Aquitaine Infanterie

From Project Seven Years War
Revision as of 19:56, 28 September 2014 by RCouture (Talk | contribs)

(diff) ← Older revision | Latest revision (diff) | Newer revision → (diff)
Jump to: navigation, search

Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Armies >> French Army >> Aquitaine Infanterie

Origin and History

As per a tradition, the regiment would have been originally raised in 1604 by M. de Némon, a gentleman from Lorraine. On January 17 1625, it was incorporated into the regular French army. On August 24 1671, it took the name of Anjou in honor of the duke d'Anjou. Finally, on September 10 1753, it took the name of the province of Aquitaine when it was given by Louis Xv to the young duke of Aquitaine.

The regiment counted two battalions and had prévôté (provostship). On December 10 1762, when the French army was reorganized, it incorporated the two battalions of the disbanded Berry Infanterie.

During the War of the Polish Succession, the regiment served in Italy in 1733 and 1735.

During the War of the Austrian Succession, the regiment initially served in Germany from 1741 to 1743. In 1744, it was transferred to the Alps and then served in Italy in 1745 and 1746.

During the Seven Years' War, the regiment ranked 19th and was under the command of:

  • Since July 20 1746: Marquis de Rochechouart
  • February 20 1761: Vicomte de Broglie

Service during the War

In 1756, the regiment was part of the army assembled at the camp of Calais.

In 1757, the regiment was sent to Germany to join the Lower Rhine Army. On April 3, the regiment was assigned to the Corps of six battalions blockading the Duchy of Gueldre, it occupied Neukirch. At the end of June, it was encamped at Bielefeld with d'Estrées' main corps. On July 26, it took part in the battle of Hastenbeck and then to the ensuing conquest of Hanover where the town of Minden and Hanover were captured. After the Convention of Kloster-Zeven on September 8, it followed the main body, led by the maréchal de Richelieu, who encamped at Halberstadt in Prussian territory from September 28 to November 5. In this camp, the regiment was placed in the center of the second line. After the defeat of the Franco-Imperial army at the battle of Rossbach, the whole French army retreated to the Rhine. During this retreat, the regiment took part to the expedition against Zell where, on December 25, along with La Marine Infanterie and Vaubécourt Infanterie, it forced the passage of the Aller at the bridge of Alten-Zell and occupied the town of Celle (Zell). At the end of the year, it took its winter quarters in the third line of the French Army in Lemgo.

At the beginning of 1758, the regiment was on the Dutch border. In April, when the comte de Clermont redeployed his army along the Rhine, the regiment was placed in the second line at Viersen. After the successful crossing of the Rhine by the Allied army of Ferdinand of Brunswick on May 31, the regiment retired towards Rheinberg where it joined Clermont's army on June 2. It remained in this camp until June 12 and was placed in the centre of the second line. On June 23, the regiment took part in the battle of Krefeld where it was placed on the left wing of the first line under Lorges. In Mid August, after Ferdinand's retreat to the east bank of the Rhine, the regiment, as part of the army of the Lower Rhine, now under the marquis de Contades, recrossed the Rhine to follow the Allied army. On August 20, it was encamped near Wesel where it was placed in the centre of the second line.

By May 10 1759, the regiment was part of the corps under the command of the comte de Noailles who had taken position near Deutz on the right bank of the Rhine. In June, during the French offensive in West Germany, the regiment was part of the main army under the command of the marquis de Contades where it was deployed in the first line of the infantry centre. On June 25 1759, the regiment took part in the capture of Münster. On July 13, the regiment was part of a corps, under M. de Beaupréau, sent forward by Contades to Eidinghausen near Gohfeld to support Broglie at Minden. On July 14, this corps passed the Weser and marched to the French camp near Minden where it replaced Broglie's reserve. On August 1, the regiment took part in the battle of Minden where it was deployed in the first line of the infantry left wing under the command of Guerchy. Along with Auvergne Infanterie, it distinguished itself. During the retreat which followed this defeat, it was assigned to Saint-Germain's corps who took position near Dransfeld to protect the crossing the gorge of Münden by of the French army. On August 10, this corps was attacked by an Allied force under the command of the Hereditary Prince of Brunswick. The regiment, along with Auvergne Infanterie counter-attacked and drove them back.

In 1760, the regiment was involved in an action near Sachsenhausen.

In 1761, the regiment defended Kassel which it was garrisoning since a few months. On July 16, during the battle of Vellinghausen, along with Rouergue Infanterie, it relieved the Deux-Ponts Brigade who had seriously suffered from combat.

On June 24 1762, the regiment took part to the battle of Wilhelmstal. It returned to France at the end of the same year and took its quarters at Besançon.

Uniform

Privates

Uniform in 1758 - Source: Kronoskaf
Uniform Details as per
Etrennes militaires 1758 and Etat militaire 1761

completed where necessary by information taken from Taccoli's uniform plates and the manuscript of the Musée de l'Armée
Headgear
Musketeer black tricorne laced gold with a black cockade
Grenadier black tricorne laced gold with a black cockade

towards 1759, bearskins became increasingly common among grenadiers

Neckstock black
Coat grey-white lined grey-white
Collar blue
Shoulder Straps n/a
Lapels none
Pockets horizontal pockets (5 copper buttons on each single pocket)
Cuffs blue with 4 copper buttons
Turnbacks none (Taccoli illustrates grey-white turnbacks in 1759)
Waistcoat blue
Breeches grey-white
Gaiters white
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt natural leather (white as per Taccoli)
Waistbelt natural leather (white as per Taccoli)
Cartridge Box natural leather
Bayonet Scabbard n/a
Scabbard n/a


Armaments consisted of a musket and a bayonet. Fusiliers carried a sword (brass hilt) while the grenadiers had a sabre.

Officers

n/a

Musicians

The drummers of the regiment wore the Royal Livery: blue coat lined red; red cuffs, waistcoat and breeches; laced with the braid of the small Royal Livery.

Drummer wearing the Royal Livery - Source: Jocelyne Chevanelle

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

French Royal Livery - Source: reconstruction based on a sample from Jean-Louis Vial's collection


Colors

The colonel flag was white with a white cross. The ordonnance flags had a white cross with two opposed quarters ondés (waved) aurore (light orange) and red and two opposed quarters ondés red and blue. All quarters of the ordonnance flags were bordered with red, blue and aurore squares.

Colonel Colour - Source: Kronoskaf
Ordonnance Colour - Source: Kronoskaf

References

Evrard P.; Praetiriti Fides

Manuscript "Troupes du Roi, Infanterie française et étrangère, année 1757, tome I", Musée de l'Armée, Paris

Menguy, Patrice; Les Sujets du Bien Aimé

Mouillard, Lucien; Les Régiments sous Louis XV, Paris 1882

Pajol, Charles P. V., Les Guerres sous Louis XV, vol. VII, Paris, 1891

Rogge, Christian; The French & Allied Armies in Germany during the Seven Years War, Frankfurt, 2006

Service historique de l'armée de terre - Archives du génie, article 15, section 1, §5, pièce 23

Taccoli, Alfonso; Teatro Militare dell' Europa, Part 1, vol. 2; Madrid, March 1760

Vial J. L.; Nec Pluribus Impar

N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.