Waldeck Infantry

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Origin and History

On January 8, 1683, Georg Friedrich Duke Württemberg-Stuttgard received a decree to raise an infantry regiment of 10 companies, each of 204 men. The soldiers were enlisted in the territory of the “Reich”. At the beginning of May, 5 companies, for a total of 1,000 men, were ready for service. They concentrated at the camp of Kittsee in Austria.

In 1683, during the Great Turkish War (1683-99), 5 companies (499 men, under command of Duke Württemberg) of the regiment took part in the defence of Vienna. The 5 other companies arrived later under command of Lieutenant-Colonel Ferdinand Baron von Kuckländer, accompanying the relief force. After the victory before Vienna, the whole regiment took up its winter-quarters at Freiburg im Breisgau.

In 1685, the regiment took part in the sieges of Eperies (present-day Prešov/SK). In September, the proprietor of the regiment, the Duke Württemberg, was promoted to major-general (GFWM). He was killed during siege of Kaschau (present-day Košice/SK). Colonel Johann Dominik, Marquis de Spinola was appointed as new proprietor and commander of the regiment.

In 1686, the regiment took part in the siege of Munkács and Ofen (present-day part of Budapest/HU). On September 2, the new proprietor, the Marquis de Spinola, was killed during the attack. Guido Count Starhemberg succeeded him at the head of the regiment.

Until 1695, the regiment fought against Turks in Hungary. In 1688, Count Starhemberg, who had been appointed commander of Belgrade, was replaced by Ludwig Archinto, Comte de Tayna. Unfortunately, this new proprietor was mortally wounded on September 5 during siege of Belgrade and died on September 7. On December 31, GFWM Martin Gschwind, Baron von Pöckstein was appointed as the new proprietor of the regiment.

In 1695, during the Nine Years' War (1688–97), the whole regiment was sent to Italy and, from June 26 to July 9, took part in the siege of Casale. In 1697, it returned to Bosnia and took part in the unsuccessful siege of Bihać. In 1699, after the signature of the Treaty of Karlowitz, which put an end to the Great Turkish War, the regiment returned to Freiburg im Breisgau where it remained until July 1701.

In March 1701, during the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-13), the regiment was instructed to march from Freiburg to Southern Tyrol to reinforce the Army of Prince Eugène for the planned invasion of Northern Italy. At the beginning of December, the regiment took part in the siege and capture of Canneto on the Oglio. In 1702, it took part in the campaign in Northern Italy and participated in the failed attempt to capture Cremona. In 1703, the regiment defended Tyrol against a Bavarian invasion. In 1705, it took part in the Battle of Cassano. In 1706, it was at the relief of Turin. In 1707, it took part in the storming of Gaeta in the Kingdom of Naples. In April 1709 the regiment (3 bat. with 1.974 men) was sent to Spain to join the army commanded by Count Starhemberg. In 1710, it took part in the battles of Almenar, Saragossa and Villaviciosa. In 1711, it took part in the relief of Cardona. In July 1712, the Imperial troops evacuated Spain.

In 1714 and 1715, the regiment was stationed in Northern Italy.

In 1716, the regiment was transferred to Upper Hungary (present-day Slovakia) to fight the Turks. At the end of July 1716, part of the regiment joined the army of Prince Eugène de Savoie at its camp near Baja, 5 companies had been left behind in Kaschau. On August 5, the regiment took part in the Battle of Peterwardein; and from August 27 to October 13, in the siege of Temesvár. From June 19 to August 18, 1717, it participated in the siege of Belgrade.

From 1718, one battalion garrisoned various forts in Serbia, while one battalion and the grenadiers were stationed at Banovce (present-day Bánovce/SK) and another battalion at Kaschau. At the death of Martin, Baron Gschwind in 1721, Johann Carl Count Trautson zu Falkenstein was appointed proprietor of the regiment.

At the beginning of the War of the Polish Succession (1733-35), the regiment (3 battalions and the grenadiers) was sent to Italy. On June 29, 1734, it took part in the Battle of San Pietro (aka Battle of Parma) and, on September 19, in the Battle of Guastalla. In 1735, it accompanied the army when it returned to Tyrol.

Did you know that...
Portrait of Duke Carl von Waldeck-Pyrmont by Ziesenis in 1748 – Collection of the Castle of Arolsen

The proprietor of the regiment, Field Marshal Karl August Friedrich Duke Waldeck-Pyrmont, was born on September 24, 1704 at Hanau in Hesse. As a young man, he entered in the French service in Alsace. From 1725 to 1728, he was in the Prussian service. After some journeys through Europe, Karl August took service in the Austrian Army. In 1734, he was promoted to general. He was wounded twice: in 1737 during the siege of Nissa and in 1739, in the battle of Grocka.

In 1738, Karl August was appointed proprietor of the present regiment and in 1742, promoted to “General en Chef” of the Dutch Army, although he also retained his functions in the Austrian Army, where, on March 10, 1746, he was promoted to field-marshal.

Since 1741, Karl August was married with Christiana Pfalzgräfin von Birkenfeld. The couple got 7 children. Karl August died on August 19, 1763 at the Castle of Arolsen and was buried in the church of Bad Wildungen.

From 1736 to 1739, the regiment was stationed in Transylvania. In 1738, Count Fürstenbusch died and FML Karl August Friedrich, Duke Waldeck-Pyrmont was appointed as the new proprietor of the regiment.

During the War of the Austrian Succession, the regiment initially served in Bohemia and Silesia in 1741 and 1742, taking part in the battle of Chotusitz (May 17, 1742), where it lost 338 men. From June 28 to September 12, 1742, three battalions of the regiment took part in the siege of Prague. On September 30, 1745, the regiment fought in the Battle of Soor. On December 15 of the same year, two battalions were present at the Battle of Kesselsdorf, where they were attached to Grünne’s Corps which was not involved in combat. In March 1746, Grünne’s Corps, including 3 battalions and 2 grenadier companies of the regiment, was transferred to the Netherlands. On October 11, the regiment took part in the Battle of Rocoux. In 1747, the regiment fought in the battle of Lauffeld.

At the end of 1748, the regiment returned to Bohemia where it garrisoned in the vicinity of Saatz (present-day Žatec/CZ). In 1751, it was transferred to Transylvania, where it remained until 1755.

As per the Etat nouveau des Troupes de sa Majesté Impériale Royale comme elles se trouvent effectivement l'an 1759 and Etat général des Troupes qui servent sa Majesté Impériale et Royale Apostolique sur pié en 1760, the regiment counted 4 battalions (2 grenadier coys and 16 fusilier coys) for a total of 2,300 men. This was the administrative organisation of the regiment. However, the tactical organisation differed: 2 field fusilier battalions, each of 6 companies; 2 grenadier companies (usually converged with grenadiers from other battalions into an ad hoc unit); and 1 garrison battalion of 4 companies (see Austrian Line Infantry Organisation for more details).

During the Seven Years' War, the chef of the regiment was:

During the Seven Years' War, its successive colonel-commanders were:

  • from August 5, 1756: Colonel Philipp Wilhelm, Baron von Biala (promoted to general in 1759)
  • from 1759: Colonel Anton, Baron von Formentini (killed in action on August 15, 1760 in the Battle of Liegnitz)
  • from March 3, 1759: Colonel Josias Bellizari (1763-1769 as third colonel “aggregiert” in the regiment)
  • from 1763: Colonel Christian, Count von Erbach

Regimental numbers were introduced only in 1769 when this regiment was designated as "I.R. 35".

Service during the War

1756

On October 1, 1756, the regiment (2 field battalions and the grenadiers) took part in the Battle of Lobositz where it was deployed in the second line of the centre under General C. Kollowrat in the brigade of Major-General Wolffersdorff, but saw no action. The regiment spent the winter between Melnik (present-day Mělník/CZ) and Raudnitz (present-day Roudnice/CZ).

1757

On May 6, 1757, two battalions and the grenadiers of the regiment took part in the Battle of Prague where they were deployed in Count d’Ursel's Brigade, in the first line of the right wing of infantry under Count Königsegg, deployed on the hills between Maleschitz and Kej (present-day part of Prague, Malešice and Kyje). After the defeat, most of the regiment took refuge in Prague, but some fusiliers managed to escape to the Sazava River.

During the Siege of Prague, the regiment was posted at Wyšehrad (present-day Vyšehrad). On June 20, the regiment was part of the vanguard during the big sortie against the corps of FM Keith posted on the left bank of the Moldau River. When the Prussians raised the siege of Prague and retired towards Silesia, the regiment formed part of the army which closely followed them. On September 12, it was at Lauban (present-day Luban/PL) in FZM Kheul’s Corps.

In October and November, a detachment of the regiment (lieutenant-colonel and 207 men) formed a converged battalion with troops from the Roth Würzburg Infantry and the Alt-Wolfenbüttel Infantry in the brigade of Major-General Prince Stolberg, in Nádasdy's Corps during the siege of Schweidnitz where it was allocated to the force deployed from Säbischdorf (present-day Zawiszów) to Schönbrunn (present-day Słotwina). After the surrender of Schweidnitz, Nádasdy’s Corps made a junction with the main army.

On November 22, one battalion and the grenadiers of the regiment took part in the Battle of Breslau where the battalion was deployed in Wulffen's Brigade, in the second line of the infantry centre under Baron Kheul. Lieutenant-Colonel van der Herdt with 6 grenadier companies. (incl. the two companies of the regiment) made an assault on the Prussian entrenchments at Klein-Mochbern.

On December 5 at the Battle of Leuthen, one battalion of the regiment was deployed in Starhemberg's Division in the second line of the infantry right wing under Kheul while another battalion was deployed in the second line of the Reserve of the left wing under Marshal Forgách as part of Nádasdy's Corps. In this battle, the regiment suffered heavy losses: 5 officers and an undentified number of men killed, many officers wounded.

The soldiers and Lieutenant-Colonel Friedrich van der Herdt, Major Anton Baron Formentini and several soldiers, who had all been wounded in the Battle of Leuthen, had been left in Breslau. From December 7, the Prussians laid Siege to Breslau, which surrendered on December 20, all Austrian troops still in the city were taken prisoners of war.

1758

On April 16, 1758, one captain and 85 fusiliers of the regiment were taken prisoners of war after the surrender of the Fortress of Schweidnitz.

By August 2, the regiment served in the second line of the main Austrian army under the command of Daun near Jarmeritz (present-day Jaroměřice nad Rokytnou). Daun was following up the Prussian army retiring through Bohemia after the failure of the Prussian invasion of Moravia.

On October 14, two battalions of the regiment took part in the Battle of Hochkirch where they were deployed in the left column (under Duke d'Ursel) of Arenberg's Corps on the Austrian right wing near the Stromberg, between Neu-Kotitz and Särka. D’Ursel launched an attack through the fog against the Prussian Feldjäger zu Fuß at Lauske and – supported by 7 battalions and 4 cavalry regiments sent by FML Angern – proceeded against the big Prussian battery which was captured after heavy combat.

1759

In April 1759, was the regiment (2 field battalions and 2 grenadier companies) was attached to the corps of FZM Harsch near Náchod in Bohemia.

On August 12 1759, the regiment fought in the Battle of Kunersdorf where it was deployed in the reserve of the centre as part of Loudon's infantry corps.

The regiment spent the winter between Komotau (present-day Chomutov/CZ) and Brüx (present-day Most/CZ). The third (depot) battalion had spent the whole year at Vienna.

1760

On May 29, 1760, the regiment (2 field battalions and 2 grenadier companies) formed part of FM Loudon’s Corps, which concentrated in the vicinity of Kosteletz (present-day Kostelec nad Černými Lesy/CZ).

In June, this army was encamped near Frankenstein. On June 23, two battalions (the grenadiers were in a converged grenadier battalion) took part in the Battle of Landeshut. The two battalions formed part of Major-General Count Naselli’s Brigade, who, supported by Kinsky´s cavalry successfully stormed the Doktor-Berg (on December 22, 1761, for his valour in this battle, Major Jakob Count Lockart would receive the Knight Cross of the Maria-Theresia-Order in the 6th promotion of this military order). From August 1 to 4, the regiment, detached to FML Drašković’s troops, took part in the unsuccessful Siege of Breslau.

On August 15, the regiment fought in the Battle of Liegnitz where its 2 filed battalions were deployed on the right wing of Loudon's first line. Charged by the Prussian cavalry, they suffered heavy losses. Colonel Anton Baron Formentini was killed in front of his regiment and Colonel Josias Bellizari took the command of the regiment.

On September 17, the regiment was present at the Combat of Hochgiersdorf.

1761

In 1761, the regiment was once more part of FM Loudon’s Silesian Corps. On May 27, the regiment was detached with 6 Grenzer battalions, 2 battalions of Marschall Infantry and 26 cavalry squadrons. The 2 field battalions were part of Major-General Belgiojoso’s Brigade; while the grenadiers were in the converged grenadier corps of FML Ellrichshausen.

FM Loudon decided to storm the Fortress of Schweidnitz on October 1. In accordance with the order, one battalion and 1 grenadier company of the regiment were in the first column under the command of Colonel Count Wallis and Major Count O’Donell. This column attacked the Galgen Fort. Tit began its advance in the valley west of Säbischdorf and reached its target very late. The Prussians were already alarmed, and Lieutenant-Colonel Plotho at the head of Tresckow Infantry opposed a strong resistance. Nevertheless, Loudon was victorious. Major Johann Drux and captain Friedrich van der Heert were praised in the official relation of the battle.

Loudon’s Army took up its winter-quarters in Silesia.

1762

For the campaign of 1762, FM Leopold Daun took command of the army which was concentrated to the northeast of Schweidnitz in Silesia.

From August to October 1762, two companies (2 captains and 146 fusiliers) of the regiment were part of the defending forces during the Prussian siege of Schweidnitz, being assigned to the Garten Fort. After the surrender of Schweidnitz, on October 9, the garrison was taken prisoners of war.

1763

In 1763, after the Treaty of Hubertusburg, the first and second battalions and the grenadiers were sent to Prague, while the third (depot) battalion remained in Vienna.

After the death of the proprietor of the regiment, FM Karl August Duke Waldeck-Pyrmont, on August 19, FZM Johann Sigismund Count Maquire von Inniskilen was appointed as the new proprietor.

Uniform

Until recently we had a very vague description of the uniform at the outbreak of the Seven Years' War. Thanks to the kind authorisation of the Heeresgeschichtliches Museum in Vienna, Dal Gavan, a member of our group, has had access to the Delacre Bilderhandschrift, a rare contemporaneous manuscript depicting the uniforms of the entire K. K. Army around 1756-57. For this reason, we present the uniforms of privates circa 1757 and in 1762.

Privates 1757

Uniform in 1757 - Copyright: Frédéric Aubert from a template made by Richard Couture.
Uniform in 1757
as per the Delacre Bilderhandschrift of 1757, Muhsfeldt and Schirmer

completed with other sources where necessary
Headgear
Musketeer black tricorne laced white with a white fastener and a small yellow button
Grenadier bearskin with a red bag probably laced yellow and a yellow tassel
Neckstock one red and one black (for parades the regimental commanders agreed before on the colour of the neckstocks)
Coat white lined white with 3 yellow buttons under the right lapel and 1 yellow button in the small of the back on each side
Shoulder Straps none visible
Lapels red with 7 yellow buttons (arranged 1-3-3 from the top)
Pockets horizontal pockets, each with 3 yellow buttons
Cuffs red, each with 3 yellow buttons
Turnbacks white
Waistcoat white with 2 rows of 9 yellow buttons (3-3-3) and with horizontal pockets (each with 3 yellow buttons)
Breeches white
Gaiters one pair of black (for winter) and one pair of white gaiters (for summer and parade)
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt white
Waistbelt white
Cartridge Box black with a small brass plate carrying the initials “MT”
Bayonet Scabbard black
Scabbard black (grenadiers only)
Footgear black shoes


Rank and file were armed with a musket (Model 1745 for fusiliers, Model 1754 for grenadiers). Grenadiers carried a sabre while fusiliers carried only a bayonet.

Privates 1762

Uniform in 1762 - Copyright: Frédéric Aubert from a template made by Richard Couture.
Uniform in 1762
as per the Albertina Handschrift

completed with other sources where necessary
Headgear
Musketeer black tricorne laced white; white strap with a yellow button; with a red tassel in each lateral corne
Grenadier bearskin with a poppy red bag probably laced white and a white tassel
Neckstock one red and one black (for parades the regimental commanders agreed before on the colour of the neckstocks)
Coat white lined white with 3 yellow buttons under the right lapel and 1 yellow button in the small of the back on each side
Collar none
Shoulder Straps poppy red fastened by a yellow button (left shoulder only)
Lapels poppy red lapels with 7 yellow buttons (1-3-3)
Pockets horizontal pockets, each with 3 yellow buttons
Cuffs poppy red, each with 3 yellow buttons
Turnbacks white fastened with a red tab edged white and a small yellow button
Waistcoat white with 2 rows of small yellow buttons (3-3-3) and with horizontal pockets, each with 3 yellow buttons
Breeches white
Gaiters one pair of black (for winter) and one pair of white gaiters (for summer and parade)
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt white
Waistbelt white with a brass buckle
Cartridge Box black with a small brass plate carrying the initials “MT”
Bayonet Scabbard black with brass fittings
Scabbard black (grenadiers only)
Footgear black shoes


Rank and file were armed with a musket (Model 1745 for fusiliers, Model 1754 for grenadiers). Grenadiers carried a sabre while fusiliers carried only a bayonet.

Other interpretations

The Bautzener Handschrift illustrates the following differences:

  • black tricorne laced white; no strap but a yellow button; white within red pompom
  • no shoulder strap
  • white bordered red tab to fasten the turnbacks

Donath illustrates the following differences:

  • plain white shoulder strap
  • red tab edged white and a small yellow button on each turnback

Knötel illustrates the following differences:

  • black tricorne laced white; white strap with a yellow button; without pompom or tassels
  • plain white shoulder strap
  • plain red tab with a small yellow button to fasten turnbacks

Note: in 1767, the regiment exchanged its distinctive colour with Vierzet Infanterie, which was now part of the Austrian Army. Thus, black became the new distinctive colour of the regiment.

NCOs

no information available yet

Officers

The officers wore the same uniform as the privates with the following exceptions:

  • tricorne laced gold with a white and green cockade
  • black neckstock
  • no turnbacks
  • yellow and black silk sash

Senior officers carried sticks identifying their rank:

  • lieutenant: bamboo stick without knob
  • captain: long rush stick with a bone knob
  • major: long rush stick with a silver knob and a small silver chain
  • lieutenant-colonel: long rush stick with a larger silver knob without chain
  • colonel: long rush stick with a golden knob

Musicians

As per a regulation of 1755, musicians were now distinguished from troopers only by poppy red swallow nests on the shoulders.

The drum had a brass barrel decorated with black flames at the bottom and with a black double headed Eagle on a yellow field. Rims were decorated with red and white diagonal stripes. The bandolier was white.

Colours

All German infantry regiments carried identical colours: a white Leibfahne (colonel) and yellow Regimentsfahne. The hand painted colours were made of silk and measured Size 178 cm x 127 cm. The 260 cm long flagpoles had golden finial and were decorated with black and yellow spirals of cloth.

The colonel colour was carried by the first battalion.

Colonel flag (Leibfahne):

  • field: white
  • border: alternating white and yellow outer waved triangles pointing inwards, red and black inner waved triangles pointing outwards
  • obverse (right): the Immaculate Mother of God (which had been declared the patroness of the army by kaiser Ferdinand III) on a cloud, crushing a snake under her foot and surrounded by rays
  • reverse (left): crowned and armed Imperial double-eagle with the "Lothringen-Toscanian" arms on a shield and the initials of the Emperor CF (Corregens Franciscus) on the left wing and IM (Imperator Magnus) on the right
Leibfahne – Source: PMPDel

Regimental flags (Regimentsfahne):

  • field: yellow
  • border: alternating white and yellow outer waved triangles pointing inwards, red and black inner waved triangles pointing outwards
  • obverse (right): crowned and armed Imperial double-eagle with the "Lothringen-Toscanian" arms on a shield and the initials of the Emperor CF (Corregens Franciscus) on the left wing and IM (Imperator Magnus) on the right
  • reverse (left): unarmed and crowned Imperial double-eagle with the arms of Hungaria and Bohemia on a shield and the initials M on the left wing and T on the right
Regimentsfahne – Source: PMPDel

In fact, the situation on the field was slightly more complex than this, since colours were usually replaced only when worn out. It is fairly possible that some regiment who had been issued colours of the 1743 pattern were still carrying them at the beginning of the Seven Years' War. For more details, see Austrian Line Infantry Colours.

References

This article contains texts from the following sources, which are now in the public domain:

  • Lindenbüchel, R. : Geschichte des K. u. K. Infanterie-Regimentes No. 35, file II. Vienna, Prague 1897
  • May, J. : Geschichte des K. u. K Infanterie-Regimentes No. 35, Pilsen 1901
  • Wrede, A. v.: Geschichte der K. und K. Wehrmacht file I. pp. 373 and 528, Vienna 1898
  • Seyfart, Kurzgefaßte Geschichte aller kaiserlich-königlichen Regimenter zu Pferde und zu Fuß, Frankfurth and Leipzig, 1762, pp. 16-17

Other sources

Dihm, Dr. Hermann; Oesterreichische Standarten und Fahnen zur Zeit des 7 jährigen Krieges, Die Zinnfigur, Klio

Donath, Rudolf; Die Kaiserliche und Kaiserlich-Königliche Österreichische Armee 1618-1918, 2. Aufl., Simbach/Inn 1979

Etat nouveau des Troupes de sa Majesté Impériale Royale comme elles se trouvent effectivement l'an 1759

Etat général des Troupes qui servent sa Majesté Impériale et Royale Apostolique sur pié en 1760

Funcken, Liliane and Fred, Les uniformes de la guerre en dentelle

Hausmann, Friedrich, Die Feldzeichen der Truppen Maria Theresias, Schriften des Heeresgeschichtlichen Museums, vol. 3, Vienna: 1967

Knötel, Herbert d.J.; Brauer, Hans M.: Heer und Tradition / Heeres-Uniformbogen (so-called “Brauer-Bogen”), Berlin 1926-1962, Österreich-Ungarn – 1756-63

Muhsfeldt, Th.; Abzeichenfarben der K. und K. Regimenter zu Fuss im Jahre 1757 und früher, in Mitteilungen zur Geschichte des militärischen Tracht, No. 12, 1904

Pengel, R. D. and G.R. Hurt; Austro-Hungarian Infantry 1740-1762; On Military Matters; Birmingham, 1982

Schirmer, Friedrich, Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756-1763, hrsg. von der KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg, überarb. u. aktual. Neuauflage 1989

Seidel, Paul; Nochmals österreichische Standarten und Fahnen zur Zeit des 7 jährigen Krieges, Die Zinnfigur, Clio

Thümmler, L.-H., Die Österreichiches Armee im Siebenjährigen Krieg: Die Bautzener Bilderhandschrift aus dem Jahre 1762, Berlin 1993

N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.

Acknowledgments

User:Zahn for gathering most of the initial information about this regiment

Harald Skala for the translation and integration of Lindenbüchel’s and May’s books