederick came out of his camp of Schmottseiffen with 7 bns (Grenadier Battalion Bähr, Braunschweig Infantry, Lindstedt Infantry, Münchow Fusiliers) and 27 sqns (Leib-Carabiniers, Schmettau Cuirassiers, Czettritz Dragoons, Normann Dragoons and 7 sqns of Zieten Hussars) and marched to Ottendorf (present-day Ocice/PL), intending to attack Loudon’s Corps.
- Frederick arrived too late to intercept Loudon’s Corps and returned to his camp at Schmottseiffen.
- Frederick gave orders to Prince Eugen to immediately march from Bunzlau to Priebus.
- Clearly seeing that de Ville was trying to cut Fouqué’s Army from its supply base at Schweidnitz, instructed Fouqué to take position between Friedland and Konradswaldau to threaten de Ville’s own line of supply. Frederick, expecting that de Ville’s Army would then retreat, gave orders to Fouqué to engage it. To reinforce Fouqué’s Army for this battle, Frederick sent him Knobloch’s detachment (Grenadier Battalion Kleist, Rebentisch Infantry, 2 sqns of Gersdorff Hussars), which was posted near Hirschberg; and despatched a detachment of 2 bns (Jung Braunschweig Fusiliers) and 2 sqns of Gersdorff Hussars under Major-General von Mosel from his camp at Schmottseiffen.
- Informed that the Prince of Württemberg had taken position at Bunzlau with a small Prussian corps and was thus threatening his left flank, Daun moved Loudon’s Corps from Lauban to Görlitz and replaced it at Lauban with Beck’s Corps while Major-General Count Siskovics with 5 grenadier bns, 4 infantry rgts and the carabiniers replaced Beck’s Corps at Gebhardsdorf.
- While his infantry marched from Lauban towards Görlitz, Loudon rode with his cavalry by way of Naumburg/Queis along the river towards the Castle of Klitschdorf (present-day Kliczków/PL), to reconnoitre the vicinity of Sagan and Bunzlau. His patrols reported that the detachment of Prince Eugen was still at Bunzlau. Loudon then turned towards Rothenburg.
- Hadik’s Corps reached Grosshennersdorf where it joined Gemmingen’s Corps. Hadik was now at the head of 17,300 men (excluding Maquire’s detachment and Vehla’s light corps posted near Zittau).
- In Lower Silesia, de Ville, leaving 6,000 men under Wolfersdorff at Goldenöls to cover his depots at Trautenau, marched from Konradswaldau to make a junction with Gemmingen. He advanced by way of by way of Gottesberg (present-day Boguszów-Gorce/PL) and Salzbrunn (present-day Szczawno-Zdrój/PL) towards Freiburg. De Ville’s vanguard engaged and defeated Fraencklin’s detachment at Freiburg. The small Prussian detachment formed a square and tried to retire through the Austrian cavalry. The Prussians resisted for 8 hours before being broken. In this action, Fraencklin was wounded and taken prisoner. De Ville encamped at Kunzendorf (present-day Mokrzeszów/PL).
On the night of July 22 to 23, Knobloch’s detachment arrived at Landeshut. Meanwhile, Fouqué had received intelligence that de Ville’s baggage was at Friedland with a weak escort.
On July 23
- Prince Eugen von Württemberg set off from Bunzlau with his detachment (5,900 men) and made a wide detour to deceive Austrian patrols, marching through the heath of Klitschdorf and reaching Zeissan/Queis (unidentified location).
- Prince Heinrich marched to Bautzen.
- In Lower Silesia, Fouqué detached Major-General von der Goltz with 7 bns (Grenadier Battalion Buddenbrock, Grenadier Battalion Rath, Grenadier Battalion Unruh, Markgraf von Brandenburg-Schwedt Fusiliers, Freibataillon le Noble, Freibataillon Lüderitz) and 8 sqns (4 sqns of Bayreuth Dragoons, 4 sqns of Werner Hussars) to make an attempt against de Ville’s baggage at Friedland. However Goltz could reach only part of the baggage of the Austrians because most of it had timely been moved to Eipel. Goltz then occupied the heights near Friedland, thus cutting de Ville’s line of supply coming from Bohemia.
- Krockow’s detachment (3 bns) made a junction with Fouqué's Corps at Landeshut.
The arrival of Prince Heinrich in the vicinity of Bautzen with his army, induced Daun to modify his positions. He decided to send Loudon’s Corps instead of Hadik’s to make a junction with the Russian army on the Oder. Meanwhile, Hadik would pin down Prince Heinrich’s Army.
On July 24
- Daun's Corps remained at Marklissa.
- Maquire marched to Krewitz (unidentified location).
- Hadik’s Corps advanced from Grosshennersdorf up to Löbau to face Prince Heinrich’s Army. Hadik then sent hussar detachments up to Hochkirch where they were repulsed by Finck’s troops, losing many men taken prisoners.
- In Lower Silesia, de Ville launched an unsuccessful attack against Fouqué's positions at Landeshut.
- Prince Eugen von Württemberg reached Freiwaldau (present-day Gozdnica/PL).
- Lieutenant-Adjutant von Bonin arrived at Frederick’s camp of Schmottseiffen with the news of Wedel’s defeat at Paltzig. Frederick immediately decided to gave orders to Prince Heinrich to join the Prince of Württemberg at Sagan with all available troops of his Army of Saxony. Then Frederick would take command of this army and would rapidly march to the support of Wedel’s Army. Meanwhile, Prince Heinrich would assume command of the Prussian troops left behind in the camp of Schmottseiffen.
- The intentions of the Austrian detachments now became clearer to Frederick, who saw that they were trying to make a junction with Saltykov's Russian Army at Crossen. The main obstacle on their way was Wedel's Army posted in front of Crossen.
- In Lower Silesia, Fouqué set off from Landeshut with 13 bns (Grenadier Battalion Carlowitz, Grenadier Battalion Naumeister, Kalckstein Infantry, Manteuffel Infantry, Ramin Infantry, Queiss Infantry, Fouqué Fusiliers, Zaremba’s Volunteers) and 12 sqns (6 sqns of Bayreuth Dragoons, 6 sqns of Werner Hussars) and marched to Gottesberg to occupy the defiles and cut de Ville’s line of retreat to Bohemia.
On July 25
- Loudon’s Corps (8,900 men) reached Rothenburg, opposite Prince Eugen’s camp. Loudon received a reinforcement of 2 infantry rgts and 1 cavalry rgt from Beck’s Corps posted at Lauban; and 5 infantry rgts and 2 cavalry rgts from the main army. He was now at the head of 14 bns, 35 sqns and 5,200 Grenzer light troops for a total of 19,200 men with 10 heavy artillery pieces, but it still was far from the 30,000 men that the Russians were expecting.
- Maquire’s detachment marched from Wernstadt to Zeidler (present-day Brtníky/CZ) to secure the left flank of Hadik’s Corps.
- In Saxony, Prince Heinrich set off from his camps near Bischofswerda and Rothnauslitz with 15 bns, 19 sqns and 57 heavy artillery pieces and marched to Königswartha.
- In Saxony, Finck remained in his camp near Bautzen with 12 bns and 17 sqns to cover the march of Prince Heinrich against any intervention by Hadik’s Corps and prevent any raid on Berlin.
- In Lower Silesia, Fouqué took position on the heights west of Konradswaldau where he made a junction with Goltz’s Corps.
On July 26
- Daun was informed of the victory of the Russians in the Battle of Paltzig.
- In the evening, Hadik set off from Löbau and advanced to Lehn (unidentified location). He left Maquire’s detachment behind at Bischofswerda to observe Finck’s Corps posted near Bautzen.
- Vehla occupied Stolpen.
- Loudon remained at Rothenburg.
- Confronted by a much larger force, Prince Eugen retired from Freiwaldau to Burau (unidentified location).
- Prince Heinrich marched from Königswartha to Tzschelln where he received Frederick’s orders to effect a junction with the corps of the Prince of Württemberg at Sagan.
- In Lower Silesia, Goltz’s Corps was reinforced with the 2 bns of Mosel Infantry.
On the night of July 26 to 27
- Finck’s Corps took position near Kamenz to threaten the flank and rear of Hadik’s Corps.
- Maquire advanced northwards from Zeidler. He also instructed Vehla to advance from Zittau with his light corps.
On July 27
- Prince Heinrich made a wide detour to avoid Loudon’s Corps, which was posted near Rothenburg. He reached Muskau. His right flank was covered by the corps of the Prince of Württemberg at Burau.
- Frederick sent Colonel von Moller of the artillery to Sagan with 20 heavy artillery pieces.
- Hadik’s Corps force marched by way of Hermsdorf to attack Prince Heinrich in the vicinity of Königswartha, but he was late. Prince Heinrich had deceived him and gained such a head start that Hadik could no longer catch up with him.
- Vehla’s light corps was charged to support Maquire. Thus Maquire commanded over 8 bns, 17 sqns and 2,500 Grenzer light troops, a total of 9,500 men.
- Maquire’s detachment reached Ottendorf; and Vehla’s light corps, Stolpen. Maquire intended to take position between Hadik’s Corps and Finck’s Corps with his detachment and to try to push Finck westwards.
- In Lower Silesia, de Ville set off from his camp near Freiburg and marched by way of Salzbrunn to Gottesberg.
- Engagement of Vogelgesang
- In Lower Silesia, de Ville, fearing for his line of communication, resolved to force a passage on the road from Alt Lässig (present-day Stary Lesieniec/PL) to Friedland. He sent Major-General Jahnus Light Corps (1 grenadier bn, 2 line rgts, the Slavonisch-Gradiskaner Grenzer, the Slavonisch-Brooder Grenzer, 1 hussar rgt and 2 sqns) forward to cover his movements.
- Fouqué, supported by Goltz's detachment (3 bns) took position on the heights of Vogelgesang (present-day Burg Wojaczów/PL) and Todtenhubels to cut de Ville's retreat.
- Jahnus launched an attack on Fouqué's positions. The Prussian Frei-Infanterie von Lüderitz along with Carlowitz Grenadiers and Thile Infantry distinguished themselves during this attack, repulsing Jahnus' assault.
- Jahnus made a new attempt with Drašković grenadier bns and was driven back once more. De Ville then redirected his attention on Goltz's positions at Friedland.
On July 28
- When Hadik realised that he could no longer catch up with Prince Heinrich’s Corps, he marched by way of Kreba to Werda.
- In Lower Silesia, Jahnus then unsuccessfully tried to force his way through Goltz’s positions near Friedland while Major-General Wolfersdorff also advanced from Goldenöls to support his attack.
- The Russian main army reached Crossen about 100 km northeast from Sagan.
- Prince Heinrich’s Corps reached Sorau.
Now, Frederick had no choice but to rush to Brandenburg to reinforce Wedel. This meant that only a small Prussian force would now stand in front of Daun's Army. Meanwhile Prince Heinrich, Eugen of Württemberg and several other detachments were ordered to make their junctions with Frederick's main force at Sagan.
On the night of July 28 to 29
- In Lower Silesia, de Ville finally realising that he could not retreat towards Bohemia by way of Konradswaldau, retired by a long detour on the bad roads by way of Waldenburg (present-day Wałbrzych/PL), Tannhausen, Wüstegiersdorf (present-day Głuszyca/PL) and Johannesberg (present-day Janovičky/CZ). He managed to reach Johannesberg on the frontier of Bohemia after a force march of 36 hours.
- The corps of the Prince of Württemberg retired from Burau and marched towards Sagan.
- In Lower Silesia, when Fouqué was informed of de Ville’s departure, he immediately set off in pursuit. Major-General von Ramin hastened towards Tannhausen by way of Waldenburg with 5 bns and 4 sqns. Meanwhile, Fouqué marched with 8 bns and 8 sqns up to Lang-Waltersdorf (present-day Unisław Śląski/PL) from where he detached Major-General von Werner with the cavalry to Reimswaldau (present-day Rybnica Leśna/PL). They came to contact with de Ville's rearguard (5 grenadier bns under Dombasle) at Gottesberg. Dombasle made an orderly retreat.
On July 29
- Loudon’s Corps marched from Rothenburg to Priebus.
- Hadik’s Corps (18 bns, 35 sqns for a total of 21,600 men) reached Priebus where he made a junction with Loudon’s Corps. Daun had instructed Hadik and Loudon to mach to join the Russian army but Hadik’s first duty was to cover Loudon’s march from any intervention of the Prussians posted at Sagan.
- Maquire’s detachment reached Hermsdorf by way of Bautzen.
- In Lower Silesia, de Ville, resuming his retreat, reached Braunau in Bohemia.
- In the morning, Prince Heinrich’s Corps reached Sagan where it was was soon joined by the corps of the Prince of Württemberg. The horse artillery battery attached to Jung-Platen Dragoons was already there.
- Frederick wrote his instructions for Prince Heinrich, who would assume interim command at Schmottseiffen, detailing actions to be taken if Daun attacked the camp or if he retired from his own camps at Marklissa and Lauban. In the evening, Frederick set off from Schmottseiffen, accompanied by Lieutenant-General von Seydlitz, and rode towards Sagan where he arrived at 2:00 a.m.
|Order of Battle|
|Detailed OoB of Loudon's Corps at the end of July.|
On July 30
- Hadik was at Triebel (present-day Trzebiel/PL).
- Loudon was near Sommerfeld (present-day Lubsko/PL).
- Beck’s light corps advanced from Lauban towards Naumburg/Queis.
- Daun marched to Lauban with the left wing of the main army while Buccow was left behind at Marklissa with the right wing.
- Vehla’s light corps marched to the Marienstern Monastery.
- In Lower Silesia, Jahnus’ Corps reappeared in front of Friedland, which it occupied, while Wolfersdorff took position at Konigsheim with 9 bns and 5 sqns. During the night, Fouqué advanced on Wolfersdorff positions only to realize that the latter had already retired to Bersdorf (present-day Targoszyn/PL).
- Frederick resolved to join Wedel with the Corps of the Duke of Württemberg and Prince Heinrich; and to offer battle to the Russians.
- Finck retired from Kamenz to Hoyerswerda.
- In Lower Silesia, Werner and Ramin advanced up to Giersdorf, but neither them nor Major-General von der Goltz who had marched from Friedland by way of Görberdorf (present-day Sokołowsko/PL) and had been stopped by the impassable mountains, managed to catch up with de Ville’s Corps. They only managed to capture laggards and deserters. Seeing that he could not catch up with de Ville’s Corps, Fouqué assembled all his columns near Konradswaldau. He wanted to give the impression that he was retiring towards Landeshut while he planned an attack on Wolfersdorff’s detachment posted near Goldenöls.
On July 31
- The main army first marched on Naumburg on the Bober (present-day Nowogrod Bobrzansky/PL) before redirecting its steps towards Sommerfeld.
- Prince Heinrich personally went to Schmottseiffen in Silesia to take command. He detached 400 cavalrymen under Colonel von Gersdorff from Schmottseiffen to reconnoitre in the direction of Naumburg/Queis.
- In Lower Silesia, Fouqué advanced in three columns on Goldenöls during the evening but Wolfersdorff was timely informed of his approach and retired unmolested.
- Daun specified to Hadik and Loudon that they should not cross the Oder to join the Russians but that they should only make it easier for the Russians to cross this river.
- Beck marched from Lichtenau to Naumburg/Queis to cut communication between the Prussian Army at Schmottseiffen and the one which was now marching from Sagan.
- In Lower Silesia, Wolfersdorff retired on Trautenau, leaving a small rearguard of 200 Jung-Modena Dragoons behind.
The Prussian troops then returned to the camp of Landeshut.
During the following days, Frederick vainly tried to prevent the junction of Loudon's Corps, which included 5,000 grenzers (part of Karlstädter-Lykaner, Slavonisch-Peterwardeiner, Karlstädter-Ottochaner and Karlstädter-Oguliner), with the Russian Main Army. He then move to counter the Russian invasion of Brandenburg.
|Since Loudon was moving to join the Russian army in Brandenburg, the details of his operations from August 1 are described in the article dedicated to the Russian campaign in Brandenburg.|
On August 1
- Frederick sent orders to Finck to join him at Mulrose. This was the opportunity the Austro-Imperials had been waiting for to proceed to the invasion of Saxony now left almost unprotected.
- In Silesia, Gersdorff’s detachment engaged a party of 60 hussars belonging to Beck’s Corps, who had captured a party of Prussian cuirassiers in an outpost at Görisseiffen (present-day Płóczki/PL). Gersdorff freed the prisoners and captured 1 captain and 14 hussars.
- In Silesia, to strengthen his position in his camp of Schmottseiffen, Prince Heinrich sent 4 bns to occupy Welkersdorf at the western edge, where they erected entrenchments.
On August 3 in Lower Silesia, Fouqué’s Army reached its camp at Landeshut. Since the Austrians did not pose threat against the region any more, Major-General von Knobloch returned to Hirschberg with his 3 bns and 2 sqns. From Hirschberg, Mosel’s detachment was sent back to Frederick’s Army.
On August 4
- Daun sent an officer to Saltykov to coordinate future movements.
- Beck advanced from Naumburg/Queis towards Nieder-Bielau (present-day Bielawa Dolna/PL), to the southeast of Rothenburg. He left a detachment of 1,000 Grenzer light troops and 200 hussars near Naumburg/Queis.
- In Silesia, de Ville’s Corps encamped near Schömberg.
- At Schmottseiffen, Prince Heinrich received a message from Frederick. This would be the last message which reached him before long.
On August 5, Beck marched to Priebus to reconnoitre both banks of the Neisse northwards.
On August 6, Daun and Buccow were respectively occupying the same positions at Lauban and Marklissa since July 30 while Beck had moved to Priebus, Maquire to Hoyerswerda, Vehla to Sagan and d'Aynse had replaced Beck's Corps at Naumburg/Queis with 3 grenadier bns and 6 sqns.
On August 8
- The light troops of Daun’s main army advanced by way of Friedeberg/Queis (present-day Mirsk/PL) towards Schreiberhau (present-day Szklarska Poręba/PL).
- In Silesia, de Ville’s Corps advanced to Liebau.
On August ?, Prince Heinrich sent a detachment of 4 bns (Jung Braunschweig Fusiliers, Jung-Stutterheim Infantry) and 5 sqns (Vasold Cuirassiers) under Major-General von Mosel to reinforce Major-General von Krockow, who was posted near Hirschberg with 3 bns (Grenadier Battalion Kleist, Rebentisch Infantry) and 2 sqns of Gersdorff Hussars.
On August 10
- Daun recalled part of the troops of de Ville’s Corps in the vicinity of Landeshut to Marklissa to maintain a strong presence in Upper Lusatia and protect the line of communication with Bohemia.
- De Ville de Ville retired on Schatzlar, preparing to march towards Upper Lusatia as Daun had ordered.
- Maquire received orders to move with 12,000 men from Hoyerswerda to Görlitz. Indeed, Daun had already sent Vehla's and Brentano's detachments into Saxony. They had entered from the northeast side, posted themselves in strong points looking towards Dresden and awaited the results of the ongoing Reichsarmee invasion of Saxony. Maquire would also take command of the Vehla's and Brentano's detachments and become Austrian commander in chief in these parts.
- Fouqué followed de Ville’s Corps with a strong detachment.
|Since Brentano, Vehla and Maquire were moving to join the Reichsarmee in Saxony, the details of their operations from August 10 are described in the article dedicated to the Austro-Imperial invasion of Saxony.|
On August 11
- Daun marched from Lauban towards Lissa with the left wing of his main army. There Daun received a message sent by Saltykov on the previous day, where he mentioned that he would march from Frankfurt/Oder to Crossen to establish bridges.
- In the evening, Daun reached Rothenburg.
- d'Aynse took position at Lichtenau near Lauban.
- De Ville marched with 12 bns, 25 sqns to make a junction with the main Austrian army at Marklissa, leaving command to Harsch (the Saxon cavalry remained with Harsch).
- After de Ville’s departure, an Austrian corps of 21,500 men, encamped near Gabersdorf (present-day Libeč`CZ) between Schatzlar and Trautenau, was still facing Fouqué. FZM Count Harsch, who had recently recovered, assumed command of this corps.
- Early in the morning, Krockow, after a night march, attacked an Austrian outpost at Schreiberhau with a detachment (Grenadier Battalion Kleist, 600 picked infantry, 50 cuirassiers and the 2 sqns of Gersdorff Hussars), capturing 5 officers and 149 men. Mosel then rejoined the army of Prince Heinrich with his detachment on the heights north of Schatzlar and, after firing a few cannon shots, he returned to his camp near Landeshut.
- Prince Heinrich, who stood at Schmottseiffen with his army, was without news from Frederick. Indeed, large parties of Grenzer light troops deployed along the Queis intercepted all communications between the two Prussian armies. When Heinrich was informed of the movements of the Austrians, he decided to send a strong reconnaissance party to cover his right flank.
On August 12
- Daun reached Görlitz.
- Vehla remained at Hoyerswerda with his light troops to reconnoitre in the direction of Torgau and Dresden.
- In Brandenburg, Frederick fought and lost the battle of Kunersdorf against the Russians. In fact, the defeat was crushing.
- Prince Heinrich sent Major-General von Bülow with a strong detachment of 7 bns (Prinz Ferdinand Infantry, Lindstedt Infantry, Münchow Fusiliers, Freibataillon Salenmon) and 13 sqns (Schmettau Cuirassiers and 8 sqns of the Gersdorff Hussars) towards Naumburg/Queis. Bülow established his camp on the heights on the right bank of the Queis, south of Naumburg.
|Order of Battle|
|Detailed OoB of the Austrian main army and corps operating in Lusatia and Silesia in mid-August.|
On August 13
- Daun marched by way of Rothenburg and reached Priebus, some 65 km north of Görlitz, about 100 west of Glogau and 130 south of Frankfurt. There, Daun received a courier from Loudon informing him of the Russian victory at Kunersdorf.
- Beck encamped at Sorau and occupied Christianstadt (present-day Krzystkowice/PL) on his way to the frontiers of Silesia.
- Hadik marched from Spremberg to Guben by way of Forst, his cavalry reaching the Oder near Neuzelle.
- A detachment under FML Marquis d’Aynse marched from Marklissa to occupy the deserted camp of Lauban.
- General Buccow remained in his previous positions opposite the army of Prince Heinrich.
- 200 hussars and 150 Grenzer light troops guarded the passage of the Queis near Naumburg.
By that time the Austrian corps were deployed as follows:
- Daun’s Corps (23,000 men) near Priebus
- Beck’s Corps (9,000 men) near Sommerfeld
- Hadik’s Corps (15,350 men) near Guben and Neuzelle
- Loudon’s Corps (13,000 men) with the Russian army
- Buccow’s Corps (19,200 men) near Marklissa, facing Prince Heinrich
- d’Aynse’s Corps (3,400 men) near Lauban, facing Prince Heinrich
- Maquire’s Corps (6,100 men) near Görlitz
- Vehla’s Light Corps (3,500 men) near Hoyerswerda, raiding the Prussian garrisons on the Elbe
- de Ville’s Corps (12,000 men) on the march from Bohemia towards Marklissa
- Harsch’s Corps (21,500 men) near Trautenau and Schatzlar
On August 14
- Buccow was at Lauban with 20 bns and 30 sqns.
- The Austrian Reserve was at Rothenburg under the command of d'Aynse.
- De Ville was at Marklissa with 12 bns and 25 sqns to cover the communications between Lusatia and Bohemia.
- Beck was still in the area of Naumburg/Queis with his light troops (800 hussars, 400 horse, 1,400 men of the Banal-Grenzinfanterieregiment nr. 1 and Slavonisch-Peterwardeiner Grenzer).
- Harsch was in Upper-Silesia.
- Prince Heinrich was still at Schmottseiffen with his army.
Daun had now two possible objectives: the reconquest of Silesia defended by Prince Heinrich or the capture of Dresden. His success heavily depended on the ability of Saltykov to keep Frederick busy.
|Order of Battle|
|Detailed OoB of the Prussian army in mid-August.
Detailed OoB of the Austrian army in mid-August.
On August 15
- The Austrians celebrated the victory of Kunersdorf at their camp of Priebus. Daun sent Quartermaster-General Lacy to Saltykov’s camp to induce him to march on Berlin.
- Hadik’s Corps marched to Müllrose and established communication with the Russians to the southwest of Frankfurt/Oder.
- The first elements of de Ville’s Corps reached Gerlachsheim (present-day Grabiszyce/PL), near Marklissa.
- Prince Heinrich sent the Czettritz Dragoons to reinforce Bülow’s detachment at Naumburg/Queis. Realising that all Austrian corps were marching against Frederick, he also recalled Krockow’s detachment from Hirschberg, instructing Krockow to leave as soon as Major-General von Meier (Grenadier Battalion Unruh, Markgraf von Brandenburg-Schwedt Fusiliers, IV./Garrison Regiment No. VI Lattorf, Freibataillon le Noble, 5 sqns of Bayreuth Dragoons and 3 sqns of Werner Hussars), who had been detached from Fouqué’s Corps to replace him at Hirschberg, would arrive. Heinrich also decided to send a strong detachment to the vicinity of Sprottau and Sagan to observe the movements of Daun’s Army.
On August 16
- The last elements of de Ville’s Corps reached Gerlachsheim. De Ville fell ill and FZM Duke of Arenberg temporarily assumed command.
- Now that Arenberg’s Corps had reached the vicinity of Marklissa, Buccow marched from there to Lauban with the right wing of the Austrian main army.
- Beck, who was encamped near Witzen to the southeast of Sommerfeld, was informed that a Prussian garrison of 800 men was posted at Grünberg (Zielona Gora/PL) and had dismantled the bridge linking Christianstadt to Naumburg/Bober.
- The Bayreuth Dragoons (only the 5 sqns belonging to Meier’s detachment) joined the army of Prince Heinrich.
- Lieutenant-General von Zieten set out for Bunzlau with 9 bns (Grenadier Battalion Alt-Billerbeck, Grenadier Battalion Nimschöfsky, Grenadier Battalion Pieverlingk, Jung Braunschweig Fusiliers, Rebentisch Infantry, Jung-Stutterheim Infantry) and 12 sqns (Leib-Carabiniers, |Vasold Cuirassiers and 2 sqns of Gersdorff Hussars). He made a junction with Bülow’s detachment and sent back Freibataillon Salenmon to the Army of Prince Heinrich. Zieten was now at the head of 15 bns and 30 sqns.
On August 17
- Beck re-established the bridge at Christianstadt and crossed the Bober.
On the night of August 17 to 18, Beck marched with a detachment (1,000 Grenzer light troops, 400 men of the Beck's Volunteers, 200 cuirassiers, 200 dragoons and 800 hussars with 6 artillery pieces) on Grünberg.
On August 18
- Engagement of Grünberg
- Early in the morning, Beck and his cavalry appeared before Grünberg, which was defended by Major von Heyking at the head of 400 picked men (mostly from Garrison Regiment V Jung-Sydow), the Neumark Land-Battalion II de Rège, and 40 hussars.
- Heyking rejected a summon to surrender. Beck’s infantry was still lagging behind and, taking advantage of this situation, Heyking came out of Grünberg with his 400 regulars formed in square and broke through the Austrian cavalry. Marching across the wooded area along the Oder, he managed to retire to Glogau. In this action, he lost 26 men.
- However, de Rège’s milita were less fortunate. As Major de Rège was retiring towards Deutsch-Wartenberg (present-day Otyń/PL), he reached a meadow near Lawaldau (present-day Racula/PL) where enemy cuirassiers and dragoons blocked his way. Meanwhile, Grenzer light troops arrived from Grünberg, and their hussars managed to break and rout the Prussian militiamen, capturing 15 officers and 498 men.
- In this action, the Austrians lost 1 officer and 7 men killed, and 20 men wounded.
- Daun marched from Priebus to Triebel with the left wing of his army.
- Prince Heinrich, who had lost his line of communication with Frederick, was finally informed of the defeat of Kunersdorf. He immediately endeavoured to open communication with Frederick. To do so, he resolved to walk through Upper Lusatia, behind Daun's lines, to cut him from his magazines and to make a junction with Frederick's Army in Saxony. Accordingly, Prince Heinrich recalled 7 bns and 3 sqns from Landeshut to reinforce his own army. He then left General Stutterheim at Löwenberg under the command of Fouqué, whose corps remained at Landeshut.
The fate of Prussia now depended on the timely junction of Prince Heinrich’s Army (approx. 35,000 men), which was currently the most valuable part of the entire Prussian military power, with Frederick’s Army.
When Saltykov realised that the Austrians were letting his army do all the fighting, he informed Daun that his troops had now done enough and that the Austrians should pursue Frederick's army to finish what he had begun. Meanwhile, Saltykov intended to march to Guben (present-day Gubin/PL), closer to the Oder and to his magazine at Posen.
On August 19
- Beck’s detachment rejoined the rest of his corps near Christianstadt.
- FML Maquire marched from Görlitz to Rothenburg.
- The Hofkriegsrath in Vienna, who had learned of Frederick’s defeat at Kunersdorf, sent orders to Daun “to set off against this very weakened and certainly dispirited army and to defeat this mob completely.”
- As ordered by Prince Heinrich, Zieten sent his hussars forward from Ober-Leschen to Sprottau, escorting officers who vainly tried to reach Frederick’s Army.
On August 22
- Daun personally met Saltykov in Guben. Saltykov had expended all his ammunition. His supply of bread was also quite precarious. Accordingly, he insisted that it was now the turn of the Austrians to act. However, Daun managed to persuade Saltykov to move southward to support the invasion of Saxony and Silesia by the Austrian army. In exchange, he took the engagement to supply the Russian Army from the long chain of magazines that he had established at Guben, Görlitz, Bautzen, Zittau and Friedland. Daun thus undertook the cartage of meal for Saltykov as well as for himself. It was no more question of joint operations for that year. Daun wanted to join the Reichsarmee in Saxony and lay siege to Dresden. After the capture of the capital of Saxony, the Russians and the Austrians would retire to Silesia and try to engage Prince Heinrich in an open battle and then lay siege to Neisse, before taking up their winter-quarters.
On August 23
- Maquire’s Corps marched from Rothenburg to join the Reichsarmee on the Elbe for the siege of Dresden.
To follow Maquire’s operations, see our article 1759 - Austro-Imperial invasion of Saxony.
On August 24
On August 25
- Beck occupied Sagan.
- Maria Theresa wrote to Daun, instructing him to move against Prince Heinrich to open the road leading to Silesia, leaving a small army behind to observe Frederick’s movements.
- Prince Heinrich finally received a letter written on August 18 by Frederick at his camp of Fürstenwalde. In this message, Frederick informed him that he was at Fürstenwalde with 30,000 men, waiting for the next movements of the Austro-Russian armies. Frederick also mentioned that he expected Prince Heinrich to prevent Daun’s Army from advancing on Fürstenwalde against his own weakened army. Frederick considered that a Prussian corps posted at Landeshut would be enough to contain de Ville’s Austrian Corps, and that Prince Heinrich should assemble the rest of his army and attack Daun.
- Prince Heinrich immediately decided to join Zieten’s Corps with a strong force. Fouqué assumed command at the camp of Schmottseiffen while Major-General von der Goltz replaced him as commander at Landeshut. Prince Heinrich left only 17 bns (Grenadier bns Rathenow, Bähr, Benckendorff and Unruh; Infantry rgts Markgraf von Brandenburg-Schwedt Fusiliers, Forcade, Alt-Stutterheim, Wedel (?) and Manteuffel; IV./Garrison Regiment No. VI Lattorf; and Freibataillon Quintus Freibataillon le Noble and the Feldjäger zu Fuß) and 20 sqns (Bredow Cuirassiers, 8 sqns of the Bayreuth Dragoons, 7 sqns of the Möhring Hussars) at Schmottseiffen; 1 bn (Grenadier Battalion Rath) and 3 sqns (Werner Hussars) at Hirschberg; and 12 bns (Grenadier bns Naumeister and Buddenbrock; Infantry rgts Fouqué Fusiliers, Queiss, Kalckstein and Ramin, and Freibataillon Angelelli and Freibataillon von Lüderitz) and 9 sqns (2 sqns of the Bayreuth Dragoons and 7 sqns of the Werner Hussars) at Landeshut.
In the last days of August, Harsch’s Corps advanced against the small Prussian force left at Landeshut under Major-General von der Goltz
On August 27
- Beck left the area between Sommerfeld and Christianstadt and moved to Zeipan (unidentified location), to the southwest of Sagan.
On August 28
- Zieten arrived at Sagan with the vanguard. His troops camped in and around the town. The bridge of Sagan which had been broken by the Austrians during their retreat, was repaired.
- Zieten marched with his entire corps from Ober-Leschen to Sagan by way of Sprottau. At Sagan, 3 sqns of the Gersdorff Hussars, which had crossed the Bober upstream near Deutsch-Machen (unidentified location), came to grip with Beck’s vanguard and drove it out of the town.
- The Russian main army (including Loudon’s Corps) finally quitted Lossow and marched to Hohenwalde, northeast of Müllrose.
On August 29
- Prince Heinrich’s Corps reached Sagan by way of Bunzlau and Sprottau.
- Zieten transferred Grenadier Battalion Alt-Billerbeck, Jung Braunschweig Fusiliers, Jung-Stutterheim Infantry and the Leib-Carabiniers to the army of Prince Heinrich.
- Zieten marched from Sagan with 10 bns (Grenadier Battalion Nimschöfsky, Grenadier Battalion Pieverlingk; Infantry rgts Lindstedt, Münchow Fusiliers, Rebentisch and Prinz Ferdinand) and 25 sqns (Schmettau Cuirassiers, |Vasold Cuirassiers, Czettritz Dragoons, Gersdorff Hussars) to Sorau, where he surprised enemy hussars, capturing 3 officers and 84 men.
- General Bülow occupied Naumburg/Bober with 6 bns and 5 sqns.
- In the morning, Major-General Count Caramelli arrived at Daun’s camp near Triebel to deliver a message sent by Saltykov, informing Daun that he would retire to Lieberose due to a lack of food and fodder. Daun dismissed Saltykov’s proposal that both armies should advance against Frederick without waiting for the capture of Dresden.
- The advance of Zieten’s and Prince Heinrich’s corps aroused strong concerns at the Austrian headquarters at Triebel. Daun, fearing for his communication with the Russian Army, ordered General Buccow to leave Lauban with the Austrian right wing and to join the rest of the main army at Triebel. He also ordered the Marquis d'Aynse to march to Priebus.
- When Zieten appeared at Sorau, Daun retired behind the Neisse River without waiting for these reinforcements, making a junction with Buccow’s right wing at Muskau and leaving his magazines at Guben unprotected.
On August 30
- Zieten did not seize the opportunity to capture the Austrian magazines at Guben.
- Because of the fear expressed by Saltykov about the threat to his lines of communication by Zieten’s Corps posted Sorau, Daun resolved to attack this corps. Daun's plan called for an advance of Beck's Corps from Wiesen to the defile of Buschmuhle on the road to Sagan behind the Prussian lines; for Esterhazy's Corps to march from Sommerfeld against the Prussian right flank ;and for Daun himself to attack frontally with the main army.
- The Russians and Loudon’s Corps marched from Grunow to Lieberose.
- Loudon reported that Saltykov was furious at the news of Daun’s withdrawal; that he finally declared that he could not possibly imagine that the Austrian army was unable to stop Prince Heinrich; and that he almost considered Daun’s behaviour as a betrayal.
- Saltykov could not risk to be cut from his supply bases on the Vistula. Therefore, despite Loudon’s insistence, he decided to retire to Guben and to send a detachment to secure his crossing near Crossen.
On August 31
- Cannonade of Johnsdorf in Lower Silesia
- A lively cannonade took place near Johnsdorf between Goltz’s small detachment and Harsch’s Corps.
- After the engagement, Harsch retired to Liebau.
- Fouqué decided to personally assume command at Landeshut and to strengthen the troops posted there to 18 bns and 19 sqns with units sent from his camp at Schmottseiffen.
- To alleviate Saltykov’s wrath, Daun marched from Muskau to Forst with the left wing of the main army.
On September 1
- The two wings of the main Austrian army made a junction at their old camp near Triebel.
- There were some skirmishes between the light troops of both armies.
On September 2
- Engagement of Sorau
- Zieten was still posted in the little town of Sorau.
- Daun secretly marched against Zieten’s positions in three converging columns. However, Daun hesitated and turned back his own divisions and returned to his camp at Triebel. Most units of Beck's Column were delayed and, after a small engagement at Sorau, Zieten had enough time to escape the trap and to join Prince Heinrich at Sagan. Freibataillon Salenmon, forming the rearguard, was harassed by the Austrian cavalry.
- In Lower Silesia, Unruh, Grenadier Battalion Rath, Markgraf von Brandenburg-Schwedt Fusiliers, Manteuffel Infantry, 8 sqns of the Bayreuth Dragoons, 2 sqns of Werner Hussars and 1 bn of volunteers under Major von Zaremba were transferred from the vicinity of Schmottseiffen and Hirschberg to Landeshut. Fouqué left only 10 bns, the Feldjäger zu Fuß and 12 sqns in the camp of Schmottseiffen under Major-General von Queiss to observe de Ville's Corps at Marklissa.
- Fouqué detached Colonel von Bülow with 1 bn (II./Markgraf von Brandenburg-Schwedt Fusiliers) and 4 sqns (2 sqns of the Bayreuth Dragoons, 2 sqns of the Werner Hussars) to cover the County of Glatz against Austrian raids.
- In the afternoon, the rest of Daun’s main army arrived in the vicinity of Sorau, and Daun encamped near (unidentified location), to the west of Sorau.
- Beck took position at Wolfsdorf to cover the main army.
- In Lower Silesia, the Harsch’s Corps was still at Trautenau.
On September 3
- Daun’s army encamped near Sorau.
- Prince Heinrich knew that there was only one Austrian corps (de Ville’s Corps) posted in Upper Lusatia near Marklissa. He decided to make a forced march to threaten Daun’s lines of communication, hoping to draw the main Austrian army away from Brandenburg and a potential junction with the Russian army. At the same time he would prevent any attempt of the Austrians to cut his own line of communication with Fouqué’s Corps, which was still posted in Lower Silesia.
- Major-General von Queiss set off from the camp of Schmottseiffen, as instructed by Prince Heinrich and advanced in the direction of Sprottau with 3 bns (Grenadier Battalion Benckendorff, Wedel (?) Infantry) and 5 sqns (Bredow Cuirassiers), reaching Nieder-Schönfeld (present-day Kraśnik Dolny/PL). Major-General von Stutterheim assumed command of the troops left in the camp of Schmottseiffen.
On September 4
- Prince Heinrich sent away his train towards Sprottau under a strong escort (Rebentisch Infantry, Jung Braunschweig Fusiliers, Czettritz Dragoons and 2 sqns of the Gersdorff Hussars) commanded by Major-General von Czettritz.
- Queiss’ detachment reached Sprottau. To hide his real design, Prince Heinrich had thrown bridges across the Bober River at Sagan and made preparations, as if he intended to march on Sorau.
- At Sorau, Daun learned that the train of Prince Heinrich’s Army had been sent towards Sprottau, and that the army was preparing to follow it.
On September 5
- After destroying his bridges on the Bober, Prince Heinrich marched with his army upstream along the Bober. He was not followed by the Austrians.
- In Lower Silesia, the Grenadier Battalion Unruh, 2 sqns of the Bayreuth Dragoons and 1 sqn of the Werner Hussars were transferred from Landeshut to the entrenchments at Welkersdorf.
- At Sorau, Daun was surprised to learn of the capitulation of Dresden. He had expected a much longer siege. According to the agreement previously made with Saltykov, the Austrian and Russian armies should now march to Silesia and take up their winter-quarters there.
On September 6
- Prince Heinrich’s Army reached Bunzlau.
- Daun informed Saltykov of the capitulation of Dresden. Saltykov responded with complaints about the lack of forage, and accusations about the inaction of the Austrians. He concluded that he would have to wait for orders from the Court at St. Petersburg. He was far from enthusiast about Daun’s suggestion that the Russians should march along the Oder towards Glogau, capture this city and take their winter-quarters in Silesia. In fact he had no siege artillery. He demanded Daun to give battle to Prince Heinrich. He himself did not want to take any additional risk.
- De Ville marched from Marklissa to Lauban to cover the magazines at Görlitz, leaving Lieutenant-Colonel Garičié with 700 Grenzers and some hussars in Friedland to guards the passes leading into Bohemia, and sending 2 bns and some cavalry to Naumburg/Queis.
On September 7
- Prince Heinrich’s Army marched by way of Gross-Walditz (present-day Włodzice Wielkie/PL), where it was joined by Czettritz’s detachment, crossed the Bober and encamped near Kunzendorf and Löwenberg.
- Major-General von Stutterheim set out from the camp near Schmottseiffen with a strong detachment (Grenadier Battalion Rathenow, Grenadier Battalion Bähr, Forcade Infantry, Alt-Stutterheim Infantry, Freibataillon Quintus, the Feldjäger zu Fuß, 7 sqns of Möhring Hussars), as instructed by Prince Heinrich, and crossed the Queis River near Marklissa. The Czettritz Dragoons soon joined this detachment.
- The camp of Schmottseiffen was now empty, there were only 4 bns (Grenadier Battalion Benckendorff, Wedel (?) Infantry, soon joined by Grenadier Battalion Unruh, arriving from Landeshut) and 5 sqns (2 sqns of Gersdorff Hussars soon joined by 2 sqns of Bayreuth Dragoons and 1 sqn of Werner Hussars, also arriving from Landeshut) under Major-General von Queiss entrenched at Welkersdorf.
- Zieten was detached towards Marklissa with 11 bns and 25 sqns to chase de Ville from Lauban and to threaten the nearby Austrian magazines.
- In an effort to convince the Russians to march towards Lower Silesia, Daun informed Saltykov that he had decided to cross to the western bank of the Spree at Calau and to march on Berlin. Daun did not fear a junction of the armies of Frederick and Prince Heinrich any more. He considered that the Russians could then freely retire to Lower Silesia along the left bank of the Oder.
On September 8
- Prince Heinrich’s vanguard, under Major-General von Krockow, made itself master of Lauban.
- Prince Heinrich reinforced Stutterheim’s detachment, which was posted near Marklissa. However, 2 sqns of the Gersdorff Hussars were sent back to their parent rgt. The small corps now counted 15½ bns and 22 sqns, including Queiss’ detachment, which had previously been posted at Welkersdorf; part of Czettritz’s detachment (Rebentisch Infantry, Jung Braunschweig Fusiliers); and 2 sqns of Zieten Hussars. Prince Heinrich then transferred command of this corps from Major-General von Stutterheim to Lieutenant-General von Zieten.
- In the evening, Zieten sent General Stutterheim with 5 bns (Forcade Infantry, Alt-Stutterheim Infantry, Freibataillon Quintus), 1 coy of Feldjäger zu Fuß and 10 sqns (Czettritz Dragoons and 5 sqns of Möhring Hussars) to dislodge an outpost of 1 Grenzer bn and 80 hussars at Friedland (present-day Frýdlant/CZ).
- Daun was constantly informed about Prince Heinrich's advance into Upper Lusatia. However, he considered that this was just a diversion. Daun gave orders to FML Beck with his light corps to closely observe the movements of Prince Heinrich.
- De Ville’s Corps withdrew from Lauban to Lichtenberg (present-day Jasna Góra/PL).
- Saltykov answered Daun, stating that the Russian army would remain at Lieberose, due to lack of forage, until Daun’s Army got closer to Frederick’s Army.
On September 9
- Early on the morning, Stutterheim surrounded and summoned the Austrian outpost at Friedland. The defenders (Garičié and his 700 Grenzer light troops) surrendered as prisoners of war. Stutterheim also captured a magazine, two artillery pieces and a large quantity of flour, bread and oat.
- Prince Heinrich’s Army marched to Lauban, where it encamped.
- Prince Heinrich sent a detachment (Lindstedt Infantry, Münchow Fusiliers, 400 cuirassiers) under Major-General von Bülow to Naumburg/Queiss to act as a flank guard.
- Daun’s main army advanced from Sorau to Triebel. During the march, Daun was informed that de Ville had been forced to retire towards Görlitz in front of superior forces. Loudon also reported that Frederick had detached a corps under General von Finck towards Saxony by way of Senftenberg. Daun decided to recall Loudon’s Corps, which was still operating with the Russian army.
- De Ville retired from Lauban to Görlitz, behind the Neisse River.
- Beck’s light corps retired from the area of Rothwasser and joined de Ville at Görlitz.
- Colonel von Conti, who commanded the Austrian garrison at Zittau, received reinforcement. He was now at the head of 900 foot and 400 Grenzer light troops.
- Saint-Ignon and Vogelsang also joined de Ville with their respective detachments.
On September 10
- Prince Heinrich’s Army reached Pfaffendorf (present-day Rudzica/PL), to the southeast of Görlitz.
- Zieten’s Corps advanced to Schönberg (present-day Sulików/PL).
- Part of Stutterheim’s detachment (Freibataillon Quintus, 1 coy of Feldjäger zu Fuß, Czettritz Dragoons and 5 sqns of Möhring Hussars) appeared before Zittau. The rest of the infantry had been left behind. Colonel von Conti refused to surrender. Stutterheim could not captured the town but he destroyed a few magazines near the Zittau before retiring. He then heard that a supply convoy had just left the place since one day and was heading for Gabel in Bohemia with an escort of 120 men. Stutterheim immediately 5 sqns of Möhring Hussars under Major von Reitzenstein who pursued the convoy, attacked it and captured it.
- 2 sqns of Gersdorff Hussars joined the detachment of Major-General Bülow, which marched to Neu-Kretscham (present-day Nowa Karczma/PL) on the road leading from Lauban to Görlitz.
- In Lower Silesia, Colonel Bülow’s detachment returned from the County of Glatz to Landeshut.
- Daun’s main army reached Spremberg.
- When Loudon informed Saltykov that he had been recalled to the main Austrian army, Saltykov harshly replied that he would retire to Crossen as soon as Loudon’s Corps would leave. Loudon then decided to remain with the Russian army.
On the night of September 10 to 11, de Ville’s Corps evacuated Görlitz and withdrew to Bautzen, managing to cart away most of the provisions stored in the important magazines of Görlitz. Beck’s light corps also retired to Bautzen.
On September 11
- Prince Heinrich placed a detachment under Major-General Krockow in Görlitz.
- In Lower Silesia, Fouqué’s Corps advancing up to Schatzlar and Bernsdorf in two columns, following Harsch’s Corps, which was retiring from Liebau. A brief skirmish took place near Bersdorf and Fouqué then retired towards Landeshut.
- Daun rested his army near Spremberg. He was informed that de Ville had evacuated Görlitz and was retiring towards Bautzen. Daun also learned of the Prussian raid against Zittau. His line of supply from Bohemia was now cut. He decided to interrupt his march on Berlin, which had never really begun.
- Beck’s light corps retired to Zittau by way of Rumburg (present-day Rumburk/CZ), to cover the road leading to Bohemia from Prussian raids and to protect the large magazines located at Reichenberg (present day Liberec/CZ).
On September 12
- Daun’s main army turned southwards and marched to Lohsa, to the southeast of Hoyerswerda.
- Beck then sent most of his cavalry with 400 Warasdiner Grenzers towards Zittau which they reached at 11:00 p.m..
- Zieten’s Corps crossed the Neisse River and occupied the Landeskrone.
- Stutterheim’s detachment advanced up to Radmeritz (present-day Radomierzyce/PL) to cover the left wing of the army.
- Bülow’s detachment advanced to Hochkirch, to the northeast of Görlitz.
- Prince Heinrich established his camp to the southeast of Görlitz on the right bank of the Neisse. The army of Prince Heinrich now stood directly across the main line of communication of the Austrians.
- In the evening, Prince Heinrich, informed of the march of the main Austrian army, detached Major-General von Krockow with 5 sqns of the Gersdorff Hussars, the Normann Dragoons and the Freibataillon Salenmon to reconnoitre in the direction of Hoyerswerda.
On September 13
- Daun’s main army reached the vicinity of Bautzen and encamped at Teichnitz. Daun ordered Hadik to send Vehla towards Hoyerswerda and Pálffy to Spremberg to keep open his line of communication with the Russian Army.
- De Ville was relieved of the command of his corps which was transferred to General Count O’Donell.
- Beck advanced on Friedland.
- Krockow’s detachment attacked an Austrian supply convoy near Lohsa, capturing 2 officers and 186 men of the escort. Krockow then rejoined Prince Heinrich’s Army.
- When Saltykov heard that Daun had retired from his camp at Sorau, he threatened to retire to Crossen (present-day Krosno Odrzańskie/PL). The French envoy, the Marquis de Montalembert, made every effort to persuade him to undertake the siege of Glogau instead of the planned retreat.
On September 14
- Prince Heinrich recalled Bülow’s detachment from Hochkirch to his main army.
- In Lower Silesia, Major-General von Meier assembled a strong detachment (Buddenbrock, Kalckstein Infantry, IV./Garrison Regiment No. VI Lattorf, Freibataillon le Noble, 2 sqns of Bayreuth Dragoons, 2 sqns of Werner Hussars).
- Lieutenant-General Count Rumyantsev arrived at Daun’s headquarters at Teichnitz, north of Bautzen, to inform him that Saltykov had decided to march towards the Oder by way of Guben, Sommerfeld and Christianstadt. He was willing to lay siege to Glogau but asked Daun to send him siege artillery and, since the Hadik’s Corps had been recalled to the Elbe, a reinforcement of 10,000 Austrian troops.
- In Lower Silesia, Harsch’s Corps had retired to Trautenau, leaving his light troops under the command of Jahnus near Schatzlar.
On September 15
- The Russian army marched from Lieberose to Guben.
On September 16
- General von Stutterheim with a detachment of 5 bns (Forcade Infantry, Alt-Stutterheim Infantry, Freibataillon Quintus), 1 coy of Feldjäger zu Fuß and 10 sqns (Czettritz Dragoons and 5 sqns of Möhring Hussars) re-occupied Friedland to cover the left flank of the main army, which was threatened by Beck’s light corps.
- To support Stutterheim’s detachment, Zieten took position near Seidenberg with 5 bns (Grenadier Battalion Rathenow, Grenadier Battalion Bähr, Grenadier Battalion Benckendorff, Jung Braunschweig Fusiliers) and 12 sqns (Bredow Cuirassiers, 2 sqns of Bayreuth Dragoons, 2 sqns of Zieten Hussars, 2 sqns of Möhring Hussars, 1 sqn of Werner Hussars). Major-General von Czettritz assumed command of the rest of the remaining 4 bns (Rebentisch Infantry, Wedel (?) Infantry, 1 coy of Feldjäger zu Fuß) and 14 sqns ( Normann Dragoons, 5 sqns of the Zieten Hussars, 4 sqns of the Gersdorff Hussars, which had been left behind at on the Landeskrone.
- Grenadier Battalion Alt-Billerbeck and Grenadier Battalion Nimschöfsky occupied Görlitz.
- To comply with Saltykov’s request, Daun sent a reinforcement of 5 infantry rgts (Erzherzog Carl, Platz, Starhemberg, Batthyányi, Deutschmeister) and 5 cavalry rgts (Anspach Cuirassiers, Pálffy Cuirassiers, Birkenfeld Cuirassiers, Kalckreuth Cuirassiers, Sachsen-Gotha Dragoons) from Bautzen to Loudon’s Corps. These reinforcements would be placed under the command of FML Campitelli, who was already with Loudon’s Corps.
On September 17, Beck’s light corps advanced from Zittau to Kratzau (present-day Chrastava/CZ), to the northwest of Reichenberg.
On September 21, Frederick, who had hoped that the Russians were retreating to Poland, realised that they were making for Silesia and Glogau by a wide sweep northward. Frederick then marched on Sagan, the key of the real road to Glogau, with all his cavalry closely followed by the infantry. The entire Prussian Army then encamped with its left on the Galgenberg and its right at Elkendorf. From this position, Frederick was able to make a junction with Prince Heinrich (there were but 80 km from Sagan to Görlitz) and to relieve Glogau while separating Saltykov's Army from Daun's. The same day, Daun was informed that Frederick was marching towards Glogau and resolved to seize this opportunity to act against Prince Heinrich to drive him out of Upper Lusatia, back to Silesia. Daun sent O'Donell forward to Reichenbach with the horse grenadiers.
Brentano, Vehla and Maquire were moving to join the Reichsarmee in Saxony, the details of their operations from August 10 are described in the article dedicated to the Austro-Imperial invasion of Saxony.
|An entire article is devoted to the Russian operations in Silesia in 1759.|
On September 23 in the morning, Daun marched to join O'Donell and encamped near Reichenbach. The same morning, Prince Heinrich sent 6 bns under the command of General Queiss to reinforce Frederick. At 6:00 p.m., Zieten advanced on Görlitz. Daun then reconnoitred Zieten's positions on the Landskrone near the town and decided to attack him. However, at 8:00 p.m., Prince Heinrich silently left his camp and marched in 2 columns towards Görlitz. He had left only a few light troops to keep up the watch-fires and sentry-cries to deceive Daun. Meanwhile, he went northward down the Neisse Valley, about 30 km, to Rothenburg. He then bivouacked for only three hours.
On Monday September 24, Daun came marching up to storm the Landskrone. Discovering that the Prussians had vanished, Daun kept his men under arms while his scouts searched for Prince Heinrich. Meanwhile, at noon, the latter had reached Rothenburg where he halted for a few hours. He then resumed his march to Klitten, a march of 29 km from Rothenburg, and bivouacked again for three hours.
On September 25, Prince Heinrich brought his army to Hoyerswerda, 32 km farther west, where he tried to surprise Vehla's Austrian Light Division (3,460 men) which was posted there since the capture of Dresden. Vehla's Division consisted of:
- 2,500 Croats from
- 960 hussars in 7 squadrons
On Tuesday September 25, Vehla posted Grenzer regiments and pieces of artillery behind the Elster River. Prince Heinrich halted his vanguards in the woods and sent strong cavalry detachments on Vehla's flanks. General Lentulus, forming the Prussian vanguard, then came streaming out of the woods and cannonaded Vehla both in front and rear. Meanwhile, the Prussian cavalry passed the river, formed by squadrons, charged and broke the Austrian Corps The Austrians lost 600 men killed and 1,785 men were taken prisoners including Vehla. The same day, Daun advanced on Görlitz to reconnoitre the movements of Prince Heinrich. When Daun discovered that Prince Heinrich had take the route to Hoyerswerda, he immediately returned to Bautzen to cover Dresden.
On September 27, Prince Heinrich was informed that the Reichsarmee along with Hadik's Corps had probably attacked Finck at Meissen, repulsing him. He detached General Bülow with 4 bns to reinforce Finck and prepared his corps to march to his relief.
The main theatre of operation of the Austrian Army then shifted from Lusatia to Saxony.
|An entire article is devoted to the Austro-Imperial operations in Saxony in 1759.|
After the departure of the main armies from Lusatia and Upper Silesia, the Austrian General Beck covered the region of Zittau with 13 bns and 30 sqns. The Prussian General Goltz observed this Austrian Corps with a small detachment of 4 bns and 4 sqns. Meanwhile the Austrian Corps of Harsch and Janus covered Bohemia in the areas of Trautenau and Schatzlar in front of Fouqué stationed at Landeshut with 13 bns and 6 sqns.
At the end of October, after the departure of the Russian Army from Lower Silesia, Frederick detached Generals Gablenz and Schmettau with 9 bns and 20 sqns to Drachenberg to observe Loudon's manoeuvres. Meanwhile, Prussian General Meyer replaced Fouqué's troops at Hirschberg and Landeshut with 5 bns and 10 sqns. Meanwhile, Frederick suffering from sickness was transported to Glogau.
On November 9, Fouqué retired to Cosel and manoeuvred to harass Loudon's Corps.
Around end of November, Daun asked to send the Saxon cavalry to Saxony. One column (Prinz Albrecht Chevauxlegers and the Karabiniergarde) marched from Trautenau by Schlukenau (present day Šluknov/CZ) and Neustadt; the other (Herzog von Kurland Chevauxlegers and Graf Brühl Chevauxlegers) by Reichenberg and Zittau. Graf Rudnicki Uhlanen came from Brünn while Schiebel Uhlanen had arrived earlier.
On November 30, Fouqué camped at Ratibor. The same day, Loudon arrived at Teschen by Cracovie, Bielitz and Plessen. He made a junction with Drašković who had been sent forward to Troppau by Harsch.
Loudon then asked for an armistice which was accepted by Fouqué. Schmettau's Corps then marched to Lusatia and cantoned near Görlitz.
This article is essentially a compilation of texts from the following books, which are now in the public domain:
- Anonymous, A Complete History of the Present War, from its Commencement in 1756, to the End of the Campaign, 1760, London, 1761, pp. 370-372
- Carlyle T., History of Friedrich II of Prussia vol. 19
- Jomini, baron de, Traité des grandes opérations militaires, Vol. 3, 2nd ed., Magimel, Paris, 1811, pp. 66, 68-69, 77-96, 149-163, 194
- Gorani, Joseph: Mémoires, Paris: Gallimard, 1944, pp. 118-123
- Grosser Generalstab Kriegsgeschichtliche Abteilung II: Die Kriege Friedrichs des Grossen, Part 3 Der siebenjährige Krieg 1756-1763
- Vol. 9 Bergen, Berlin, 1911, pp. 3, 21, 35-37, 40, 42, 44, 50-53, 76-77, 88-90, 122-127
- Vol. 10 Kunersdorf, Berlin, 1912, pp. 1-66, 69-75
- Vol. 11 Minden und Maxen, Berlin, 1912, pp. 62-91
- Schuster, O. and F. Francke: Geschichte der Sächsischen Armee, 2. part, Leipzig 1885
- Vanicek, Fr.: Specialgeschichte der Militärgrenze aus Originalquellen und Quellenwerken geschöpft, Vol. II, Vienna: Kaiserlich-Königlichen Hof- und Staatsdruckerei, 1875, pp. 450-471
Salisch, M. von: Treue Deserteure – Das kursächsische Militär und der Siebenjährige Krieg, Munich, 2009
Harald Skala for information on the Saxon cavalry during this period