Origin and History
An infantry regiment of 2,040 men was created on 24 January 1682, at the beginning of the Great Turkish War, for Georg Baron Wallis of Carighmain. Christoph Dietmar Count Schallenberg was appointed as lieutenant-colonel of this new unit. The regiment assembled at Kolin in Bohemia and was first reviewed on July 6 of the same year. In 1683, the regiment took part in the relief of Vienna. In 1688, it was at the storming of Belgrade.
In 1689, Count Andreas Christoph Jörger von Tollet succeeded Baron Wallis as proprietor of the regiment. The same year, the regiment took part in the siege of Belgrade. In 1691, Notger Wilhelm Count von Öttingen-Baldern succeeded to Jörger. The same year, two battalions of the regiment fought in the Battle of Slankamen and the entire regiment took part in the siege of Grosswardein. In 1692, the regiment was at the blockade and at the second siege of Grosswardein. In 1693, Michael Stephan Fürst von Sapieha became proprietor of the regiment. In 1694, he was succeeded by Lorenz Count Solari. In 1697, the regiment fought in the Battle of Zenta.
During the War of the Spanish Succession, in 1702, the regiment was sent to Northern Italy. By August 2, one battalion of the regiment was at Borgoforte and 6 companies in Brescello. During the month of August, the fourth battalion of the regiment finally arrived in Northern Italy. From 2 to 9 September, part of the regiment defended Guastalla but finally had to surrender with the honours of war. By the end of November, part of the regiment had been sent back to join Schlik's Army assembling to attack Bavaria. In 1704, Johan Joseph Philipp Count von Harrach became proprietor of the regiment. In September 1706, the regiment took part in the relief of Turin. It later served in Hungary.
In 1713, the regiment was transferred to Italy. In 1714, it returned to Hungary where it remained until 1717.
During the War of the Austrian Succession, the regiment served in Silesia and Bohemia, taking part in the battles of Mollwitz (April 10, 1741), Chotusitz (May 17, 1742), Hohenfriedberg (June 4, 1745), and Soor (September 30, 1745).
As per the Etat nouveau des Troupes de sa Majesté Impériale Royale comme elles se trouvent effectivement l'an 1759 and Etat général des Troupes qui servent sa Majesté Impériale et Royale Apostolique sur pié en 1760, the regiment counted 4 battalions (2 grenadier coys and 16 fusilier coys) for a total of 2,300 men. This was the administrative organisation of the regiment. However, the tactical organisation differed: 2 field fusilier battalions, each of 6 companies; 2 grenadier companies (usually converged with grenadiers from other battalions into an ad hoc unit); and 1 garrison battalion of 4 companies (see Austrian Line Infantry Organisation for more details).
During the Seven Years' War, the chef of the regiment was:
- since 1704 till 1764: Johan Joseph Philipp Count von Harrach zu Rohrau
During the Seven Years' War, its colonel-commander was:
- at the beginning of the war: Colonel Karl Count Engelhausen
- from March 1 1757: Colonel Friedrich Baron von Baumbach
- from February 11 1760: Colonel Paul Count Serimann
Regimental numbers were introduced only in 1769 when this regiment was designated as "I.R. 47".
Service during the War
In July 1756, the regiment was reorganized in two field battalions of 6 coys each and two grenadier coys; and in one garrison battalion of 4 coys. The field battalions and the grenadiers marched to Bohemia while the garrison battalion remained at Klagenfurt. On September 17, Captain Peter Mitterstiller was sent to occupy the Castle of Tetschen (present-day Děčín/CZ) with only 15 invalids and a few soldiers from various regiments. On the same day, he was reinforced by a detachment under the command of Lieutenant Franz von Gilgens from the present regiment with 15 men. The garrison then counted 74 men. On September 22, Prussian troops led by Lieutenant-Colonel von Strotze arrived in front of Tetschen and opened on the castle with 4 guns. The Prussians intended to burn down the city. On September 23, to avoid major damages, Captain Mitterstiller capitulated to General Mannstein. The garrison became prisoners of war and was sent to Torgau. On October 1, the regiment took part in the Battle of Lobositz where it was deployed in the first line of the centre under General C. Kollowrat in the brigade of General Maquire. During this battle, the regiment was only engaged in minor actions and suffered no loss. However, Lieutenant-Colonel Baron Baumbach of the regiment distinguished itself when he led several grenadier companies in the combats taking place in the vineyards of the Lobosch Hill.
On March 1 1757, when Colonel Karl Count Engelshausen was appointed commander (Platzkommandant) of Klausenburg, Reinhold Baron Baumbach was promoted to colonel and commander of the regiment. On May 6, the two field battalions of the regiment took part in the Battle of Prague where they were deployed in Baron Breysach's Brigade, in the second line of the right wing of infantry under Count Königsegg. In this battle, the regiment lost a total of 144 men and 67 men became prisoners of war. All officers of the two grenadier companies were wounded. After the battle, the regiment retreated to Benschau (present-day Benešov/CZ). By then, it counted two battalions and one grenadier company, for a total of 35 officers and 1,267 men. On June 18, these two battalions took part in the Battle of Kolin where they were deployed on the left of the fist line in Angern’s Brigade. However, they were lightly engaged and lost only 3 men. In July, the two grenadier coys of the regiment were allocated to the converged grenadier battalion of 12 coys led by Major Normann. On July 14, these grenadiers stormed one of the city gates of Gabel (present-day Jablonné v Podještědí/CZ). In October and November, 241 men of the regiment under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Bruckentheis were converged with 642 men of Waldeck Infantry were converged in an ad hoc battalion. Meanwhile another such unit of 240 men was formed with men from Wallis Infantry and Kheul Infantry. These units took part in the siege and capture of Schweidnitz but were not involved in any big action. After the surrender of the Fortress of Schweidnitz, Lieutenant-Colonel Bruckentheis at the head of 140 men formed part of the garrison of the fortress. On November 22, the two field battalions of the regiment took part in the Battle of Breslau where they were deployed in Count Mayern's Brigade, on the extreme left wing of infantry under Count Puebla. In this battle, the regiment lost 5 officers and 48 men killed; 10 officers and 351 men wounded; and 32 men missing. The grenadiers lost all of their officers. On December 5 at the Battle of Leuthen, the two field battalions of the regiment were deployed in Wied's Brigade in the second line of the infantry left wing under Colloredo. In this battle, the regiment lost Lieutenant Lodron and 51 men killed; 2 officers and 117 men wounded; and 3 officers and 109 men missing or captured. In total, the regiment lost ¼ of its strength. It took up its winter-quarters around Kulm (present-day Chlum/CZ).
At the beginning of 1758, the regiment, counting only one field battalion of 946 fusiliers and 99 grenadiers, was posted at Starkenbach (present-day Jilemnice/CZ). When FM Daun concentrated his army near Skalitz (present-day Skalice/CZ), the regiment counted 36 officers and 1,128 men. By August 2, the regiment served in the second line of the main Austrian army under the command of Daun near Jarmeritz (present-day Jaroměřice nad Rokytnou). Daun was following up the Prussian army retiring through Bohemia after the failure of the invasion of Moravia. On October 10, the two field battalions of the regiment took part in the Battle of Hochkirch where they were deployed with Jung-Wolfenbüttel Infantry in the second line of the left column of Daun's main army, under FML Forgách, in Los Rios' Brigade, directly south of Hochkirch. In this battle, the regiment lost 2 grenadier officers and 18 men killed; and 2 officers and 126 men wounded. At the end of November, the army marched to Bohemia and the regiment (still part of FML Count Arberg's Corps) was used in Major-General Wolffenberg's Brigade to guard the border.
In January 1759, FML Arberg left Bohemia at the head of the present regiment, Hildburghausen Infantry, Botta Infantry and Thürheim Infantry and marched for Thuringia where he effected a junction with the Reichsarmee. By March, FML Arberg's Corps was posted in Schmalkalden. At the end of May, this corps separated from the Reichsarmee and marched under the command of G.d.C. Count Hadik to join Daun's main army in Bohemia. At the end of June, Hadik sent the present regiment along with Hildburghausen Infantry and Bretlach Cuirassiers led by Major-General Plunquet to the Erzgebirge Hills to stop an incursion of Prince Henri into Bohemia. Later on, this detachment rejoined the main army. On August 11, the main army arrived at Görlitz. By mid-August, during the Austro-Imperial campaign in Saxony, the regiment was – as part of Hadik's auxiliary corps – attached to Zweibrücken's Army. On September 21, the regiment took part in the Combat of Korbitz where it lost there 5 men killed; and 1 officer and 18 men wounded. The regiment (then counting 1,004 men) formed part of the garrison of Dresden.
On February 11 1760, Colonel Baron Baumbach was promoted to major-general and Paul Anton Count Serimann was transferred from Tillier Infantry and promoted to colonel and commander of the regiment. In early June, the 2 field battalions of the regiment (now counting 1,362 men) were attached to Daun's Grand Army in FML Guasco's Division. This army had taken position near Dresden in Saxony. On September 17, the two field battalions were present at the Combat of Hochgiersdorf as part of Daun's Main Army. On November 3, these two field battalions took part in the Battle of Torgau where they were deployed in the second line of the infantry centre in Brinken's Brigade. Colonel Count Serimann distinguished himself during the attacks on the Siptitz Hills, his regiment captured 4 Prussian flags and lost two officers and 99 men killed; 10 officers, 31 grenadiers and 102 fusiliers wounded; and 5 officers, 20 grenadiers and 84 fusiliers taken prisoners. The winter-quarters of the regiment were around Plauen in Saxony. In July, the garrison battalion had been transferred from Vienna to Olmütz (present-day Olomouc/CZ).
In May 1761, the regiment was attached to the 16,000 men strong corps under the command of GdC O´Donell and FZM Sincère posted in Upper Lusatia. On 13 May, it arrived at Zittau and, shortly afterwards, effected a junction with Loudon's Corps in Silesia. On October 1, one battalion of the regiment took part in the storming of Schweidnitz where it was attached to the second column. After the surrender of Schweidnitz, one battalion and one grenadier coy of the regiment (for a total of 610 men) formed part of the garrison of the fortress.
On May 12 1762, Daun took command of the Army in Silesia and concentrated it near Schweidnitz. The two field battalions and the grenadiers of the regiment were part of this army. On June 9, Daun sent some troops to reinforce the garrison of Schweidnitz. Lieutenant-Colonel Count Breda with two companies of the regiment (226 men) formed part of these reinforcements. The other part of the regiment remained with FML Brentano's Corps. On June 6, Brentano's Corps was attacked by the Prussians and, in the Combat of Adelsbach managed to drive them back. On August 16, the regiment took part in the Battle of Reichenbach where it suffered from the fire of the Prussian artillery, losing 4 men killed and 2 officers and 11 men wounded. After the surrender of Schweidnitz to the Prussians, on October 9, Lieutenant-Colonel Count Breda and his detachment became prisoners of war. Brentano's Corps went to Saxony where it was allocated to Hadik's Corps. It took up its winter quarters near Dölnitz.
In 1763, the regiment remained in Saxony until March and then marched to Bohemia and, in June to Styria in Austria.
For the moment we have very few information on the uniform in 1756, at the outbreak of the war. Most of our references describe the uniform in 1762. However, Muhsfeldt, Wrede and Schirmer mention that, in 1756-57, the coat was white lined blue (therefore blue turnbacks), the distinctive colour was blue and the waistcoat and breeches were blue. Therefore, the uniform at the beginning of the war seems to have been quite different from the uniform of 1762.
|Neckstock||one red and one black (for parades the regimental commanders agreed before on the colour of the neckstocks)|
|Coat||white lined white with 3 yellow buttons under the right lapel and 1 yellow button in the small of the back on each side
|Waistcoat||white with 2 rows of small yellow buttons (3-3-3) and with horizontal pockets, each with 3 yellow buttons|
|Gaiters||one pair of black (for winter) and one pair of white gaiters (for summer and parade)|
Troopers were armed with a musket (Model 1745 for fusiliers, Model 1754 for grenadiers). Grenadiers carried a sabre while fusiliers carried only a bayonet.
The Bautzener Handschrift illustrates a totally different uniform with red distinctives.
Donath illustrates the following differences:
- black tricorne laced white; white strap with a yellow button; no pompom; a white within blue tassel in each lateral corne
- light blue instead of deep blue distinctive
Knötel illustrates the following differences:
- a white within blue tassel in each lateral corne of the tricorne
- light blue instead of deep blue distinctive
no information available yet
The officers wore the same uniform as the privates with the following exceptions:
- tricorne lined gold and bordered with white plumes with a white and green cockade
- black neckstock
- pockets edged gold
- no turnbacks
- no shoulder strap
- yellow and black silk sash
Senior officers carried sticks identifying their rank:
- lieutenant: bamboo stick without knob
- captain: long rush stick with a bone knob
- major: long rush stick with a silver knob and a small silver chain
- lieutenant-colonel: long rush stick with a larger silver knob without chain
- colonel: long rush stick with a golden knob
As per a regulation of 1755, musicians were now distinguished from troopers only by deep blue swallow nests on the shoulders. The swallow nests and cuffs were edged yellow.
The drum had a brass barrel decorated with black flames at the bottom and with a black double headed Eagle on a yellow field. Rims were decorated with red and white diagonal stripes. The bandolier was white.
All German infantry regiments carried identical colours: a white Leibfahne (colonel) and yellow Regimentsfahne. The hand painted colours were made of silk and, according to some sources, measured 178 cm x 127 cm. However, a flag kept at the Heeresgeschichtliches Museum in Vienna shows different proportions (unfortunately we do not know the exact measurements) which we have used for our illustrations. The 260 cm long flagpoles had golden finial and were decorated with black and yellow spirals of cloth.
The colonel colour was carried by the first battalion.
Colonel flag (Leibfahne):
- field: white
- border: alternating white and yellow outer waved triangles pointing inwards, red and black inner waved triangles pointing outwards
- obverse (right): the Immaculate Mother of God (which had been declared the patroness of the army by kaiser Ferdinand III) on a cloud, crushing a snake under her foot and surrounded by rays
- reverse (left): crowned and armed Imperial double-eagle with the "Lothringen-Toscanian" arms on a shield and the initials of the Emperor CF (Corregens Franciscus) on the left wing and IM (Imperator Magnus) on the right
The so-called "armed" Imperial double-eagle on the reverse of the Leibfahne seems to have been represented in two different variants:
- with a sword in its right claw and the sceptre in its left (no Imperial Apple with this design)
- with a sceptre and sword in its right claw and the Imperial Apple in its left.
The first variant seems to have been more common.
Regimental flags (Regimentsfahne):
- field: yellow
- border: alternating white and yellow outer waved triangles pointing inwards, red and black inner waved triangles pointing outwards
- obverse (right): crowned and armed Imperial double-eagle with the "Lothringen-Toscanian" arms on a shield and the initials of the Emperor CF (Corregens Franciscus) on the left wing and IM (Imperator Magnus) on the right
- reverse (left): unarmed and crowned Imperial double-eagle with the arms of Hungaria and Bohemia on a shield and the initials M on the left wing and T on the right
Some publications represent an "armed" Imperial double-eagle on the reverse of the Regimentsfahne but we followed Hausmann's paper of 1967 which also matches with the insignia seen on Austrian artillery barrels of the period.
In fact, the situation on the field was slightly more complex than this, since colours were usually replaced only when worn out. By 1756, only a few regiments had actually purchased sets of flags of the 1745 pattern; so many regiments, who had been issued colours of the 1743 pattern, were still carrying them at the beginning of the Seven Years' War. For more details, see Austrian Line Infantry Colours.
This article contains texts from the following sources, which are now in the public domain:
- Treuenfest, A. von: Geschichte des k. k. Infanterie-Regimentes Nr. 47, Vienna 1882
- Gräffer, August: Geschichte der kaiserl. Königl. Regimenter, Corps, Bataillons und anderer Militär-Branchen seit ihrer Errichtung biz zu Ende des Feldzuges 1799, Vol. 1, Vienna, 1804, pp. 204-207
- Seyfart, Kurzgefaßte Geschichte aller kaiserlich-königlichen Regimenter zu Pferde und zu Fuß, Frankfurth and Leipzig, 1762, pp. 9-10
Dihm, Dr. Hermann; Oesterreichische Standarten und Fahnen zur Zeit des 7 jährigen Krieges, Die Zinnfigur, Klio
Donath, Rudolf; Die Kaiserliche und Kaiserlich-Königliche Österreichische Armee 1618-1918, 2. Aufl., Simbach/Inn 1979
Etat nouveau des Troupes de sa Majesté Impériale Royale comme elles se trouvent effectivement l'an 1759
Etat général des Troupes qui servent sa Majesté Impériale et Royale Apostolique sur pié en 1760
Funcken, Liliane and Fred, Les uniformes de la guerre en dentelle
Hausmann, Friedrich, Die Feldzeichen der Truppen Maria Theresias, Schriften des Heeresgeschichtlichen Museums, vol. 3, Vienna: 1967
Knötel, Herbert d. J.; Brauer, Hans M.: Heer und Tradition / Heeres-Uniformbogen (so-called “Brauer-Bogen”), Berlin 1926-1962, Österreich-Ungarn – 1756-63
Muhsfeldt, Th.; Abzeichenfarben der K. und K. Regimenter zu Fuss im Jahre 1757 und früher, in Mitteilungen zur Geschichte des militärischen Tracht, No. 12, 1904
Pengel, R. D. and G.R. Hurt; Austro-Hungarian Infantry 1740-1762; On Military Matters; Birmingham, 1982
Schirmer, Friedrich, Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756-1763, hrsg. von der KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg, überarb. u. aktual. Neuauflage 1989
Seidel, Paul; Nochmals österreichische Standarten und Fahnen zur Zeit des 7 jährigen Krieges, Die Zinnfigur, Clio
Thümmler, L.-H., Die Österreichiches Armee im Siebenjährigen Krieg: Die Bautzener Bilderhandschrift aus dem Jahre 1762, Berlin 1993
N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.
User:Zahn for gathering most of the initial information about this regiment
Harald Skala for integrating Treuenfest's work to the article