2nd Almeida Infantry

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Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Armies >> Portuguese Army >> 2nd Almeida Infantry

Origin and History

The unit was one of the original Terços raised in 1641.

In September 1762, the regiment was divided into two distinct units: the 1st and 2nd Almeida regiments.

During the Seven Years' War, the 2nd regiment was under the command of:

  • 1762: Francis MacLean

On May 10 1763, the two units were reunited into a single regiment.

Service during the War

At the beginning of the campaign of 1762, the regiment was assuming garrison duty in the fortress of Almeida. From August 5 to 25, it defended the place during the siege of Almeida. On August 25, the capitulation was signed. From August 18 to 25, the garrison had lost only 40 men... On August 27 at 8:00 AM, according to the first article of the capitulation, the Portuguese garrison evacuated the fortress of Almeida by the Cruz gate with the honours of wars: drums beating, colours flying and 2 cannon accompanying it. It then marched towards Viseu. On September 4, the garrison was cantoned in the Besteiros valley. Shortly after, it marched towards Lisbon.


Traditionally, since about 1660, the Portuguese infantry wore dark blue uniforms. During the War of Spanish Succession (1701-1714) almost all infantry units wore alvadia (light gray uniforms). These new uniforms were introduced for economic reasons, this type of fabric being much cheaper.

It is now believed that, from 1750, there was a progressive abandon of alvadia uniforms and a return to more traditional Portuguese uniforms. However, it seems that most of the changeover took part sometime after 1759 since, till this date, cloth orders indicated white as the most common colour.

At the outbreak of the war in 1762, there was neither enough uniforms nor cloth for recruits in military warehouses, so it was necessary to use all cloth available. Besides, as there was no central warehouse, every colonel was responsible for the ordering of uniforms. Therefore the fabric was bought from contractors who would cut and turned it into uniforms "more or less" along the official lines.

It must also be noted that the use of gaiters was introduced into the Portuguese infantry only in 1762.


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Armaments consisted of a musket and a bayonet.


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The exact pattern of the Portuguese colonel colours during the Seven Years' War is unknown.

The ordonnance colours were chosen by the colonel of the regiment. For the moment, we have found no source depicting specific colours for this regiment.

Please refer to our article on the Portuguese Line Infantry Colours for more information.


Amaral, Manuel, O Exértico Português em finais do Antiguo Regime

Pereira Sales, Ernesto Augusto; O Conde de Lippe em Portugal, Vila Nova de Famalicao: Publicacoes da Comissao de Historia Militar, 1936

Ribeiro Rodrigues, Manuel A.; 300 Anos de Uniformes Militares do Exército de Portugal 1660-1960, Exército Portugués and Sociedade Historica da Independéncia de Portugal, 1998


Manuel Ribeiro Rodrigues and Joseph O'Neill for the information and counselling provided for this article.