Origin and History
The Bavarian District supplied a regiment to the Reichsarmee during the Seven Years' War. This regiment book strength consisted of 2 battalions, including 1 grenadier company and 2 battalion guns (painted red from 1760) for an initial total of 1,170 men. There were contingents from the Bishopric of Salzburg, from Regensburg and Passau.
On February 14 1757, an assembly at Mühldorf established the theoretical contribution of each principality as presented in the following table.
|Archdiocese of Salzburg||780 men||2,330 florins|
|Bishopric of Passau||100 men||300 florins|
|Provost of Berchtesgaden||40 men||120 florins|
|St. Emmeran Abbey||18 men||54 florins|
|Provost of Kaisheim||216 men||648 florins|
|Niedermünster Abbey||8 men||24 florins|
|Obermünster Abbey||8 men||24 florins|
|Sub-total||1,170 men||3,510 florins|
|Duchy of Pfalzneuburg
including Heydeck and Ehrenfels
|304 1/2 men||913 1/2 florins|
|Duchy of Pfalzsulzbach||43 1/2 men||130 1/2 florins|
|Lobkowitz for his County of Sternstein||40 men||120 florins|
|County of Ortenburg||6 men||18 florins|
|Imperial City of Regensburg||120 men||360 florins|
|Sub-total||514 men||1,542 florins|
|Grand Total||1,684 men||5,052 florins|
During the Seven Years' War the regiment (1,468 men). We have two accounts of the organisation of this regiment and they do not entirely correspond.
Here is a first breakdown (established by the Bavarian District Council) totalling 1,468 men:
- 1 colonel, provided by the Archbishopric of Salzburg
- 1 lieutenant-colonel, provided by the Electorate of Palatinate as owner of Pfalz-Neuburg and Pfalz-Sulzbach
- 1 major, provided by the secular territory of the Bishopric of Passau
- rest of the staff provided by the Archbishopric of Salzburg
- 2 x 4-pdr guns provided by the Archbishopric of Salzburg
- 2 x 4-pdr guns provided by the Electorate of Palatinate as owner of Pfalz-Neuburg and Pfalz-Sulzbach
- 5 coys (1st to 5th) of 164 men each, including 780 men from the Archbishopric of Salzburg and 40 men from the Provost of Berchtesgaden
- 2 coys (6th and 7th) of 174 men each, including 348 men from the Electorate of Palatinate as owner of Pfalz-Neuburg and Pfalz-Sulzbach
- 1 coy (8th) of 174 men contributed by the secular territory of the Bishopric of Passau (100 men), by the County of Sternstein (40 men (*)), by the Imperial Abbey of St. Emmeran (18 men), by the Imperial Abbey of Niedermünster (8 men) and by the Imperial Abbey of Oberermünster (8 men)
- 1 coy (9th) of 126 men contributed by the Imperial City of Regensburg (120 men) and the County of Ortenburg (6 men)
(*) Prince Lobkowitz did not initially contributed troops for his County of Sternstein, pretending that his domains belonged to the Kingdom of Bohemia. The Bavarian District sent a company of the Bavarian Preysing Infantry to the County of Sternstein with instructions to bring back recruits.
...and a second one (from Steiner-Welz's book listed in our reference section):
- 1st coy (grenadiers) contributed by the Archbishopric of Salzburg under the direct command of Colonel Count von Orbea
- 2nd coy contributed by the Electorate of Palatinate as owner of Pfalz-Neuburg and Pfalz-Sulzbach under direct command of Lieutenant-Colonel Baron von Jacquemin or Baron von Leoprechting
- Captain L. Schell
- Lieutenant J. Schmidt
- Lieutenant J. Mann
- Lieutenant von Puck
- 3rd coy contributed by the Bishopric of Passau under the direct command of Major Baron Hennebrieth von Henneberg
- 4th coy contributed by the Archbishopric of Salzburg under the command of Captain Johann Ritter
- 5th coy contributed by the Archbishopric of Salzburg under Captain Johann Nepomuck Count von Wicka
- 6th coy contributed by the Archbishopric of Salzburg and the Provost of Berchtesgaden under Captain Count von Paradieß
- 7th coy contributed by the Electorate of Palatinate as owner of Pfalz-Neuburg and Pfalz-Sulzbach under Captain Kleefuß
- Lieutenant L. Breitkopf
- Lieutenant F. von Stadlerhausen
- Ensign F. Count von Effern
- 8th coy contributed by the Imperial City of Regensburg and the County of Ortenburg under Captain Domeyer (Domeier) and Lieutenant Johann Wilhelm Boesner (Bösner)
- 2 x 3-pdr guns provided by the Archbishopric of Salzburg (painted red)
During the Seven Years' War the Inbaber of regiment was the Archbishop of Salzburg
During the Seven Years' War the regiment was under the effective command of:
- Commander and Colonel
- from 1757: Joseph Longinus Count von Orbea
- from 1759: Count von Prank
- Lieutenant-colonel Baron von Jacquemin or Baron von Leoprechting
- Major Baron Hennebrieth von Henneberg
Service during the War
In 1757, the regiment (by this time only 4 coys) joined the Reichsarmee which was conducting operations in Thuringia and Saxony. By June, it counted 1,170 men and 65 horses. In August, this army combined with a French contingent under the Prince de Soubise to form the Franco-Imperial Army. On November 5, the regiment was posted at Nuremberg and did not take part in the battle of Rossbach. In December, the regiment still counted 1,047 men and 82 horses.
|Late in the autumn of 1757, the Lieutenant-General Prince de Soubise reported in his "Mémoire raisonné sur l'armée de l'empire," that he rated this regiment as good.
Source: Brodrück, Karl: Quellenstücke und Studien über den Feldzug der Reichsarmee von 1757. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte im 18. Jahrhundert, Leipzig: Dyck, 1858
By 1858, the original French "mémoire" could be found in the "Paris War Archice" (Carton 3433, No. 17).
By May 1758, the regiment had been reinforced to a strength of 9 coys (1 grenadier coy, 2 battalion guns and 2 bns each of 4 coys). By August, it counted only 969 men.
From December 1759, the grenadier company and first battalion were stationed at Hof and the second battalion at Lichtenberg and Naila.
In December 1760, the entire regiment assembled at Hof before marching to Münchberg in mid December 15.
On October 29 1762, the regiment took part in the battle of Freiberg.
|Coat||Austrian style white coat with 3 yellow buttons under the right lapel, 3 white buttonlaces under the left lapel, 1 yellow button on each side in the small of the back
|Waistcoat||red with small yellow buttons|
|Gaiters||black fastened with small yellow buttons|
The colour carried by the Leib company of the regiment is not documented. However, we made a reconstruction of it based on a colour dating from 1709. This colour is often illustrated with a light brown field but it might simply have been white and faded to light brown through time. The arms constituting the centre device of this colour have been modified to reflect the arms as they were at the time of the Seven Years' War.
The companies from Salzburg proper probably carried the following colours: white field, centre device consisting of an allegory within a golden frame; 4 red inverted corner wedges; 4 light blue inverted flames (this colour dates from the reign of Sigismund III Christoph von Schrattenbach 1753-1771 who was was Prince-archbishop of Salzburg and, in this position, possibly Chef of the regiment)
The companies from Regensburg probably carried the following colour: field consisting of 5 alternating red and white horizontal bands
- obverse: centre device consisting of a red shield carrying the arms of the City of Regensburg (crossed silver keys) within an elaborate rococo-style golden frame
- reverse: centre device consisting of an Imperial Double-Eagle, armed with an orb (heraldic right) and a sword (heraldic left) carrying an oval shield on its breast with the arms of Regensburg; the double-eagle was surmounted by the Imperial Crown (red-lined imperial crown, with two blue ribbons)
The staff was painted red and had a brass ferrule. The finial was brass or gilt with the crossed keys of Regensburg.
The companies from Passau probably carried the following colour from 1723 to 1761:
- obverse: white field with inner red frame with gold border and gold corner decorations; on top of the frame I.D.D.G.E.P.S.R.I.P.E.C.D.L., on bottom ANNO DNI. MDCCXXIII, each in gold characters; centre device consisting of an unarmed Imperial Eagle with halos, surmounted by a red-lined Imperial Crown with two red ribbons; on the eagle's breast, the coat of arms of Joseph I Dominicus, Count of Lamberg:
- fields one and four: arms of the Lamberg Family (left: two blue bars on silver, right: plain red)
- fields two and three: arms of the Barony of Pottwein (a jumping black dog with a red tongue and a gold collar on a gold field)
- two heart shields:
- left: Prince-bishopric of Passau (a red wolf on silver)
- right: Arms of the della Scala Family (a silver ladder held by two silver dogs on a red field)
- on top of the heart shields: a silver bishop's mitre with gold decorations
- behind the coat of arms: crosier and sword, the whole was surmounted by an elector's hat and a cross.
- reverse: identical
Then, in 1762 and 1763, the companies from Passau probably carried colours carrying the arms of Joseph II Maria, Count of Thun and Hohenstein, who was prince-bishop of Passau from 1761-1763. The staff was painted white and had a brass ferrule; the finial was brass or gilt with the engraved arms of Passau:
- obverse: horizontally striped red-white-red-white-red field
- top red stripe carrying the letters I.M.D.G.E.P.S.R.I.P.E.C.D.T. in gold
- centre device within an octagonal gold border consisting
- the arms of the Count of Thun and Hohenstein within a golden frame
- Fields 1 and 4: the arms of Thun (a diagonal golden bar on a blue field)
- Fields 2 and 3: the arms of Hohenstein (left side a halved eagle, red on silver; right side a silver bar on a black field)
- central heart shield: the arms of Austria (a silver bar on red)
- a small cartouche with the Red Wolf of Passau on a silver field surmounting the arms of the count
- an Electoral Hat surmounting the arms of Passau
- the arms of the Count of Thun and Hohenstein within a golden frame
- behind the coat of arms: crosier and sword
- bottom red stripe carrying "ANNO DONI MDCCLXII" in gold characters
- reverse: identical
Bayerischen Kriegsarchiv, Geschichte des Kurpfälzischen Heeres, vol. 1-2, 1925 bis 1928, München
Brodrück, Carl: Quellenstücke und Studien über den Feldzug der Reichsarmee von 1757: Ein Beitrag zur deutschen Geschichte im 18 Jahr, Dyk, 1858, p. 41
Büsching, Anton Friedrich: Neue Erdbeschreibung: Welcher den schwäbischen, bayerischen, fränkischen und obersächsischen Kreis enthält, vol. 3, Ausgabe 2, 1761
Hochfürstlich Paßauischer Kirchen- und Hofkalender : auf d. Jahr ... mit beigefügtem Schematismus ; 1787
Hochfürstlich-Salzburgischer Kirchen- und Hof-Kalender ; 1746, 1764, 1765
Hübner, Lorenz: Beschreibung der hochfürstlich-erzbischöflichen Haupt- und Residenzstadt Salzburg und ihrer Gegenden verbunden mit ihrer ältesten Geschichte, 1792
Kühlmann, Herrmann: Geschichte der bayerischen Fahnen und Standarten, München
Lori, Johann Georg von: Sammlung des baierischen Kreisrechts, 1764
Mitterecker, Thomas Josef, Die Soldatesca des Erzstiftes Salzburg : (unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Entwicklung seit der Einführung des "miles perpetuus" im 17. Jahrhundert), Heeresgeschichtliches Museum, 2010
Schmidt, Wolfgang and Jürgen Kraus: Regensburg, Zeitschrift für Heereskunde, Nr. 353, Jahr 1991
Steiner-Welz, Sonja: Mannheim als Festungsstadt, vol. 2, Reinhard Welz Vermittler Verlag e.K. - 175 pages
Vial J. L., Nec Pluribus Impar
Volker Scholz for the research on the colours carried by this regiment