Origin and History
The tercio was created for the war against Portugal on 22 January 1657 and confided to the Maestre de Campo Don Gerónimo de Benavente y Quiñones. It consisted of 26 companies for a total of 156 officers and 790 soldiers recruited in Madrid; and was known by the name of its maestre de campo.
In 1657, the new tercio rejoined the Army of Extremadura and took part in the siege and capture of Olivenza. In 1658, it participated in the defence of Badajoz and on 20 July, in the combat of Mayas against the Portuguese; in 1659, in the unsuccessful siege of Yelves; in 1661, in the siege and capture of Arronches and later in the defence of the place; in 1662, in a combat at Estremoz, in the siege and capture of Juromenha, in a combat near Villaciciosa, in the capture of Veiros and Monforte, and in the storming of Ocrato; in 1663, in the siege and capture of Evora. For its brave conduct, the tercio received the nickname of “Los Tigres” (the tigers).
In 30 August 1664, during the reorganisation of the Army of Extremadura, the tercio became one of the six tercios provinciales and was designated as the “Tercio provincial de Burgos”. It was also known as the “Amarillos Viejos”.
In 1665, the tercio served with the Army of Portugal and took part in the siege of Villaviciosa and in the battle of Montesclaros. In 1666, it defended the frontier the Hispano-Portuguese frontier. In 1668, at the end of the war against Portugal, the tercio was reduced from 17 to 9 companies and garrisoned Pamplona, Fuenterrabia and San Sebastian.
In 1672, at the outbreak of the Franco-Dutch War (1672–78), the tercio was transferred to the Army of Catalonia. In 1674, the tercio took part in the siege of Bellegarde in Roussillon and in the battle of Maurellas. In 1678, it defended Puigcerdà and capitulated with the honours of war.
In 1684, the tercio took part in the defence of Gerona against the French. In 1687, it fought once more against the French in the mountains.
In 1689, during the Nine Years' War (1688–97), the tercio took part in the siege of Camprodon. In 1690, it garrisoned Gerona. In 1694, it joined the Army of Catalonia and took part in the battle of the Tech River and in the defence of Palamós which surrendered as prisoners of war. In 1696, these prisoners were exchanged. In 1697, the tercio took part in the defence of Barcelona which surrendered on 10 August. The tercio then marched to Martorell.
After the war, the tercio formed part of the garrison of Barcelona.
During the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–14), in 1702 , the tercio was transferred from Barcelona to the Province of Galicia. In 1703, it served on the frontier with Portugal. In 1704, it took part in the siege and capture of Castelo Branco; in the storming of entrenchments near Ferreira, in a combat near Castelo de Vide and in the blockade of Gibraltar; in 1705, in the unsuccessful siege of Gibraltar; in 1706, in the defence of Alcántara where it became prisoners of war., being exchanged later the same year. On 28 February 1707, the former “Tercio Provincial de Burgos Amarillos Viejos” was transformed into a regiment and took the name of “Regimiento de Guadalajara”. The same year, it took part in the Battle of Almansa, in the recapture of Requena and in the siege of Játiva. It then fought insurgents in Aragon and participated in in the siege and capture of Mequinenza., in the siege of Lérida. And in the recapture of Morella. In 1708, it was at the capture of Mora on the Ebro, at an engagement at Marvete and in the siege and capture of Tortosa. By 9 July 1709, a second battalion had been added to the regiment and the two battalions marched to Catalonia where they part in actions at Balaguer and against the Lines of the Segre. In 1710, the regiment (to the exception of its grenadiers) operated in Catalonia and Aragon and took part in the disastrous Battle of Saragossa., in the combat of Brihuega and in the decisive victory of Villaviciosa. The same year, its grenadiers took part in the defence of the coasts of the Province of Valencia. In 1711, the regiment took part in an engagement on the Point of Algerri; in 1713, in the blockade of Barcelona; and in 1714, in the siege and capture of Barcelona.
On 10 January 1715, the two battalions of the regiment were disbanded and incorporated into Castilla Infantry. However, on 26 March, the regiment was re-established without losing its seniority nor a single man. Finally, on 20 April, the “Regimiento de Madrid” was incorporated in the “Regimiento de Guadalajara” as its second battalion. The regiment then took part in the reconquest of the Island of Majorca.
In 1717, the regiment was cantoned in Catalonia.
In 1718, at the outbreak of the War of the Quadruple Alliance (1718–1720), the regiment took part in the expedition in Sicily, in the capture of Palermo, Castellammare and Messina, and in the victorious battle of Milazzo. In 1719, it fought in the battle of Francavilla and took part in the defence of Messina where it capitulated with the honours of war. In 1720, the Spanish army evacuated Sicily and returned to Barcelona.
In 1727, the regiment took part in the unsuccessful siege of Gibraltar.
In 1733, at the outbreak of the War of the Polish Succession ( 1733–1738), the regiment embarked for Italy. In 1734, it took part in the victorious Battle of Bitonto and in the siege and capture of Gaeta. In 1735, it was transferred to Sicily where it took part in the capture of Messina, Syracuse and Trapani. It was then transported to the Island of Elba where it participated in the reconquest of Portolongone. After sailing back to Sicily, it garrisoned Palermo. Finally, it was sent to Lombardia where it took part in the siege of Mantua. In 1736, it returned to Spain.
In 1740, at the outbreak of the War of the Austrian Succession (1740–1748),the regiment was sent to Majorca. In 1741, it returned to Barcelona. In 1742, it embarked at Barcelona with the army of the Duke de Montemar and landed at Genoa. In 1743, it took part in the indecisive battle of Campo Santo; in 1744, in the defence of the entrenched camp of Velletri; in 1745, in the siege of Tortona and in the battle of Bassignano; in 1746, in the capture of Milan and in the battle of Piacenza, befire retiring to the County of Nice. It was then transported to the Kingdom of Naples.
In 1749, after the war, the regiment sailed back to Barcelona. In 1752, it was sent to the Province of Extremadura to guard the frontier with Portugal. It then garrisoned Badajoz.
During the Seven Years' War, the regiment was under the command of:
- since at least 1752 until ????: Don Antonio de Guadalfajara
Service during the War
In 1757, the regiment was transferred from Extremadura to the Province of Navarre where it garrisoned Pamplona.
|Coat||white with 9 white buttons on the right side
|Waistcoat||encarnado with white buttons and horizontal pockets|
N.B.: Taccoli's plates clearly illustrate different shades of red used by the Spanish army. We have rendered the colour encarnado used by this regiment as Taccoli represent it in his plate. However, this is not a guarantee of accuracy since it depends entirely on Taccoli's interpretation and on plates which are now some 250 years old.
Armaments consisted of a musket, a bayonet and a sword (brass hilt)
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The coronela (colonel flag) of the regiment was white with a red Burgundian cross terminated in each corner by a golden crown. In the middle: the arms of Charles III surrounded by the necklace of the order of the Toison de Oro (Golden Fleece).
The batallonas (ordonnance flags) of the regiment were white with a red Burgundian cross terminated in each corner by a golden crown.
This article is mostly made of abridged and adapted excerpts from the following books which are now in the public domain:
- Clonard, Conde de, Historia Orgánica de las Armas de Infantería y Caballería, vol. IX, Madrid, 1851-62, pp. 255-285
Album de Taccoli, 1759
Boeri, Giancarlo, José Luis Mirecki, and José Palau: The Spanish Armies in the War of the league of Augsburg 1688-1697, C. Boeri, 2002
Clonard, Conde de, Historia Orgánica de las Armas de Infantería y Caballería, vol. VII, Madrid, 1851-62
État militaire (circa 1737-1750), Anne S.K. Brown Collection
Juan José Torres and the Asociación Cultural de Modelismo Histórico Alabarda for the information and counselling provided for this article.
Anton for the additional info provided.