Hanoverian Leib-Regiment Reuter
Origin and History
The regiment was raised in 1682 as the "Prince Georg Ludwig Regiment". In 1685, it formed part of the relief corps sent to Hungary by the Hereditary Prince Georg Ludwig. The same year, the regimen took part in the siege of Neuheusel and in the Battle of Ofen; in 1686, in the covering of the siege of Ofen; and in 1687, in the decisive Battle of Mohács.
In 1688 and 1689, at the beginning of the Nine Years’ War (1688-97), the regiment served on the Rhine where it participated in the capture of Mainz and Bonn. In 1690, it was sent to the Netherlands where it fought in the Battle of Fleurus. In 1692, it followed the Allied army across the Rhine but was forced to retreat to Mannheim. In 1693, the regiment distinguished itself in the Battle of Landen. In 1695, it was at the capture of Namur.
After the war, in 1697 when the Hanoverian cavalry was reduced, out of six disbanded cavalry regiments, 150 of the best men and horses were transferred to the Leib-Regiment.
In 1700, the regiment was sent to the Duchy of Holstein to contain the Danes.
In 1704, during the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-13), the regiment took part in the Battle of Blenheim; in 1706, in the Battle of Ramillies; in 1708, in the Battle of Oudenarde; and in 1709, in the Battle of Malplaquet.
In 1742, during the War of the Austrian Succession (1740-48), the regiment for part of the corps sent to support Maria Theresa. In 1743, the regiment distinguished itself in the Battle of Dettingen. In 1745, it took part in the Battle of Fontenoy and in the engagement of Melle; in 1746, in the Battle of Rocoux; and in 1747, in the Battle of Lauffeld.
During the Seven Years' War, the regimental inhabers were:
- from 1751: Colonel Heinrich Adolph Jacob von Diemar (retired in 1757 as major-general)
- from 1757: Colonel Maximilian Johann Christian von Breidenbach
- from 1757: Colonel Georg Siegfried von Pentz (retired in 1758 as major-general)
- from 1758: Colonel Franz Ludwig von Spörcken (retired in 1761)
- from 1761: Colonel Wilhelm von Jonquières (promoted to major-general in 1766; and to lieutenant-general in 1777)
The regiment was disbanded in 1803.
Service during the War
On July 26, 1757, during the French invasion of Hanover, the regiment took part in the Battle of Hastenbeck where it was deployed near the Afferde Watchtower. At the end of the year, during the Allied counter-offensive in Hanover, the regiment was at the siege of Harburg.
In March 1758, during the Allied winter offensive in Western Germany, the regiment took part in the siege of Minden. On May 26, it was with Ferdinand's main force in the camp of Nottuln. On May 31, it accompanied Ferdinand in his offensive on the west bank of the Rhine. On June 23, the regiment took part in the Battle of Krefeld where it was deployed in the centre under the command of Lieutenant-General von Oberg.
In June 1759, during the French offensive in Western Germany, the regiment was part of Wangenheim's Corps which had taken position at Dülmen in Westphalia to observe the movement of a French corps under the Marquis d'Armentières. On August 1, the regiment took part in the Battle of Minden where it was deployed in Wangenheim's Corps between Kutenhausen and the Weser, in the second line of the cavalry right wing under Major-General von Hanstein. The regiment distinguished itself in this battle but suffered heavy losses: Lieutenant-Colonel du Bois, Captain Garveus, Lieutenant-Captain Bröckelmann, Lieutenant von Anderten, 36 men and 97 horses killed; Cornets Kerstenbruch and Isenbart, 30 men and 30 horses wounded; and Colonel von Spörcken and Lieutenant Müller taken prisoners.
In February 1760, the regiment was in winter-quarters at Bevergen near Münster. On July 10, it took part in the Combat of Corbach where it was deployed in the right column of the main corps under Lieutenant-General Count von Kilmannsegg. On August 11, during the French offensive in Hesse, the regiment took part in the engagement of Sababurg where it captured four cannon. At the end of September, the regiment formed part of the corps of the Hereditary Prince of Brunswick, sent to lay siege to Wesel. On October 16, the regiment took part in the Battle of Clostercamp where it was attached to the Reserve under Lieutenant-General Howard.
On July 16, 1761, the regiment took part in the Battle of Vellinghausen where it was deployed on the right wing under the Hereditary Prince of Brunswick]
By May 23, 1762, in preparation for the campaign in Western Germany, the regiment was attached to the main Allied army. On June 24, it took part in the Battle of Wilhelmsthal where it was deployed in the 7th column.
Accurate Vorstellung der saemtlichen Churfürstl. hannöverischen Armee zur eigentlichen Kentniß der Uniform von jedem Regimente nebst beygefügter Geschichte, worinne von der Stiftung, denen Chefs, der Staercke und den wichtigsten Thaten jedes Regiments Nachricht gegeben wird Nürnberg: Raspe 1763 (Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Sachsen-Anhalt)
|Coat||white with 6 pewter buttons grouped 2 by 2 on the right side and 1 pewter button at the small of the back on each side
|Waistcoat||straw edged yellow (maybe yellow from 1761)|
Troopers were armed with a straight steel hilted sword, two pistols and a carbine. The carbine was slung from the shoulder belt on a swivel hook.
Officers wore a yellow silken sash across the right shoulder; a silver gorget, a silver porte-epee; a silver lace on the tricorne. They did not carry any cross-belt.
NCOs had silver laces on the cuffs, pockets and waistcoat. They did not carry any cross-belt.
Musicians of the regiment (trumpeters and one kettle-drummer) wore the British Royal Livery. They were clothed in red, lined, faced, and lapelled on the breast with blue, and laced with the royal lace (golden braid with two thin purple central stripes). Staff trumpeter probably carried NCO distinctives.
The kettle-drums were made of brass and decorated with the Arms of England in silver. Their white apron as well as the trumpet banners were fringed gold and carried the Arms of England supported by a Lion and a Unicorn; the motto “DIEU ET MON DROIT” underneath; trophies of arms in the lower corners; the initials “GR” on a red ground within the Garter in the upper corners;
The regiment carried one Leibstandarte and one regimental standard.
Colonel Standard (Leibstandarte): white field with golden embroideries; gold fringe
- obverse: centre device consisting of the Arms of England within the Garter surmounted by a crown and supported by a Lion and a Unicorn; with the motto “DIEU ET MON DROIT” underneath
- reverse: centre device consisting of the double “GR” cipher
Regimental Standard: white field with golden embroideries; gold fringe
- obverse: centre device consisting of the Springing White Horse on an orange ground within the Garter surmounted by a helmet with a ermine mantling; the motto “NEC ASPERA TERRENT” underneath
- reverse: centre device consisting of a silver column with gold fluting; the initials “GR” at the base; a drawn sword below the capital of the column; with gold scales; the motto “PRO LEGE ET GREGE” underneath
This article incorporates texts from the following books which are now in the public domain:
- Wissel, Friedrich v. and Georg von Wissel: Geschichte der Errichtung sämmtlicher Chur-Braunschweig-Lüneburgischen Truppen, sammt ihren Fahnen, Standarten und Pauken-Devisen ...], Zelle, 1786, pp. 27-39
Other sources Knötel, Richard: Die Uniformen des Hannoverschen Heeres 1763 und 1770. Part I : Das Heer von 1763, in: Mitteilungen zur Geschichte der militärischen Tracht, vol. XVI, no. 1-4 (1909), page 3-15
Knötel, Richard: Die Uniformen des Hannoverschen Heeres 1763 und 1770. Part II: Das Heer von 1770, in: Mitteilungen zur Geschichte der militärischen Tracht, vol. XVI, no. 4-5 (1909), page 15-20
Knötel, Richard: Die Uniformen des Hannoverschen Heeres 1763 und 1770. Kurze Stammliste. 1617 bis 1803, in: Mitteilungen zur Geschichte der militärischen Tracht, vol. XVI, no. 6-11 (1909), page 22-42
Lawson, Cecil C. P.: A History of the Uniforms of the British Army - from the Beginnings to 1760, vol. II
Niemeyer, Joachim and Georg Ortenburg: The Hanoverian Army during the Seven Years War; Deutsche Gesellschaft für Heereskunde
Manley, S.: Uniforms of the Danish and German States' Armies 1739 - 1748, Potsdam Publications
Pengel & Hurt: German States in the Seven Years War 1740 to 1762, Imperial Press
Pengel, R.D, Hurt G.R.: Seven Years War. Brunswick-Luneburg (Hanover). Hessen Cassel. Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel. Schaumburg Lippe. Supplement, Birmingham 1984
Schirmer, Friedrich: Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756-1763, hrsg. von der KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg, überarb. u. aktual. Neuauflage 1989
Schirmer, Friedrich: Nec Aspera Terrent: Eine Heereskunde der hannoverschen Armee von 1631 bis 1803, Niedersächische Hausbücherei, Bd. 3, Hannover 1929