Origin and History
This Grenzinfanterieregiment (Frontier Infantry Regiment) was raised in February 1746 by Joseph Philipp Count von Guicciardi as the “Liccaner Grenz-Infanterie-Regiment” 1 in the Generalate of Karlstädter. The regiment was then known as the “Joseph Philipp Graf von Guicciardi Liccaner Grenz-Infanterie-Regiment” and consisted of six battalions totalling 9,000 men.3
In 1751, the regiment was reorganised and then consisted of two companies of grenadiers and four battalions, each counting five companies of fusiliers of 200 men.4
In 1753, Leopold Eugenius Baron von Scherzer became Chef of the regiment.2
As per the Etat nouveau des Troupes de sa Majesté Impériale Royale comme elles se trouvent effectivement l'an 1759 and Etat général des Troupes qui servent sa Majesté Impériale et Royale Apostolique sur pié en 1760, the regiment counted 4 battalions (2 grenadier coys and 20 fusilier coys) for a total of 3,000 men. This was the administrative organisation of the regiment. However, the tactical organisation differed: 2 field fusilier battalions, each of 6 companies; 2 grenadier companies (usually converged with grenadiers from other battalions into an ad hoc unit); and 1 depot battalion of 4 companies (see Austrian Line Infantry Organisation for more details).
Accordingly, by 1756, the regiment really consisted of two companies of grenadiers, twelve companies of fusiliers and four Landesdefensions (depot) companies. In addition, there were two companies of sharpshooters and two artillery companies. A company counted about 100 men.5
In wartime, the companies of grenadiers were detached from the regiment and converged into a Grenadier Corps (ad hoc battalions). However, these converged battalions seem to have been employed mostly as elite light troops. Only in some extreme cases would they fight among the elite line infantry battalions.
At the outbreak of the Seven Years War, the regiment was organised as follows:
- Regimental Staff
- I. Battalion
- Battalion Staff
- 1. Grenadier Company
- 1. Fusilier Company
- 2. Fusilier Company
- 3. Fusilier Company
- 4. Fusilier Company
- 5. Fusilier Company
- 6. Fusilier Company
- 1. Sharpshooter Company
- II. Battalion
- Battalion Staff
- 2. Grenadier Company
- 7. Fusilier Company
- 8. Fusilier Company
- 9. Fusilier Company
- 10. Fusilier Company
- 11. Fusilier Company
- 12. Fusilier Company
- 2. Sharpshooter Company
- III. Battalion (Depot)
- Battalion Staff
- 13. Fusilier Company
- 14. Fusilier Company
- 15. Fusilier Company
- 16. Fusilier Company
Tactically a Grenz-Husar squadron was assigned to a foot battalion of the same Generalate.6
The regiment recruited in the regions of Lika and Korbavija in the south-eastern part of the Generalate of Karlstadt (in present-day Croatia).7 Its regimental staff was located in Gospic, its garrison place.8
During the Seven Years' War, the Chefs of the regiment were:
- since June 1754: Sigmund Benevenuto Count von Petazzi
- from 1763: vacant
During the Seven Years' War, its commanders were:
- since 1756: Franz von Vela
- from 1758: Max Pelican
Regimental numbers were introduced only in 1769 when this regiment was designated as "I.R. 60".
Service during the War9
In 1756, one battalion of the regiment joined the Austrian Reserve Corps led by Count Draskovic in Bohemia. Later during the same year, a second battalion was sent to join the Austrian Field Army operating in Bohemia. By the end of September, the first battalion had joined Field-marshal Browne's Army at Budin (present-day Budyně nad Ohří). On October 1, two battalions of the regiment took part in the Battle of Lobositz, one of them, along with a battalion of Karlstädter-Oguliner Grenzer, stubbornly defended the Lobosch Hill till they were forced to abandon their positions by vastly superior Prussian forces. Meanwhile the other battalion was attached to Draskovic's Reserve. In the night of October 17 to 18, a detachment of 500 men, under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Gideon Ernst Baron von Loudon attacked the town of Tetschen defended by two hussars squadrons under Lieutenant-Colonel Strozzi. Loudon captured 100 horses with their saddlery but the Prussian hussars managed to take refuge into the castle. Loudon then retired towards Kamnitz.
On January 1 1757, Lacy, who was posted in the region of Reichenberg (present-day Liberec), detached six combined coys of Karlstädter-Szluiner Grenzer and Karlstädter-Lykaner Grenzer under the command of Colonel Kleefeld seconded by Lieutenant-colonel Herberstein and Lieutenant-Colonel Loudon along with 200 Karlstädter Grenz-Hussars under Colonel Count Mitrovsky and Lieutenant-Colonel Knezevic to attack a Prussian outpost in Ortric, defended by 400 men. In the ensuing combat, Major Blumenthal, commanding the Prussian detachment was killed, and most of his detachment wounded or taken prisoners. In the night of February 19 to 20, a large detachment of the regiment took part in the attack of the Prussian positions on the left bank of the Neisse (present-day Noteć River). Loudon crossed the frozen Neisse River at the head of the grenadier company of the regiment, 400 commandeered men from various regiments and 200 Splényi Hussars. He then stormed a redoubt defended by 2 guns and 70 men and entered into the town of Hirschfelde. However, the frontal attack conducted simultaneously was driven back and Loudon was forced to abandon the town. On May 6, during the Prussian invasion of Bohemia, 2 battalions and 1 grenadier company of the regiment fought in the Battle of Prague where they were deployed in the Reserve in Count Petazzi's Brigade. During the battle, they were sent to occupy the Heights of Hloupetin which were attacked by a large Prussian force. After the battle, they took refuge in Prague. On Friday June 24, Loudon at the head of a battalion of the regiment attacked a Prussian convoy near Welmina (probably present-day Velemín). The wagons of the convoy were quickly formed in a wagenburg. A wagon transported General Manstein who had been wounded at Kolin. Manstein bravely defended himself, refusing to surrender, but was cut down. The rest of the defenders finally surrendered as prisoners of war (Colonel Kleist, Marquise de Varenne, Major Putkammer and Winterfeldt, along with 6 other officers and 146 privates). On July 3, part of the regiment took part in another engagement at Welmina. On July 28, a detachment under Loudon took part in an attack on the baggage of Keith's Corps which was on its way from Linai to Nollendorf. In this engagement, the Austrians captured 1 gun, 6 ammunition carts and 40 baggage wagons. At the beginning of August, a detachment of the regiment formed part of Loudon's Corps operating in Southern Saxony. On August 8, it took part in the storming of a redoubt near Gottleuba. On September 7, when General Nádasdy attacked Winterfeldt's isolated corps in the Combat of Moys, a detachment of the regiment was with the vanguard in front of the right wing under the command of Lieutenant-General Petazzi. In October and November, detachments were at the Siege of Schweidnitz, serving as garrison after the capture of the fortress. On November 22, part of the regiment might have taken part in the Battle of Breslau where it would have been attached to Nádasdy's Corps. On December 5, two battalions of the regiment took part in the Battle of Leuthen where they were attached to the vanguard of the right wing. For his conduct during this campaign, Colonel Gideon Ernst Baron von Loudon received the Maria-Theresien Order along with Field Marshal Daun.
On April 20 1758, part of the regiment was among the light troops detached by General Buccow, under the command of Colonel Brentano, to attack Frei-Infanterie de Angelelli at Liebau (present-day Lubawka) where Major Lezzeny distinguished himself. The expedition succeeded and the Austrians captured 4 officers, 47 men and 5 guns. On May 6, Captain Ziska of the regiment captured 100 horses near the Prussian camp of Celakovic. On June 17, during the Prussian invasion of Moravia and the Siege of Olmütz, 1,000 men of the regiment formed part of the corps under the command of General Saint-Ignon who launched a surprise attack on Wisternitz inflicting heavy losses to Bayreuth Dragoons. On July 26 or 27, the regiment under Colonel Vela engaged Pannewitz Infantry near Königgrätz, capturing 28 prisoners and 2 guns. On July 31, a battalion of the regiment under Major Vorberg took part in an engagement at Sebastianberg. By October, 1,812 men of the regiment were attached to Major-general Vela's Corps encamped on the Stromberg. On October 14, during the Battle of Hochkirch, these men formed part of the Reserve under the command of the Prince of Baden-Durlach.
At the beginning of the campaign of 1759, part of the regiment was attached to de Ville's Corps who was protecting Moravia. On May 1, this detachment was attacked and partly captured at Arnoldsdorf (present-day Gmina Głuchołazy). On May 6, part of the regiment successfully repulsed a Prussian force who had attacked Graf Renard Uhlanen at Hennersdorf (probably Dolní Branná). In August, during the Russian campaign in Brandenburg, a detachment of the regiment formed part of Loudon's Corps who reinforced the Russian and fought alongside with it in the bloody Battle of Kunersdorf where it was deployed in the first line of the right wing. At the beginning of November, this detachment followed Loudon who retired to the camp of Neutitschein. On November 20, a detachment of the regiment took part in the Battle of Maxen. In December, the battalion encamped at Neutitschein was attached to Draskowitz's Corps.
In 1760, as part of Loudon's Corps, a battalion of the regiment took part in the campaign of Silesia. On March 15, after the end of the armistice which had been signed for the winter, this battalion took part in an unsuccessful raid against the positions of Generals Goltz and Le Grand in Silesia. It also took part in a raid on Ratibor. On June 23, this battalion fought in the Battle of Landeshut. In the second half of July, part of the regiment took part in the siege and capture of Glatz (present-day Kłodzko) where, led by Lieutenant-Colonel Warsberg, it distinguished itself on July 26 during the storming of the place. On August 15, it was at the Battle of Liegnitz. The same year, another battalion was attached to Lacy's Corps operating in Saxony.
On October 1 1761, part of the regiment took part in the storming of Schweidnitz where it attacked the Wasserfort.
On May 21 1762, during the campaign of Saxony, detachments of the regiment took part in the Combat of Chemnitz. On September 27 they were at the attack on Pretzschendorf. Other detachments served in the campaign of Silesia and are mentioned among the forces who took part in the defence of Schweidnitz and became prisoners of war when the place surrendered.
- born on February 2 1717 in Tootzen in Livonia13
- in 1741 became captain in Trenck Pandurs14
- in 1746 appointed captain in the Karlstädter Grenz Infantry Regiment
- in 1753 promoted lieutenant-colonel15
- on March 17 1757 promoted colonel16
- in ???? promoted from the rank of colonel17
- on August 25 1757 promoted Generalfeldwachtmeister18
- on March 7 1758 received the Small Cross of the Maria-Theresien Order for his disinguished service19
- on July 2 1758 promoted Feldmarchallleutnant20
- on December 4 1758 received the Great Cross of the Maria-Theresien Order21
- on November 20 1759 promoted Feldzeugmeister22
Pelican, Max23 Colonel24
Petazzi, Sigmund Benevenuto Count von25 Generalfeldwachtmeister26
Vela, Franz von27 Colonel28
Until recently we had no information on the uniform worn by this unit at the outbreak of the Seven Years' War. Thanks to the kind authorisation of the Heeresgeschichtliches Museum in Vienna, Vladimir Brnardić, a member of our group, has had access to the Delacre Bilderhandschrift, a rare contemporaneous manuscript depicting the uniforms of the entire K. K. Army around 1756-57. For this reason, we can now present the uniforms of troopers circa 1752 and in 1762.
Privates in 1752
|Coat||Hungarian short, red coat lined red with no visible buttons or frogging around buttonholes
|Dolman||green edged yellow with 3 rows of small pewter buttons and yellow braids; Polish cuffs|
|Trousers||red Hungarian trousers with traditional decoration (Schoitasch) in yellow thread|
Privates often wore a moustache.
Privates were armed with a slightly curved sabre, a musket and a bayonet.
Privates in 1762
|Coat||red edged yellow with 3 rows of small brass buttons and 17 yellow braids
|Dolman||sea green edged yellow with 3 rows of small brass buttons and yellow braids|
|Trousers||red Hungarian trousers decorated with an intricate yellow lace|
Privates often wore a mustache.
Privates were armed with a slightly curved 58 cm long brass hilted sabre31 with a white knot and a cord of a different colour for each company; a Model 1754 musket (151 cm long, 112 cm long barrel, 18,3 mm calibre, 4,9 kg); and a bayonet ???. Each soldier carried 36 musket balls and 6 shrapnel bullets.32 Privates also carried a haversack and a canteen. Additional ammunition and kettles were transported in the wagons of each company.
Raspe illustrates the following differences:
- yellow cockade on the shako
- a green barrel sash with 2 rows of oval-shaped red barrels
Finally, the Bautzener Bilderhandschrift of 1762 illustrates a very different uniform, the differences were:
- black felt shako without cockade
- white coat edged sea green with a sea green collar, sea green turnbacks, sea green buttonholes lace with sea green tassels, sea green square cuffs and brass buttons
- sea green dolman with white edging and braids and brass buttons
- white Hungarian trousers decorated without any decorative lace
- white barrel-sash
It is possible that the old red and green uniform and the new white uniform were both simultaneously in use in the regiment towards 1762.
no information available
Officers wore uniforms of the same colour as those of the privates but were distinguished by a black tricorne laced gold; a Western style coat with vertical pockets, square cuffs; and yellow Hungarian boots.
Officers wore a black and gold sash or a gold sash with tassels at the waist, over the dolman and under the coat. The black and gold sash could be made of strictly separated layers and then intertwined in knots or in a kind of knitwear; while the entirely gold sash was made of heavy knit of fine shiny silk.33
no information available
Becher illustrates a pope (chaplain) dressed as follows: 34
- black kepi (a black tricorne under his arm)
- black neck stock (or collar)
- black coat edged blue with white braids and blue cuffs
- blue trousers
- black gloves decorated in white
- brown staff
- green cross edged gold worn around the neck on a black ribbon
When the Grenzer Regiments where formed they adopted the yellow 1745 pattern flag, with the black Doppeladler carrying the Imperial shield and edged in black/red/yellow/white flames, which measured 1.8m x 1.4m. The senior company carried a white Leibfahne displaying the Madonna and Christ on the obverse.
From 1756 each battalion carried two yellow Ordinarfahnen, except the first battalion which carried a white Leibfahne and one Ordinarfahne.
However, it seems unlikely that any were carried in the field
1. Ref. Tessin, Georg: Die Regimenter der europäischen Staaten im Ancién Regime des XVI. bis XVIII. Jahrhunderts. Part 1. Die Stammlisten, Osnabrück 1986, p. 53, Tessin, Georg: Die Regimenter der europäischen Staaten im Ancién Regime des XVI. bis XVIII. Jahrhunderts. Part 2. Namen und Inhaber der Regimenter aller europäischen Staaten im Ancién Regime. Eine Materialsammlung zu den einzelnen Regimentern in alphabetischer Folge, untergliedert nach Territorien, Osnabrück 1993, Kaiser und Reich Nr. 9, Tessin, Georg: Die Regimenter der europäischen Staaten im Ancién Regime des XVI. bis XVIII. Jahrhunderts. Part 3. Namensregister der deutschen Regimentsinhaber und Namensregister der Regimenter mit Orts- und Ländernamen aus ganz Europa, Osnabrück 1995, p. 116, Wrede, Alphons Freiherr von: Geschichte der k.u.k. Wehrmacht, Wien 1898-1905, Vol. V, pp. 257
2. Ref. Tessin, Part 1, p. 53, Tessin, Part 2, Kaiser und Reich Nr. 22, Tessin, Part 3, p. 302 and Wrede, Vol. V, p. 257
3. Ref. Tessin, Part 1, p. 53, Tessin, Part 2, Kaiser und Reich Nr. 9, Tessin, Part 3, p. 116, Wrede, Vol. V, pp. 215, 257 and Kornauth, Friedrich: Das Heer Maria Theresias. Faksimile-Ausgabe der Albertina-Handschrift „Dessins des Uniformes des Troupes I. I. et R. R. de l´année 1762“, Wien 1973, p. 96
4. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V, p. 214
5. Ref. Kornauth, p. 92
6. Ref. Kornauth, p. 92
7. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V, pp. 215, 257 and Kornauth, p. 96
8. Ref. Kornauth, p. 96
9. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V, p. 258 and Kornauth, p. 96
10. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V, p. 258
11. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V, p. 258
12. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V., p. 258, Kornauth, p. 96 and Kunisch, Johannes: Theodor Schieder zum 75. Geburtstag. Feldmarschall Loudon oder das Soldatenglück, in: Historische Zeitschrift, Jahrgang 1983, pp. 49-72, 52, 54, 55, 56
13. Ref. Kunisch, p. 52
14. Ref. Kunisch, p. 54
15. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V, p. 258
16. Ref. Kunisch, p. 55
17. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V, p. 258 and Kornauth, p. 96
18. Ref. Kunisch, p. 55
19. Ref. Kunisch, p. 56
20. Ref. Kunisch, p. 55
21. Ref. Kunisch, p. 56
22. Ref. Kunisch, p. 55
23. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V, p. 258 and Kornauth, p. 96
24. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V, p. 258 and Kornauth, p. 96
25. Ref. Tessin, Part 2, Kaiser und Reich Nr.18, Tessin, Part 3, p. 246 and Wrede, Vol. V, p. 257
26. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V, p. 257
27. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V, p. 258 and Kornauth, p. 96
28. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V, p. 258 and Kornauth, p. 96
29. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V, p. 258
30. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V, p. 258
31. Ref. Kornauth, p. 26
32. Ref. Kornauth, p. 25f
33. Ref. Koch, Arwed Ulrich: Der modische Wandel der Uniform im 18. Jahrhundert. Reich und Württemberg. (Offiziersportraits 1730 bis 1790) (Part II.), in: Zeitschrift für Heereskunde, LI. Jahrgang 1987, pp. 66-72, 69
34. Ref. Graewe, Richard: Die Feldprediger der Armeen im 17., 18. und 19. Jahrhundert (Schluß), in: Zeitschrift für Heereskunde, XXXV. Jahrgang 1971, pp. 34-37, 35
Etat nouveau des Troupes de sa Majesté Impériale Royale comme elles se trouvent effectivement l'an 1759
Etat général des Troupes qui servent sa Majesté Impériale et Royale Apostolique sur pié en 1760
Graewe, Richard: Die Feldprediger der Armeen im 17., 18. und 19. Jahrhundert (Schluß), in: Zeitschrift für Heereskunde, XXXV. Jahrgang 1971, pp. 34-37.
Koch, Arwed Ulrich: Der modische Wandel der Uniform im 18. Jahrhundert. Reich und Württemberg. (Offiziersportraits 1730 bis 1790) (Part II), in: Zeitschrift für Heereskunde, LI. 1987, pp. 66-72.
Kornauth, Friedrich: Das Heer Maria Theresias. Faksimile-Ausgabe der Albertina-Handschrift „Dessins des Uniformes des Troupes I. I. et R. R. de l´année 1762“, Wien 1973.
Kunisch, Johannes: Theodor Schieder zum 75. Geburtstag. Feldmarschall Loudon oder das Soldatenglück, in: Historische Zeitschrift, Jahrgang 1983, pp.49-72.
Seyfart: Kurzgefaßte Geschichte aller kaiserlich-königlichen Regimenter zu Pferde und zu Fuß, Frankfurth and Leipzig, 1762, p. 70
Tessin, Georg: Die Regimenter der europäischen Staaten im Ancién Regime des XVI. bis XVIII. Jahrhunderts. Part 1 Die Stammlisten, Osnabrück 1986.
Tessin, Georg: Die Regimenter der europäischen Staaten im Ancién Regime des XVI. bis XVIII. Jahrhunderts. Part 2 Namen und Inhaber der Regimenter aller europäischen Staaten im Ancién Regime. Eine Materialsammlung zu den einzelnen Regimentern in alphabetischer Folge, untergliedert nach Territorien, Osnabrück 1993.
Tessin, Georg: Die Regimenter der europäischen Staaten im Ancién Regime des XVI. bis XVIII. Jahrhunderts. Part 3 Namensregister der deutschen Regimentsinhaber und Namensregister der Regimenter mit Orts- und Ländernamen aus ganz Europa, Osnabrück 1995.
Thümmler, Lars-Holger: Die Österreichische Armee im Siebenjährigen Krieg. Die Bautzener Bilderhandschrift aus dem Jahre 1762, Berlin 1993.
Vanicek, Fr.: Specialgeschichte der Militärgrenze aus Originalquellen und Quellenwerken geschöpft, Vol. II, Vienna: Kaiserlich-Königlichen Hof- und Staatsdruckerei, 1875, pp. 402-488.
Wrede, Alphons Freiherr von: Geschichte der k.u.k. Wehrmacht, Wien 1898-1905.
N.B.: the section Service during the War is partly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.
Mathias Kussmann for the initial version of this article